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Gift  of 
Mrs.  Esther  C.  Thomson 








From  November  1869  to  June  1910 


OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 








THIS,  the  history  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improve- 
ment Association,  is  the  first  published  history  of  the 
organized  work  of  women  in  the  Church.  The  brief  sketch 
suggested  in  1900  by  May  Booth  Talmage  has  naturally  and 
insistently  grown  into  the  complete  record  of  the  develop- 
ment of  the  organization  herewith  presented;  and  yet,  the 
record  tells  only  in  outline  all  of  the  interesting  and  really 
wonderful  work  accomplished  by  the  young  women  of  the 
Church,  in  their  attempts  at  Mutual  Improvement. 

The  aim  of  the  History  Committee,  associated  with  the 
author  and  the  Executive  Board,  has  been  to  prepare  a  cor- 
rect, comprehensive,  and  inspiring  history  of  the  Mutual 
Improvement  movement  among  the  young  ladies  of  the 
Church  in  all  the  world  from  its  beginning  until  June  1st, 
1910.  To  attain  this  end  the  labors  of  the  author  and  the 
committee  have  had  a  thieefold  direction:  first,  to  present  a 
connected*story  of  the  supervisory  and  directive  activity  of 
the  organization;  second,  to  write  a  series  of  pen-pictures  of 
the  women  who  have  organized  and  held  together  the  forces 
which  have  made  the  organization  successful;  third,  to  com- 
pile conscientious,  though  necessarily  brief,  histories  of  the 
Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  work  in  each  of  the 
sixty-two  stakes  of  Zion.  The  data  upon  which  this  work  is 
based  have  been  gathered  from  the  libraries  of  the  Church , 
from  diaries,  by  countless  conversations  and  correspondence, 
from  the  records,  but  especially  by  correspondence  with  the 
present  and  recent  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  officers  in  the  various 
wards  and  stakes  of  the  Church.  The  actual  writing  and 


editing  have  been  done  by  women  busy  with  housekeeping- 
cares;  and  the  contributors  have  likewise  been  hampered  in 
the  work  by  womanly  limitations.  These  facts  will  explain 
many  of  the  imperfections  of  the  book;  and  we  hope  will  tem- 
per the  voice  of  criticism. 

Only  the  devotion  of  various  members  of  the  General 
Board  has  made  this  book  possible.  From  the  beginning, 
our  great  leader  and  president,  the  late  Elmina  S.  Taylor, 
gave  her  devoted  attention  and  inspired  faith  to  the  work. 
Her  successor,  Martha  H.  Tingey,  has  continued  the  work 
with  the  same  earnestness  and  devotion.  Ann  M .  Cannon  has 
been  a  source  of  inspiration  and  strength;  she  has  labored 
with  unselfish  care  and  indomitable  courage  to  make  this  his- 
tory worthy  of  the  great  work  it  represents.  With  her 
has  been  associated  Estelle  Neff  Caldwell.  They  must 
share  the  honors,  if  there  are  such,  as  they  have  shared  the 
toils.  The  members  of  the  executive  board  have  been  the 
constant  attendants  at  history  meetings;  they,  together  with 
the  History  Committee,  have  likewise  given  much  in  the 
months  they  have  spent  reading  the  manuscript,  and  in  sug- 
gesting and  improving  as  the  original  humble  plan  expanded 
and  developed.  The  History  Committee  were:  Maria  Y. 
Dougall,  Augusta  W.  Grant,  Minnie  J.  Snow,*May  Booth 
Talmage,  and,  after  Sister  Snow's  death,  Estelle  Neff  Cald- 
well. To  all  these  friends  and  helpers  the  book  really  owes 
its  merit. 

Slowly,  and  in  the  face  of  many  hindrances  and  amidst 
struggling  heartaches,  the  work  has  taken  form.  The  field 
was  untrodden;  no  guides  marked  the  way;  and  the  day  had 
many  duties.  But  inspiration  was  in  the  labor;  it  fostered 
love;  and  the  author  praises  God  who  has  been  her  stay  in 
this  labor.  May  the  unselfish  loving  spirit  of  God's  work 
come  to  every  reader  of  this  history. 





Opportunities  accorded  to  Mormon  women. — Pioneer  conditions 
obtaining. — Organization  of  the  first  Retrenchment  Associ- 
ation, November  28th,  1869. — The  idea  of  retrenchment  grows  1 



Retrenchment  among  the  older  women. — Senior  and  Junior  De- 
partments         29 



Some  of  their  resolutions. — Travels  of  pioneer  organizers 58 



The  Young  Men's  Mutual  Improvement  Association  org  .^- 
ized. — The  name  Retrenchment  Association  changed  to 
Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Association. — Stake  or- 
ganizations effected. — Central  or  General  Board  organized..  80 



Its  inception. — Its  purpose. — First  number  issued  October,  1889. 
— Mrs.  Susa  Young  Gates,  editor. — President  Elmina  S. 
Taylor  carried  moral  responsibility. — Difficulties. — Assist- 
ance from  members  of  General  Board. — Other  friends. — 
Out  of  troubled  waters. — President  Taylor  relieved  by  ap- 
pointment of  committee. — Editor  Gates  resigned. — Mrs.  May 
Booth  Talmage  her  successor. — Miss  Ann  M.  Cannon  suc- 
ceeded Mrs.  Talmage. — Miss  Elen  Wallace,  associate  editor. 
— Miss  Mary  E.  Connelly  became  editor. — Business  depart- 
ment: A.  H.  Cannon,  Miss  Estelle  Neff,  Miss  Agnes  S. 
Campbell. — First  office. — New  quarters 101 




Duties  devolving  upon  General  Board. — The  first  Aids  appoint- 
ed.— First  General  Conference. — General  Conferences  ap- 
pointed to  be  held  annually. — Regular  sessions  of  the  Gen- 
eral Board  established. — Second  and  third  General  Confer- 
ences.— General^  officers'  meetings. — Local  and  stake  work, 
— General  Conjoint  Conferences 127 



The  first  reports. — Annual  dues. — Traveling  expenses. — Perma- 
nent Fund. — Dime  Fund. — Comparative  statement  of  Gen- 
eral Board  expenses. — Labors  of  the  different  secretaries 
and  treasurers. — Later  reports 153 



I'.arly  programs  in  the  wards;  in  the  various  stakes. — A  Guide 
outlining  studies  for  all  associations  issued  1893. — Second 
year's  Guide. — The  associations  graded. — Theological  stud- 
ies; Ethical;  Literary. — Classes  for  study  of  the  Guide 177 



Inception  of  the  National  and  International  Councils. — The  Y. 
L.  M.  I.  A.  affiliated. — World's  Congress  of  Representative 
Women. — Triennial  and  Executive  Sessions. — A  memorable 
triennial. — International  Council  sessions. — Distinguished 
visitors  entertained 198 



General   Conferences   and  Socials. — Conventions. — Gymnasiums  220 


The  General  Board  meetings. — Standing  committees. — Tem- 
porary committees. — Reports  by  General  Board  members..  246 



Her  character. — Her  death. — The  funeral  services 261 





Order  of  procedure. — A  preliminary  meeting. — Nomination  by 
the  First  Presidency. — Reorganization  in  April;  names  pre- 
sented at  June  Conference,  1905 280 



Resume  of  the  first  forty  years'  work. — A  glimpse  at  a  local 
Mutual  Improvement  meeting;  at  a  stake  board  meeting;  at 
a  General  Board  meeting. — The  power  behind  them. — The 
results  299 


Adams,  Emily  C..,        255 

Anderson,    Jane    B.   .     315 

Bennett,   Rosetta  Wallace.  .  .211 

Bennion,   Laura    323 

Brixen,  Julia  M 217 

Burton,  Julia  Home 77 

Caldwell,    Estelle    Neff 243 

Campbell,  Agnes  S 147 

Campbell,  Joan  M 195 

Cannon,   Ann   M 174 

Card,  Zina  Y 14 

Clawson,   Emily  Y 14 

Connelly,  Mary  E 257 

Dougall,   Maria  Y 14,  98 

Eardley,  Adella  W 143 

Eddington,   Sarah    145 

Eldredge,  Lona  Pratt 75 

Empey,   Ella   Y 14 

Evans,    Mattie    Read 275 

Fox,  Ruth  M 290 

Freeze,  Lillie  T 149 

Freeze,  Mary  A 73 

Gates,    Susa    Young 121 

Goddard,  Emma  209 

Grant,  Augusta  W 239 

Home,   Martha    95 

Home.  Alary  Isabella 41 

Kimball,  Sarah  M 55 

Lovesy,  Edith  R 317 

McCttne,  Elizabeth  C 213 

Nystrom,  Mae  Taylor 293 

Richards,  Jane  S 56 

Sardoni,  Elizabeth  Thomas.  .277 

Shipp,    Flora   Lydia 78 

Smith,  Alice  K 295 

Smith,  Bathsheba  W 26 

Smith,    Eliza    R.    Snow 15 

Smith,  Julina  L 78 

Smith,  Lucy  W 312 

Smoot,  Margaret  T 53 

Snow,  Minnie  J 189 

Talmage,   May   Bootli 193 

Taylor,   Elmina   S 90 

Taylor,  Margaret  Y 94 

Taylor,  Nellie  C 253 

Teasdale,   Letitia  T 319 

Thatcher,  Fanny  Y 96 

Tingey,  Martha  H. .  .  . .  .  .95,  287 

Tuddenham,  Alice  C 274 

Wallace,    Elen    259 

Wells,  Emmeline  B 45 

Wells,  Louie   95 

Woodruff,  Helen  W 236 

Woodruff,  Phoebe  C 55 

Young,  Caroline 14 

Young,  Dora 14 

V  oung,  Phebe 14 

Young,  Zina  D.  H 21 




Alberta   326 

Alpine   328 

Bannock   329 

Bear  River 332 

Bear  Lake  333 

Beaver 335 

Benson    339 

Big  Horn 342 

Bingham 344 

Blackfoot 346 

Box  Elder   348 

Cache 356 

Carbon 363 

Cassia   364 

Davis 365 

Davis,  North  368 

Davis,  South  370 

Eastern  Arizona   427 

Emery    371 

Ensign 373 

Fremont   375 

Granite   378 

Hyrum    380 

Jordan *.....  383 

Juab '. 384 

Juarez   386 

Kanab   389 

Liberty  391 

Malad    394 

Maricopa 396 

Millard   399 

Morgan 401 

Nebo   403 

Ogden 405 

Oneida    409 

Panguitch 412 

Parowan 414 

Pioneer 416 

Pocatello 418 

Rigby 421 

St.  George   422 

St.  John's  426 

St.  Joseph   430 

Salt  Lake  432 

San  Luis 438 

San  Juan 439 

Sanpete,  North 446 

Sanpete,  South 441 

Sevier 448 

Snowflake 450 

Star  Valley   452 

Summit 454 

Taylor 457 

Teton ..460 

Tooele 463 

Uintah 465 

Union 466 

Utah 468 

Wasatch   74 

Wayne 477 

Weber 479 

Weber,  North  483 

Woodruff 485 

Yellowstone  .  .  .  .487 



Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Im- 
provement Association. 



Opportunities  accorded  to  Mormon  women. — Pioneer  conditions 
obtaining. — Organization  of  the  first  Retrenchment  Association, 
November  28th,  1869. — The  idea  of  retrenchment  grows. 

THE  genesis  of  things  is  always  interesting-  in  whatso- 
ever form  it  may  be  manifested;  not  only  in  the  study 
of  life  itself,  but  also  in  the  consideration  of  any  expres- 
sion of  human  activity.  Moreover,  the  interest  is  doubled 
in  value,  when  it  centers  around  the  lives  of  peoples  who 
are  little  known,  and  whose  history  reveals  ideas  and  in- 
formation that  are  unusual  and  novel.  There  is  much  to 
attract  the  casual  observer  in  all  that  pertains  to  the  pecu- 
liar people  called  Mormons;  and  this  interest  is  not  least 
active  in  the  lives  and  labors  of  the  women.  Why  this  is 
so  we  shall  not  here  inquire,  but  the  story  of  the  influences 
which  have  contributed  and  which  do  now  contribute  to  the 
condition  of  the  women  of  Zion  will  prove  of  vital  interest  to 
themselves  as  well  as  to  others. 

When  advantages  and  opportunities  have  been  given 
to  women,  as  to  other  less  favored  classes,  these  advan- 
tages have  been  as  a  rule  the  result  of  long-continued  and 
strenuous  efforts  on  the  part  of  the  women  themselves.  It 
does  not  often  happen  that  the  men  in  any  community  take 

HISTORY   OF  Y.   L.   M.   I.  A. 

the  initiative  and  offer  women  superior  opportunities. 
When  such  a  thing-  is  done  in  any  land,  it  is  looked  upon 
as  evidence  of  a  high  degree  of  intellectual  and  moral  de- 
velopment. This  very  thing1,  however,  was  done  by  the 
Prophet  Joseph  Smith  in  1842,  when  he  called  the  women 
together  in  Nauvoo,  and  told  them  the  Lord  had  inspired 
him  to  organize  them  into  a  regular  and  duly  authorized 
society,  with  officers,  and  definite  yet  widely  elastic  objects 
and  aims.  No  prophet  or  reformer  of  ancient  or  modern 
times  has  surpassed,  nay,  has  equaled,  the  Prophet  Joseph 
Smith  in  the  breadth  and  scope  of  the  opportunities  which  he 
accorded  womanhood.  He  possessed  more  genuine  initiative 
than  any  man  who  has  lived  since  the  Savior.  He  produced 
more  seed-thoughts,  revealed  more  new  truths,  set  in  opera- 
tion more  gigantic  plans  for  the  world's  betterment  than  any 
modern  man,  living  or  dead. 

After  the  cruel  death  of  their  prophet  and  their  patri- 
arch, the  Mormon  people  were  driven  out  into  the  west- 
ern deserts.  They  were  led  thither  by  another  great  man, 
Brigham  Young.  For  twenty  years  the  valleys  of  Utah 
gave  the  people  an  isolated  shelter,  a  somewhat  bare  sub- 
sistence, and  peace.  Brigham  Young  well  knew  that  the 
people  could  not  long  be  hedged  about  by  mountain- walls, 
nor  barriers  of  isolation.  The  onward  sweep  of  civilization 
would  bring  in  its  train  many  blessings  and  some  pitfalls. 
The  great  pioneer  had  taught  the  people  how  to  plant  and 
water  their  sterile  valley  farms;  how  to  congregate  their 
homes  in  such  form  as  would  give  them  all  the  advantages 
of  village  life.  He  had  established  schools,  churches,  and 
social  halls  in  the  midst  of  the  clustered  houses,  while  the 
farming  lands  radiated  from  this  center  into  the  edges  of 
the  hills.  He  had  persuaded  the  people  to  devote  them- 
selves to  the  cultivation  of  the  soil,  the  establishment  of  va- 
rious industries,  instead  of  following  an  unstable  and  dan- 


gc  roiis  pursuit  of  the  minerals  hid  in  the  shoulders  of  the 
mountains.  The  hum  of  the  factory  was  heard  in  the 
land,  and  the  multitudes  of  traveling  California  emi- 
grants found  shelter,  supplies  and  rest  iii  the  busy  villages 
enclosed  by  the  Wasatch  mountains. 

The  great  northwestern  region  of  our  country,  to- 
gether with  the  golden  land  on  the  sands  of  the  Pacific, 
began  filling  up  rapidly  during  the  sixties.  A  cry  was 
sent  up  to  Congress  for  aid  to  build  a  transcontinental 
railway.  Brigham  Young  was  among  the  first  to  voice 
this  cry,  and  he  took  practical  steps  to  assist  the  govern- 
ment in  fulfilling  his  desires.  The  Mormon  leaders  were 
not  blind  to  all  that  a  sudden  influx  of  strangers  would 
mean  to  a  people,  then  sheltered  and  at  peace.  They  had 
lingering  memories  which  taught  them  all  that  hatred  and 
bigotry  might  do,  if  the  same  spirit  that  had  once  dogged 
their  every  step  should  animate  those  who  might  come. 
And  far  more  to  be  dreaded  than  persecution  was  the  spirit 
of  folly  and  fashion,  excitement  and  extravagance,  which 
seems  a  necessary  but  sad  accompaniment  to  all  forms  of 
high  civilization.  With  the  near  approach  of  the  steam 
horse  in  the  year  1869,  came  the  forerunners  of  its  pres- 
ence. Books  multiplied,  but  so  also  did  saloons.  Goods 
became  cheaper,  and  the  people  demanded  money  with 
which  to  buy.  The  loom  and  the  wheel  gradually  disap- 
peared. Sewing  machines  crept  in  slowly;  and  then  the 
women  subscribed  for  the  new  fashion-magazines  from 
which  to  glean  ideas  how  to  cut  their  cloth  and  sew  it  up 
again  in  fanciful  shapes. 

The  true  exponent  of  the  religion  of  Jesus  Christ  will 
be  deeply  conscious  of  the  principle  involved  in  the  words 
of  the  Savior,  when,  in  His  last  recorded  earthly  prayer, 
He  said,  concerning  His  disciples,  "And  now  I  am  no 
more  in  the  world,  but  these  are  in  the  world,  and  I  come 

4  HISTORY   OF  Y.  L.  M.   I.  A. 

to  thee.  *       *      I   pray  not  that  thou   shouldest  take 

them  out  of  the  world,  .but  that  thou  shouldest  keep  them 
from  the  evil.  They  are  not  of  the  world,  even  as  I  am 
not  of  the  world.  Sanctify  them  through  thy  truth."  The 
world  is  all  about  us;  and  our  struggle  will  always  be,  not 
to  hide  away  from  it,  but  to  create  about  ourselves  an  at- 
mosphere so  refined  and  pure,  so  simple  and  sincere,  that 
everyone  who  comes  within  the  radius  of  that  atmosphere 
will  breathe  its  sweet  simplicity  with  gratitude  and  joy. 
This  principle  lay  deep  in  the  heart  of  the  master  pioneer. 
He  contemplated  measures  that  could  be  put  in  force  to 
shield  the  people  of  Utah  from  the  worldliness  which  the 
influx  of  strangers  would  bring  at  the  'completion  of  the 
transcontinental  railroad . 

There  was  a  host  of  young  women  growing  up  in 
Zion,  who  had  been  born,  as  we  term  it,  "under  the  cove- 
nant of  the  Priesthood,"  but  were  not  identified  with  the 
Relief  Society.  These  girls  had  not  studied  the  principles 
of  the  Gospel,  as  had  their  mothers,  who  had  accepted  the 
truth  in  eastern  lands  or  in  a  foreign  country.  The  daugh- 
ters of  Zion  were  passing  fair;  and  coupled  with  their  sim- 
ple beauty  was  a  freedom  of  demeanor,  bred  by  the  west- 
ern atmosphere.  They  were  getting  the  common  educa- 
tion that  comes  from  books  and  schools,  and  most  of  them 
were  carefully  trained  in  the  domestic  virtues.  But  many 
there  were  who  did  not  have  the  opportunity  of  studying 
the  principles  of  the  Gospel,  in  sequence  and  with  intelli- 
gent application.  The  girls  were  not  then  sent  out  on 
missions,  as  were  their1  brothers,  and  so  did  not  acquire 
that  best  of  spiritual  and  intellectual  training  which  is  giv- 
en in  the  heaven-appointed  university  of  missionary  life. 
It  is  well  known  that  Brigham  Young  had  a  very 
large  family.  Not  all  know  of  one  striking  fact  connected 
with  his  family — a  statement  which  might  be  repeated  of 


other  large  Mormon  families  belonging-  to  the  men  and 
women  of  that  day — that  of  the  fifty-six  children  born  to 
Brig-ham  Young-,  (ten  of  whom  died  in  infancy,)  not  one 
was  halt,  lame,  blind,  or  impaired  in  mental  or  spiritual 
powers.  They  were  a  race  of  hardy  and  rather  brig-ht 
children,  more  full,  perhaps,  of  life  and  animation  than 
the  average  youth.  Therefore  they  were  not  easy  to  man- 
ag-e;  but  all  had  a  most  profound  love  and  esteem  for 
their  father.  He,  in  turn,  was  extremely  proud  of  his 
children;  and  when  any  of  them  showed  a  disposition  to 
be  unworthy  of  his  trust  and  confidence,  it  was  a  deep 
sorrow  to  him.  He  had  a  strong;  sense  of  his  own  personal 
obligation  to  the  people  who  sustained  him  as  their  head; 
and  he  was  wise  enough  to  know  that  that  responsibility 
descended  to  his  children,  however  little  they  mig-ht  under- 
stand or  appreciate  the  fact. 

Surrounded  by  all  these  conditions,  the  mind  of  Brig-- 
ham Young-  was  led  very  strongly  to  form  a  suitable  or- 
ganization among  the  young  daughters  of  Zion,  an  organ- 
ization which  should  provide  them  with  a  training  school, 
as  it  were,  for  their  spiritual  and  intellectual  develop- 
ment. There  was  under  his  roof  a  woman  who  was  an 
officer  in  the  first  organization  of  women  in  the  Church, 
Eliza  R.  Snow.  She  was  quick  to  see  the  tremendous 
significance  of  this  new  departure  proposed  by  President 
Young  looking  toward  the  advancement  of  her  sex.  She 
took  up  the  suggestion  with  eagerness  and  intelligence.  She 
was  too  noble  to  lose  sight  of  the  fact  that  here  again  the 
initiative  was  taken  for  woman's  progress  by  a  broad-minded 
and  prophetic  man .  The  details  of  the  work  were  committed 
to  her  care,  and  she  was  urged  to  call  to  her  assistance  other 
noble  workers  among  the  women  of  the  Church. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  projected  organization  was 
called  by  Brigham  Young  on  November  28,  1869,  in  the 

6  HISTORY   OF  Y.   L.   M.  I.  A. 

parlor  of  the  Lion  House.  This  meeting-  is  necessarily  of 
great  historic  interest  to  us,  and  we  have  the  advantage 
of  repeating-  the  story  as  told  by  several  who  were  there. 
Mrs.  Bathsheba  W.  Smith,  the  wife  of  President  Georg-e 
A.  Smith,  was  the  only  woman  present  who  was  not  a 
member  of  President  Young-' s  family;  and  her  memory, 
which  is  clear  and  excellent,  supplies  us  with  the  following: 


details  of  what  occurred  on  that  occasion.  These  items 
have  also  been  verified  by  many  of  the  family,  who  are 
still  living-,  and  who  were  present. 

President  Young:  asked  Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow  to  notify 
those  of  his  family  not  living-  in  the  Lion  House  to  assem- 
ble there  on  the  evening*  of  November  28,  1869,  as  he  had 
important  matters  to  present  to  them  for  action.  No  doubt 
this  matter  had  been  thoroug-hly  discussed  by  him  and 


Sister  Snow,  for  later  events  showed  that  there  was  an  un- 
derstanding between  them  on  the  subject  about  to  be  pre- 
sented. Sister  Snow  had  asked  Sister  Bathsheba  W.  Smith 
to  g<>  around  with  her  to  notify  the  families  to  attend  the 
meeting.  When,  therefore,  the  President  saw  Sister  Smith 
in  the  parlor,  he  said,  ''I  will  send  into  the  office  for  Brother 
George  A.,  as  he  is  in  there  now,  and  we  will  invite  him  to 
be  present  at  our  meeting-."  Brother  Smith  and  his  wife 
were,  therefore,  the  only  visitors  at  this  initial  meeting- of 
the  new  organization . 

The  scene  in  that  quaint  old  parlor  would  have  been 
a  strange  one  to  those  not  of  the  family.  President  Young- 
came  in  from  the  office  through  the  long-,  narrow,  winding 
hall  and  from  its  small  recess  in  the  large  hall  took  the 
prayer-bell,  which  was  never  molested  by  childish  fingers. 
Eig'ht  deliberate  rings  brought  the  flying  feet  of  little  chil- 
dren, followed  more  sedately  by  the  quiet  tread  of  the  old- 
er ones  and  the  mothers,  into  the  long,  low-ceiled  parlor, 
warmed  by  the  "Lady  Franklin"  stove  and  lighted  by  glass 
lamps.  The  family  came  and  arranged  themselves  in  their 
accustomed  seats,  in  the  substantial,  comfortable  wooden 
chairs  made  by  the  cabinet  maker  Bell,  after  a  pattern 
designed  by  President  Young  himself.  Then  the  hus- 
band and  father  sat,  as  was  his  wont,  in  the  middle  of 
the  long  room  by  the  round  table.  Beside  him  was  his 
loved  friend  and  counselor,  President  George  A.  Smith, 
and  on  the  red-velvet  davenport,  the  seat  reserved  for  vis- 
itors, sat  Sister  Smith.  At  his  right  hand  was  "Aunt" 
Eliza  R.  vSnow,  with  her  tall,  slim  figure  neatly  and 
plainly  clad,  her  fine  old  Hebrew  face  with  its  deep-set 
eyes  and  clear-cut,  regular  features  composed  with  their 
customary  serenity.  Around  the  room  were  ranged  the 
rest  of  the  family,  as  usual. 

After  the   simple  and  usual   evening  prayer  had  been 

HISTORY   OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


Among-  other 

offered,  the   President  addressed  his  family, 
things  he  said: 

All  Israel  are  looking  to  my  family  and  watching-  the 
example  set  by  my  wives  and  children.  For  this  reason 
I  desire  to  organize  my  own  family  first  into  a  society  for 
the  promotion  of  habits  of  order,  thrift,  industry,  and 
charity;  and,  above  all  thing's,  I  desire  them  to  retrench 
from  their  extravagance  in  dress,  In  eating  and  even  in 
speech.  The  time  has  come  when  the  sisters  must  agree 
to  give  up  their  follies  of  dress  and  cultivate  a  modest  ap- 
parel, a  meek  deportment,  and  to  set  an  example  before 
the  people  of  the  world  worthy  of  imitation.  I  am  weary 
of  the  manner  in  which  our  women  seek  to  outdo  each 
other  in  all  the  foolish  fashions  of  the  world.  For  in- 
stance, if  a  sister  invites  her  friends  to  visit  her,  she  must 
have  quite  as  many  dishes  as  her  neigfhbor  spread  on  a 
former  occasion,  and  indeed  she  must  have  one  or  two 
more  in  order  to  show  how  much  superior  her  table  is 
to  her  neigfhbor 's.  This  silly  rivalry  has  induced  a  habit 


of  extravagance  in  our  food;  it  has  involved  fathers  and 
husbands  in  debt,  and  it  has  made  slaves  of  the  mothers 
and  daughters.  It  is  not  right.  It  is  displeasing  to  the 
Lord,  and  the  poor  groan  under  the  burden  of  trying  to 
ape  the  customs  of  those  who  have  more  means.  Then, 
again,  our  daughters  are  following  the  vain  and  foolish 
fashions  of  the  world.  I  want  you  to  set  your  own  fash- 
ions. Let  your  apparel  be  neat  and  comely,  and  the  work- 
manship of  your  own  hands.  Wear  the  good  cloth  manu- 
factured in  our  own  mills,  and  cease  to  build  up  the  mer- 
chant who  sends  your  money  out  of  the  Territory  for  fine 
clothes  made  in  the  East.  Make  your  garments  plain, 
just  to  clear  the  ground  in  length,  without  ruffles  or  pan- 
niers or  other  foolish  and  useless  trimmings  and  styles.  I 
should  like  you  to  get  up  your  own  fashions,  and  set  the 
style  for  all  the  rest  of  the  world  who  desire  sensible  and 
comely  fashions  to  follow.  I  want  my  daughters  to  learn 
to  work  and  to  do  it.  Not  to  spend  their  time  for  naught; 
for  our  time  is  all  the  capital  God  has  given  us,  and  if  we 
waste  that  we  are  bankrupt  indeed. 

I  have  long  had  it  in  my  mind  to  organize  the  young 
ladies  of  Zion  into  an  association  so  that  they  might  assist 
the  older  members  of  the  Church,  their  fathers  and  moth- 
ers, in  propagating,  teaching  and  practicing  the  principles 
I  have  been  so  long  teaching.  There  is  need  for  the  young 
daughters  of  Israel  to  get  a  living  testimony  of  the  truth. 
Young  men  obtain  this  while  on  missions,  but  this  way  is 
not  opened  to  the  girls.  More  testimonies  are  obtained  on 
the  feet  than  on  the  knees.  I  wish  our  girls  to  obtain  a 
knowledge  of  the  Gospel  for  themselves.  For  this  purpose 
I  desire  to  establish  this  organization  and  want  my  family 
to  lead  out  in  the  great  work.  I  have  always  been  willing 
to  give  my  children  all  the  advantages  of  education  and 
schooling  possible  to  obtain.  But  I  want  them  to  appreciate 
those  advantages  and  not  to  squander  their  opportunities. 
We  are  about  to  organize  a  Retrenchment  Association, 
which  I  want  you  all  to  join,  and  I  want  you  to  vote 
to  retrench  in  your  dress,  in  your  tables,  in  your  speech, 
wherein  you  have  been  guilty  of  silly,  extravagant  speeches 
and  light-mindedness  of  thought.  Retrench  in  everything 
that  is  bad  and  worthless,  and  improve  in  everything 

10  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

that  is  good  and  beautiful.  Not  to  make  yourselves  un- 
happy, but  to  live  so  that  you  may  be  truly  happy  in  this 
life  and  the  life  to  come. 

He  invited  his  wives  to  express  their  feelings  and  all 
responded.  A  vote  was  then  called  and  the  whole  family 
voted  to  sustain  the  President  in  his  new  departure.  Then 
Brother  George  A.  Smith  was  invited  to  speak,  and  he 
bore  a  powerful  testimony  to  the  truth  of  the  President's 
words.  He  said  that  if  ever  a  man  spoke  by  the  power  of 
God,  President  Young:  had  done  so  at  this  meeting. 

Some  difficulty  was  realized  in  selecting  the  proper 
one  to  stand  at  the  head  of  the  organization,  but  at  last 
Sister  Ella  Young  Empey  was  chosen  and  unanimously 
sustained  to  act  as  president  of  the  Retrenchment  Associa- 
tion as  it  was  then  called.  After  some  further  talk  the 
meeting  was  dismissed  and  adjourned  to  some  time  in  the 
near  future.* 

It  would  not  be  difficult  to  imagine  the  consternation 
of  those  light-hearted  young"  girls,  who  grasped  at  once 
the  thought  that  to  them  this  new  movement  meant  no 
ruffles,  no  ribbons,  no  furbelows.  All  that  lay  in  the  heart 
of  this  movement  as  its  deeper  meaning,  the  uplifting,  the 
growth  and  the  spiritual  and  intellectual  culture — all  this 
was  overlooked  by  those  merry,  thoughtless  girls,  the  old- 
est of  them  not  much  over  twenty.  The  sacrifice  was  big 
to  them;  small  wonder  there  was  shrinking  and  doubt. 
Nevertheless,  it  was  settled  that  night  that  a  Spartan 

*TESTIMONY  OF  MRS.  BATHSHEBA  W.  SMITH. — As  near  as  my 
recollection  serves  me,  the  above  account  of  the  meeting  held  in  the 
Lion  House,  November  28th,  1869,  is  correct,  both  as  to  details  and 
the  words  spoken  by  President  Young.  On  my  leaving  the  room, 
he  spoke  a  few  words  of  blessing  to  me,  which  greatly  comforted 
my  heart.  He  said  he  had  no  fault  to  find  with  Brother  George  A.'s 
family  as  to  th^ir  dress. 

Salt  Lake  Temple,  March  8,  1909 


plainness  of  dress  was  to  be  one  of  the  distinguishing-  marks 
of  the  new  movement.  Let  us  examine  the  stirring;  but 
quaintly  worded  resolutions  adopted: 


Subscribed  to  and  adopted  by  the  Young-  Ladies'  Depart- 
ment of  the  Co-operative  Retrenchment  Association ,  organ- 
ized in  Salt  Lake  City,  1869. 

Resolved,  that  realizing-  ourselves  to  be  wives  and 
daughters  of  apostles,  prophets  and  elders  of  Israel,  and, 
as  such,  that  high  responsibilities  rest  upon  us,  and  that 
we  shall  be  held  accountable  to  God  not  only  for  the  priv- 
ileges we  inherit  from  our  fathers,  but  also  for  the  blessings 
we  enjoy  as  Latter-day  Saints,  we  feel  to  unite  and  co- 
operate with,  and  we  do  mutually  pledge  ourselves  that 
we  will  uphold  and  sustain  each  other  in  doing  good. 

Resolved,  that  inasmuch  as  the  Saints  have  been  com- 
manded to  gather  out  from  Babylon  and  not  partake  of  her 
sins,  that  they  may  receive  not  of  her  plagues,  we  feel  that 
we  should  not  condescend  to  imitate  the  pride,  folly  and 
fashions  of  the  world.  And  inasmuch  as  the  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  is  likened  unto  a  city  set  on  a  hill,  to  be  a 
beacon  light  to  all  nations,  it  is  our  duty  to  set  examples 
for  others,  instead  of  seeking  to  pattern  after  them. 

Resolved,  that  we  will  respect  ancient  and  modern 
apostolic  instructions.  St.  Paul  exhorted  Timothy  to  teach 
the  women  to  adorn  themselves  in  modest  apparel — not 
with  braided  hair,  or  gold,  or  pearls,  or  costly  array;  but 
to  wear  that  which  becometh  \vomen  professing  godliness 
with  good  works.  Peter,  also,  in  his  first  epistle,  in  speak- 
ing of  women  says,  "Whose  adorning,  let  it  not  be  that 
outward  adorning  of  plaiting  the  hair,  and  of  wearing  gold, 
or  of  putting  on  of  apparel;  but  let  it  be  the  hidden  man 
of  the  heart,  in  that  which  is  not  corruptible,  even  the 
ornament  of  a  meek  and  quiet  spirit,  which  is  in  the  sight 
of  God  of  great  price.  For  after  this  manner  in  old  time 
the  holy  women  also,  who  trusted  in  God,  adorned  them- 
selves," etc.  In  a  revelation  given  to  the  Saints  in  1831, 
the  Lord  said:  "Thou  shalt  not  be  proud  in  thy  heart;  let 
all  thy  garments  be  plain,  and  their  beauty  the  beauty  of 

12  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

the  work  of  thine  own  hands."  All  of  which  we  accept 
as  true  principles,  and  such  as  should  be  fully  illustrated 
in  our  practice. 

Resolved,  with  a  firm  and  settled  determination  to 
honor  the  foregoing-  requirements,  and  being  deeply  sensi- 
ble of  the  sinful  ambition  and  vanity  in  dress  among  the 
daughters  of  Zion,  which  are  calculated  to  foster  the  pride 
of  the  world,  and  shut  out  the  spirit  of  God  from  the  heart, 
we  mutually  agree  to  exert  our  influence,  both  by  precept 
and  example,  to  suppress  and  eventually  eradicate  these 

Resolved,  that,  while  admitting  variety  has  its 
charms,  we  know  that  real  beauty  appears  to  greater 
advantage  in  a  plain  dress  than  when  bedizened  with 
finery;  and  while  we  disapprobate  extravagance  and  waste, 
we  would  not,  like  the  Quakers,  recommend  a  uniform, 
but  would  leave  each  one  to  choose  the  style  best  adapted 
to  her  own  taste  and  person.  At  the  same  time  we  shall 
avoid  and  ignore  as  obsolete  with  us  all  extremes  which 
are  opposed  to  good  sense,  or  repulsive  to  modesty. 

Resolved,  inasmuch  as  cleanliness  is  a  characteristic 
of  a  Saint,  and  an  imperative  duty,  we  shall  discard  the 
dragging  skirts,  and  for  decency's  sake  those  disgustingly 
short  ones  extending  no  lower  than  the  boot  tops.  We 
also  regard  "panniers,"  and  whatever  approximates  in  ap- 
pearance toward  the  "Grecian  bend,"  a  burlesque  on  the 
natural  beauty  and  dignity  of  the  human  female  form,  and 
will  not  disgrace  our  persons  by  wearing  them.  And  also, 
as  fast  as  it  shall  be  expedient,  we  shall  adopt  the  wearing 
of  home-made  articles,  and  exercise  our  united  influence 
in  rendering  them  fashionable. 






A  number  of  meeting's  were  held  by  this  society  in  the 
winter  following  the  organization  in  the  Lion  House.  Sev- 
eral of  them  were  held  at  the  home  of  Sister  Emmeline 
Free  Youngf,  wife  of  President  Young:  and  mother  of  Ella 
Y.  Empey,  the  youthful  president.  She  lived  then  in 
what  was  known  as  the  Grant  House,  on  Main  street, 
exactly  on  the  site  of  the  present  Z.  C.  M.  I. 

Within  the  year  1870  the  Retrenchment  Associations 
were  established  on  a  firm  basis, — that  is,  as  local  associa" 
tions.  There  were  branches  in  nearly  every  ward  in  the 
city  by  the  close  of  this  year,  while  Ogden,  Logan,  Provo, 
Bountiful  and  Brigham  City  were  all  reaching  out  for  the 
new  work;  and  in  most  of  these  larger  towns,  ward  asso- 
ciations of  the  girls  were  already  in  operation.  In  some 
places  these  associations  were  organized  by  local  authority, 
but  generally  speaking-  they  were  effected  under  the  direct 
supervision  of  Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow.  But  this  great  reform 
movement  among:  women  was  not  confined  entirely  to  the 
young-  girls;  the  mothers  and  wives  in  Israel  were  as  much 
in  need  of  a  return  to  the  art  of  simplicity,  or  retrenchment 
(as  it  was  quaintly  termed),  as  were  the  girls.  And  for  this 
reason,  President  Young"  set  another  engine  of  progress  into 
active  operation.  He  committed  the  cause  of  retrenchment 
among-  the  older  women  into  the  hands  of  an  associate  of 
Sister  Snow.  And  as  this  other  association  was  closely 
identified  with  the  work  of  the  g:irls,  in  the  first  years  of 
their  labors,  an  outline  of  it  will  be  given  in  this  book. 

14  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


Mrs.  Ella  Young-  Empey  was  born  August  31,  1846. 
She  was  of  the  golden -haired,  blue-eyed  type,  which  was  a 
striking  feature  of  many  of  the  Young-  girls.  In  disposition 
she  was  sedate  and  thoughtful;  she  was,  among  a  family 
of  musicians,  one  of  the  best  and  most  gifted.  What  was 
then  called  a  "piano  touch"  became  so  well  known  in 
Ella,  that  one  in  a  distant  room  knew  the  brilliant,  rippling 
sound  of  Ella's  fingers -on  the  dear  old  Lion  House  piano. 
She  was  married  in  1865  (very  early,  as  was  the  custom  in 
those  days)  to  Nelson  A.  Empey.  They  lived  a  devotedly 
happy  life  until  September  7,  1890,  when  the  wife  died, 
leaving  her  husband  desolate . 

Mrs.  Emily  Y.  Clawson  has  reared  a  large  and  gifted 
family,  and  as  the  plural  wife  of  a  bishop,  she  has  done 
well  her  part.  Mrs.  Zina  Young  Williams  (now  Card) 
has  been  plural  wife,  mother,  pioneer,  teacher,  and  .house- 
keeper. Not  one  of  the  Young  girls  has  more  faithfully 
lived  up  to  that  long  ago  ideal.  Her  sister,  Mrs.  Maria  Y. 
Don  gall,  stands  side  by  side  with  Mrs.  Williams -Card  in 
the  noble  life-record  made.  Caroline  Young  (Cannon) 
reared  a  splendid  family,  and  still  found  time  for  Temple 
work  in  the  last  years  of  her  life.  She  was  president  of 
the  Cannon  Ward  Relief  Society  for  several  years.  She 
died  July  7,  1903.  Dora  Young  (Hagan)  has  not  lived  in 
Utah  for  many  years;  but  she  is  as  devoted  to  the  memory 
of  her  father  as  any  daughter  he  ever  had.  Phebe  Young 
(Beatie)  is  as  lovely  in  character  as  she  is  in  person.  She 
has  lived  a  useful  life,  both  in  public  works  and  domestic 
duties.  She  is  one  of  the  General  Board  of  the  Relief 
Society  at  the  present  time.  Such  is  the  brief  record  of 
those  pioneer  officers  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  work. 


Zina  Y.  Williams 
Emily  Y.  Clawson  Maria  Y.  Dougall 

President  Ella  Y.  Empey 

Caroline  Young  Phoebe  Young 

Dora  L,  Young 



The  name  of  Eliza  R.  Snow,  otherwise  known  as 
"Z ion's  poetess,"  is  an  imperishable  one  in  the  history  of 
Mormonism.  A  sister  to  President  Lorenzo  Snow  and  one 
of  the  wives  of  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  she  stood  for 
many  years  at  the  head  of  the  entire  Mormon  sisterhood, 
and  was  the  most  prominent  woman  of  her  period  in  the 
Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  Gifted  and  ed- 
ucated, an  original  thinker,  an  able  speaker  and  writer,  she 
was  also  endowed  with  executive  ability  of  a  high  order, 
which  she  used,  with  all  other  talents,  in  the  promulgation 
of  her  religious  faith,  in  the  advancement  of  her  sex,  and,  as 
far  as  her  influence  extended,  for  the  welfare  of  all  mankind. 
Though  most  of  her  life  was  sternly  practical,  much  of  it  be- 
ing passed  amid  scenes  of  hardship  and  persecution,  she 
found  time  to  woo  the  poetic  muse  and  was  the  author  of 
poems  of  hig~h  merit,  the  most  famous  among  them  being 
her  sublime  hymn,  "O  my  Father,"  so  frequently  sung-  in 
the  sacred  gatherings  of  the  Saints.* 

*It  is  always  vitally  interesting  to  know  something  about  the 
details  surrounding  the  production  of  an  immortal  poem,  a  pic- 
ture or  a  song.  And  although  no  one  thought  to  ask  Sister  Snow 
in  life  to  recount  the  incidents  connected  with  the  composition  of 
the  famous  and  inspired  hymn  entitled  "O  my  Father,"  we  know 
from  two  of  her  associates,  Sisters  Bathsheba  W.  Smith  and  Em- 
meline  B.  Wells,  a  little  of  the  surroundings  of  the  poetess  at  this 
time.  She  was  living  in  Nauvoo  at  the  home  of  Stephen  Markham, 
and  had  for  her  own  room  a  tiny  upstairs  chamber,  whose  sloping 
roof  was  all  unfinished  inside,  but  which  sheltered  its  inmate  from 
snows  and  sun,  while  it  provided  a  quiet  retreat  for  occasional  con- 
templation and  composition.  The  room  was  severely  plain  in  its 
furnishings,  with  one  small  window  to  light  the  dim  gloom  of  the 
half-completed  story.  But  the  bed  was  exquisitely  neat  with  its 
valance  of  white  and  its  cover  of  snowy  home-woven  linen  spread 
trimly  over  its  billowing,  feathery  softness.  The  small  trunk  in  the 
opposite  corner  was  ample  space  to  encompass  all  the  worldly  be- 
longings of  this  high  priestess  of  the  newly  revealed  Truth,  for  she 
had  left  her  desires  for  worldly  possessions  behind  her  along  with 
the  many  home  comforts  which  had  once  been  hers.  A  braided 
rug  mat  covered  a  large  portion  of  the  bare  boards.  Near  the  bed 
stood  a  tiny  round  light-stand,  familiar  in  the  olden  days,  on  which 
stood  the  shining  brass  candlestick,  and  the  beloved  Bible  and 

16  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Eliza  Roxey  Snow  was  a  native  of  Becket,  Berkshire 
county,  Massachusetts,  where  she  was  born  January  21, 
1804.  Her  ancestors  were  English,  but  her  parents  were  na- 
tive Americans,  the  father  having-  been  born  in  Massachu- 
setts, the  mother  in  Connecticut.  Her  father  was  a  Revolu- 
tionary soldier.  As  early  as  1805  the  family  migrated  west- 
ward to  Mantua,  Portage  county,  Ohio,  then  a  new  and 
sparsely  settled  section.  Up  to  this  time,  Eliza  and  an  elder 
sister  were  the  only  children  in  the  household;  but  at  Mantua 
several  brothers  and  other  sisters  were  born,  among  them 
Lorenzo.  The  Snows  were  Baptists  in  religion,  but  were 
broad-minded  and  liberal  to  people  of  all  denominations;  and 
their  hospitable  home  was  a  resort  for  intelligent  and  exem- 

Book  of  Mormon.  This  small  and  indispensable  piece  of  old-time 
chamber  furniture — a  light-stand — was  set  at  the  head  of  the  bed  to 
hold  the  candlestick  and  paper  lighters.  If  a  light  was  necessary  in 
the  night,  the  occupant  of  the  chamber  must  needs  arise,  and  with 
more  or  less  difficulty  brush  away  the  ashes  in  her  own  or  the 
kitchen  fire-place  so  that  the  paper  lighter  could  be  ignited  and  thus 
renew  her  candle  light.  It  was  in  such  environments  that  the  sim- 
ple but  divine  words  of  that  matchless  Mormon  hymnal  were  writ- 

An  interesting  sidelight  is  given  to  this  time  through  a  possible 
glimpse  of  the  thought-kernel  which  grew  into  such  fragrant  bloom 
in  the  full-voiced  poem  of  Sister  Snow.  It  was  told  by  Aunt  Zina 
D.  Young  to  the  writer  as  to  many  others  during  her  life.  Father 
Huntington  lost  his  wife  under  the  most  trying  circumstances.  Her 
children  were  left  desolate.  One  day,  when  her  daughter  Zina  was 
speaking  with  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  concerning  the  loss  of  her 
mother  and  her  intense  grief,  she  asked  the  question: 

"Will  I  know  my  mother  as  my  mother  when  I  get  over  on  the 
Other  Side?" 

"Certainly  you  will,"  was  the  instant  reply  of  the  Prophet. 
"More  than  that,  you  will  meet  and  become  acquainted  with  your 
eternal  Mother,  the  wife  of  your  Father  in  Heaven." 

"And  have  I  then  a  Mother  in  Heaven?"  exclaimed  the  aston- 
ished girl. 

"You  assuredly  have.  How  could  a  Father  claim  His  title  un- 
less there  were  also  a  Mother  to  share  that  parenthood?" 

It  was  about  this  time  that  Sister  Snow  learned  the  same  glo- 
rious truth  from  the  same  inspired  lips,  and  at  once  she  was  moved 
to  express  her  own  great  joy  and  gratitude  in  the  moving  words  of 
the  hymn,  "O  my  Father,"  which  includes  the  pregnant  couplet: 

"Truth  is  reason;  truth  eternal 
Tells  me  I've  a  mother  there." 



plary  spirits  of  various  persuasions.  The  parents  instilled 
morality  into  the  minds  of  their  children  and  trained  them  to 
habits  of  industry  and  economy,  at  the  same  time  extending 
to  them  the  best  available  facilities  for  scholastic  culture. 

Eliza  was  carefully  educated  in  intellectual  as  well  as  do- 
mestic pursuits.  She  began  her  literary  career  when  quite 
young,  winning  high  repute  in  the  surrounding  region  by 
her  poetic  productions.  At  the  age  of  twenty-two  she  was 
solicited  through  the  press  to  write  a  requiem  for  John  Adams 
and  Thomas  Jefferson,  whose  simultaneous  deaths  on  the 
birthday  anniversary  of  the  nation  afforded  a  theme  well 
suited  to  the  lofty  and  patriotic  spirit  which  characterized  her 
muse.  The  poem  was  written  and  published.  With  its 
appearance  the  young  and  gifted  author  found  the  portals 
of  fame  opening  to  her,  with  promises  of  a  brilliant  future. 
This  prospect  she  sacrificed,  with  many  other  hopes  which 
seemed  precious,  upon  the  altar  of  her  religious  convictions. 

With  her  poetic  temperament,  she  possessed  a  lofty  and 
profound  spiritual  nature.  The  sacred  and  siiblime  poetry 
of  the  Bible  was  her  delight.  She  loved  the  Scriptures  and 
the  society  of  scriptorians,  scholars  and  men  of  learning  and 
eloquence.  Among  her  early  acquaintances  was  Alexander 
Campbell,  for  whom  the  Campbellite  sect  was  named;  also 
Sidney  Rigdon,  a  fellow-founder  of  that  denomination,  who 
was  afterwards  associated  with  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith. 

Eliza  R.  Snow  was  initiated  into  the  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  April  5th,  1833.  Her  mother 
and  her  elder  sister  had  previously  connected  themselves 
with  the  Church  and  had  visited  Kirtland,  its  headquarters, 
not  many  miles  from  Mantua.  It  was  through  their  favor- 
able representations  that  Eliza  was  induced  to  make  an  in- 
vestigation of  Mormonism.  In  the  autumn  of  the  year  of  her 
baptism,  she  left  her  father's  home  and  took  up  her  resi- 
dence at  Kirtland,  where  she  taught  the  family  school" of  the 
Prophet,  and  boarded  in  his  household.  Subsequently  she 
had  a  house  of  her  own,  which  she  shared  with  her  sister,  a 
widow  with  two  children.  Her  father  also  embraced  the 
faith,  and  it  was  not  long'  before  the  entire  family  was  set- 
tled at  Kirtland. 

Late  in  April,  1838,  they  started  with  a  small  company 
for  Far  West,  Missouri,  to  which  point  the  Latter-day  Saints 

18  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

were  then  migrating-.  Arriving-  there  on  the  16th  of  July, 
Eliza  remained  for  a  time  nursing  her  sick  brother,  Lorenzo, 
who  was  prostrated  with  bilious  fever,  and  then  rejoined  her 
parents  at  Adam-Ondi-Ahman  in  the  ad  joining  county.  There 
the  family  purchased  two  homesteads,  with  farm  crops,  and 
settled;  but,  in  the  mob  troubles  that  soon  arose,  they  were 
forcibly  dispossessed  of  this  property  and  compelled  to  leave  the 
county  within  ten  days.  Upon  their  departure,  and  even 
while  they  were  preparing  to  go,  the  former  owner  of  the 
premises  coolly  took  possession  of  the  home  from  which  they 
were  driven.  It  was  a  bitter  cold  day — December  10,  1838 
— when  the  Snow  family  left  Diahman,  which  was  occupied 
by  the  mob  forces. 

After  assisting  to  load  the  wagons,  Sister  Eliza  went 
ahead  of  the  teams  to  warm  her  feet  by  walking.  A  Missou- 
rian  approached  and  addressed  her  tauntingly: 

"I  think  this  will  cure  you  of  your  faith." 

"No,  sir,"  replied  the  undaunted  woman,  with  firm  em- 
phasis, and  looking  him  straight  in  the  eye,  "it  will  take 
more  than  this  to  cure  me  of  my  faith." 

The  man's  countenance  fell. 

"Well,  I  must  confess  you  are  a  better  soldier  than  I 
am,"  said  he,  slinking  away. 

The  homeless  family,  after  a  brief  stay  at  Far  West, 
participated  in  the  enforced  exodus  of  the  Saints  from  Mis- 
souri. Their  wintry  wanderings  past,  they  found  them- 
selves, in  March,  1839,  with  the  main  body  of  their  people, 
at  Quincy,  Illinois.  Thence  they  proceeded  to  Warren 
county  and  next  to  La  Harpe.  Eventually  they  settled  with 
the  Saints  at  Nauvoo. 

There  Eliza  taught  school,  wrote  for  the  press,  both  in 
poetry  and  prose,  and  began  to  rise  in  prominence  in  the 
Church.  She  was  present,  March  17,  1842,  when  the  Prophet 
organized  the  now  famous  Relief  Society,  of  which  she  was 
the  original  secretary.  The  date  of  her  marriage  to  Joseph 
Smith  was  June  29,  1842.  She  had  no  children,  but  was 
destined  to  be  a  mother  to  the  women  of  her  people.  Wid- 
owed by  the  Prophet's  martyrdom,  in  June,  1844,  and  pros- 
trated with  grief  for  her  murdered  husband,  she  besought 
the  Lord  that  she  might  follow  him  speedily  to  the  spirit 
world,  The  Prophet  appeared  to  her  in  vision,  administer- 


ing-  strength  and  consolation.  She  rose  up  in  all  the  dig- 
nity of  a  prophetess  to  continue  her  mission,  consecrating 
herself  more  fully  than  ever  to  the  great  cause  for  which 
Joseph  had  died.  Her  long  record  as  a  Temple  worker  be- 
gan at  Nauvoo,  where  she  administered  in  sacred  ordinances 
for  hundreds  of  her  sex. 

In  the  exodus  of  February,  1846,  while  driving  an  ox 
team  towrards  the  Missouri  river,  she  wrote  songs  to  comfort 
and  encourage  her  exiled  co-religionists  in  their  weary  pil- 
grim-age to  the  Rocky  Mountains.  At  Winter  Quarters,  a 
siege  of  chills  and  fever,  superinduced  by  the  many  hard- 
ships and  exposures  to  which  she  had  been  subjected, 
brought  her  almost  to  the  brink  of  the  grave.  At  the  close 
of  the  year  came  the  tidings  of  her  mother's  death  at  Walnut 
Grove,  Illinois,  where  her  father  had  died  the  year  previous. 
She  began  the  journey  across  the  plains  in  June,  1847,  in 
one  of  the  first  companies  that  followed  in  the  wake  of  the 
pioneers,  and  the  month  of  October  found  her  a  resident  of 
the  colony  in  Salt  Lake  Valley. 

She  was  provided  with  a  home  by  President  Brigham 
Young  and  from  that  time  until  her  death  remained  a  member 
of  his  household.  When  the  Endowment  House  was  dedicated 
as  a  temporary  Temple  for  the  Saints,  May,  1855,  she  was 
placed  in  charge  of  the  sisters'  work  therein,  and  held  the 
sacred  office  then  conferred  upon  her  as  long  as  ordinance 
work  was  performed  in  the  Endowment  House.  In  1866  she 
was  called  by  President  Young  to  assist  the  bishops  in  or- 
ganizing ward  Relief  Societies  throughotit  the  Church, 
which  in  her  time  increased  to  three  hundred  branches.  In 
that  position  she  labored  continuously  for  twenty-one  years. 

A  notable  event  of  her  experience  was  her  trip  to  Pales- 
tine as  a  member  of  President  George  A.  Smith's  party, 
which  included  also  her  brother,  Lorenzo,  then  one  of  the 
Twelve  Apostles.  The  object  in  view  was  the  dedication  of 
the  Holy  Land  for  the  return  of  the  Jews;  one  of  the  great 
events  contemplated  by  Mormonism.  Leaving  home  on  the 
26th  of  October,  1872,  she  sailed  with  her  party  from  New 
York  on  the  5th  of  November.  After  seeing  the  sights  of 
London,  they  passed  over  to  Belgium,  and  thence  through 
France,  calling  upon  M.  Thiers,  president  of  the  French 
republic,  at  Versailles.  They  journeyed  through  the  prin- 

20  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

cipal  cities  of  Italy,  crossed  over  to  Alexandria,  and  late  in 
February,  1873,  landed  at  Jaffa,  the  first  sea-port  of  Pal- 
estine. The  beginning  of  March  found  them  in  Jerusalem, 
and  on  the  second  day  of  the  month,  which  was  Sunday,  they 
ascended  the  Mount  of  Olives,  and  there  held  sacred  services, 
accomplishing-  the  purpose  of  their  mission.  They  then  com- 
pleted their  tour  of  the  Holy  Land,  occupying  in  all  about  a 
month,  during  which  Sister  Eliza,  then  in  her  seventieth 
year,  slept  in  a  tent,  rode  on  the  donkeys,  and  endured  the 
journey  quite  as  well  as  the  youngest  and  most  vigorous  of 
the  party.  They  returned  by  way  of  Constantinople,  and  at 
Athens  took  tea  with  the  American  minister.  After  visiting 
the  World's  Fair  at  Vienna,  they  set  out  for  England.  About 
the  last  of  May  they  sailed  for  home,  arriving  there  in 

Invigorated  in  mind  and  body,  Sister  Eliza  entered  with 
renewed  zeal  and  devotion  upon  the  discharge  of  her  mani- 
fold duties.  She  traveled  north  and  south  through  the  set- 
tlements, holding  meetings  and  addressing  the  sisters  in 
many  places,  organizing  and  setting  in  order  the  women's 
associations.  But  she  figured  not  only  in  public,  counseling 
and  instructing  with  wisdom  and  eloquence,  but  also,  in  the 
homes  of  the  poor  and  the  needy,  and  at  the  bedside  of  the 
sick  and  dying,  she  was  an  angel  of  hope  and  consolation. 
Probably  her  most  noted  public  speech  was  at  the  great  mass 
meeting  of  the  Mormon  women,  held  at  the  old  Tabernacle, 
Salt  Lake  City,  in  January,  1870,  to  protest  against  the  Cul- 
lom  anti-polygamy  bill,  then  pending  in  Congress.  In  No- 
vember, 1878,  she  presided  at  a  similar  meeting  held  in  the 
Salt  Lake  Theatre,  for  the  purpose  of  answering  allegations 
of  the  newly-organized  Anti-Polygamy  Society. 

As  early  as  1856,  Sister  Eliza  published  her  first  volume 
of  poems,  embodying  religious,  historical  and  political  themes. 
Twenty  years  later  she  prepared  a  second  volume  of  poems 
for  the  press,  and  assisted  in  the  preparation  and  publication 
of  Tullidge's  "Women  of  Mormondom."  Other  literary 
works  of  hers  were:  "Correspondence  of  Palestine  Tourists," 
"The  Biography  and  Family  Record  of  Lorenzo  Snow,"  and 
a  hymn  book,  tune  book,  and  first  and  second  Speakers  for  use 
in  the  children's  Primary  Associations.  Sister  Snow  assisted 
in  organizing  these  associations  throughout  the  settlements. 


She  was  the  leader  in  this  movement,  as  in  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Among  various  prominent  positions  occupied  by  this  in- 
defatigable worker  in  Zion's  interests  were  those  of  superin- 
tendent of  the  Women's  Store,  (a  commission  house  for 
Utah-made  goods,  opened  in  the  Constitution  Building',  Salt 
Lake  City,  in  the  fall  of  1876),  and  president  of  the  Deseret 
Hospital,  established  by  the  Mormon  women  and  dedicated 
July  17,  1882.  June  19th,  1880,  at  a  meeting-  held  in  the 
Salt  Lake  Assembly  Hall,  she  had  been  formally  set  apart 
by  President  John  Taylor  to  preside  over  the  Latter-day 
Saints'  women's  organizations  in  all  the  world,  Zina  D.  H. 
Young  being  her  first  counselor  and  Elizabeth  Ann  Whitney 
her  second  counselor;  Sarah  M.  Kimball  was  secretary  and 
Mary  Isabella  Home,  treasurer. 

Sister  Eliza's  death  occurred  on  December  5th,  1887, 
when,  full  of  years  and  ripe  wisdom,  and  honored  and  be- 
loved wherever  known,  she  passed  peacefully  to  her  rest  in 
the  paradise  of  God .  She  was  given  a  public  funeral  at  the 
Assembly  Hall,  and  her  remains  were  entombed  in  President 
Young's  private  burying  ground. 

Most  closely  associated  with  Sister  Snow  was  another 
wife  of  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  and  also,  later,  the  wife 
of  Brigham  Young.  Zina  D.  Young  was  the  anti-type  to 
Sister  Snow.  Some  spoke  of  the  two  as  the  head  and  the 
heart  of  the  women's  work  in  Utah.  Sister  Snow  was  keen- 
ly intellectual,  and  she  led  by  force  of  that  intelligence.  Sis- 
ter Zina  was  all  love  and  sympathy,  and  drew  people  after 
her  by  reason  of  that  tenderness.  It  is  well  to  consider  them 
together  in  this  work,  for  so  they  labored  in  Mutual  Im- 
provement work  side  by  side. 


There  have  been  many  noble  women,  some  great  wom- 
en and  a  multitude  of  good  women  associated,  past  and  pres- 
ent, with  the  Latter-Day  work.  But  of  them  all  none  was  so 
lovely,  so  lovable,  and  so  passionately  beloved  as  was  "Aunt 
Zina."  To  be  sure  the  explanation  seems  simple,  but  it 
only  "seems,"  for  it  is  anything  but  simple  to  live  the  per- 
fect Christian  life  which  was  lived  by  this  saintly  woman  for 
over  eighty  years. 

22  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Atmt  Zina  was  a  perfect  example  of  the  teaching's  of 
Paul  in  the  13th  chapter  of  I  Corinthians;  yet  with  all  her 
tenderness  and  exquisite  delicacy  of  motive  and  act,  there 
was  a  sturdy  strength  about  her  which  made  up  the  heroic 
part  of  her  character.  She  was  extremely  quick  in  her  per- 
ceptions, and  was  keenly  conscious  of  malicious  conduct  or 
slighting  treatment;  but  her  nobility  prevented  her  from  re- 
senting- ill-treatment,  and  she  was  ready  to  forgive  long-  be- 
fore asked  to  do  so. 

It  is  related  of  her  that  on  one  occasion  she  was  told  that 
a  certain  woman  did  not  like  her.  Aunt  Zina  looked  quietly 
into  the  eyes  of  her  informer  and  said,  with  simple  dignity 
and  sincerity: 

"Well,  I  love  her,  Sister,  and  she  can't  help  herself." 

It  is  an  established  fact  that,  almost  without  exception, 
the  founders  of  the  Mormon  Church  were  descendants  of  the 
founders  of  the  American  nation,  and  it  is  a  pleasing-  task  to 
study  the  genealogical  history  of  the  men  and  women  who 
have,  under  God,  laid  the  foundations  of  this  Church. 

Zina  Hunting-ton  Young-  was  descended  from  a  line  of 
distinguished  ancestry.  Lady  Salina  Hunting-ton,  who  came 
from  one  branch  of  the  family,  was  the  daughter  of  the  Earl 
of  Ferrars,  and  a  co-laborer  of  the  famous  reformer,  Wesley. 
The  pedigree  of  this  family  and  that  of  Georg-e  Washington, 
the  first  American, meet  in  the  same  parentage,  a  few  gener- 
ations before  either  of  these  distinguished  personages  was 
born.  The  mother  of  Aunt  Zina  was  a  Dimock,  and  she 
was  of  the  family  of  Sir  Edward  Dymock,  Knight,  Champion 
to  Queen  Elizabeth.  The  Dymocks  were  hereditary  holders 
of  this  title  for  several  generations. 

Aunt  Zina's  father  was  one  of  the  patriots  who  served 
in  the  war  of  1812.  Samuel  Huntington,  one  of  the  signers 
of  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  was  the  uncle  of  this 
stout  and  gallant  soldier.  Her  own  father  was  descended  di- 
rectly from  Simon  Huntington,  the  Puritan  immigrant  who 
sailed  for  America  in  1633,  but  on  the  way  died  of  small-pox. 
His  wife  and  little  children  settled  in  Roxbury,  and  were 
under  the  direct  charge  of  the  famous  pastor,  John  Elliot. 
Her  paternal  grandmother  was  a  Lathrop,  of  the  Black  River 
valley,  New  York. 

Aunt  Zina    was  born    Jan.   31st,   1821,  at  Watertown. 

ZINA  D.    H.   YOUNG. 


and  she  was  baptized  into  the  Church  by  the  Patriarch  Hy- 
rum  Smith,  August  14,  1835.  Young  as  she  was,  she  re- 
ceived, during  this  year  at  Kirtland,  the  two  beautiful  gifts 
which  never  afterwards  left  her:  that  of  speaking  in  tongues 
and  of  interpretation  of  tongues.  She  was  a  member  of  the 
Kirtland  Temple  choir,  and  began,  even  in  her  youth,  the 
work  of  her  life — the  teaching  of  the  young.  She  was  emi- 
nently fitted  to  be  a  teacher.  She  not  only  had  the  gift  of 
imparting  information  from  the  modest  store  of  book-learn- 
ing which  she  possessed,  but  she  had  that  higher,  rarer  gift 
of  imparting  the  inspiration  of  her  own  high  ideals  and  char- 
acter to  the  youth  who  were  under  her  care. 

She  was  married  in  her  youth  and  had  two  fine  boys, 
Zebulon  and  Chariton  Jacobs;  but  the  union  was  not  a  happy 
one,  and  she  subsequently  separated  from  her  husband.  She 
was  married  in  the  order  of  celestial  marriage  to  the  Prophet 
Joseph  Smith,  for  time  and  eternity.  After  the  martyrdom 
of  the  Prophet,  she  accepted  the  offer  of  a  home  under  the 
roof  of  President  Young,  and  was  married  to  him  for  time. 
She  had  one  child  to  Brigham  Young,  a  daughter,  Zina, 
who  is  a  worthy  representative  of  a  spiritual  and  sainted 

Aunt  Zina's  mother  died  during  the  persecutions  in 
Missouri,  and  the  family  were  all  so  ill  that  only  two  of  the 
number  could  attend  the  funeral.  Her  father  died,  also  a 
martyr,  at  the  camp  of  Pisgah,  after  the  Saints  were  driven 
from  Nauvoo.  The  Saints  at  this  time  were  in  the  most 
terrible  straits.  Deaths  were  so  frequent  that  it  was  diffi- 
cult to  find  well  ones  who  could  bury  the  dead.  Many  were 
buried  with  split  logs  at  the  bottom  of  the  graves,  while  the 
sides  were  lined  with  brush  hastily  cut  from  the  roadside.  It 
was  at  this  time  that  Father  Huntington  was  taken  sick,  and 
died  in  eighteen  days. 

Aunt  Zina  went  to  Winter  Quarters  after  the  death  of 
her  father;  and  she  crossed  the  plains  in  1848,  with  her  hus- 
band's family,  walking,  driving  team,  cooking  beside  the 
camp-fire,  and  sharing,  nay,  bearing  far  more  than  her  part 
of  the  burdens  of  the  journey.  She  was  an  expert  bread- 
maker,  and  her  salt-rising  would  come  up  when  all  the  oth- 
ers were  dead  and  cold.  No  one  will  ever  know  how  little  of 
her  own  provisions  she  ate ,  and  how  much  she  gave  to  others 

24  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

less  favored  than  herself.  After  arriving  in  Salt  Lake  Val- 
ley, she  lived  first  in  the  Old  Fort,  then  in  the  "Log  Row,"  a 
short  distance  north  of  the  Eagle  Gate,  and  later  with  the 
other  members  of  the  family  moved  in  1856  into  the  famous 
Lion  House. 

Aunt  Zina  taught  school  for  many  years,  for  there  must 
be  schools,  and  the  men  were  all  busy  with  the  strenuous 
pioneer  labors  in  canyon  and  field.  She  began  teaching  in 
Nauvoo;  next,  she  had  a  noisy,  yet  merry,  school  in  Winter 
Quarters,  and  finally  opened  a  small  class  in  her  own  small 
room  in  the  Log  Fort.  After  the  Lion  House  was  built  and 
teachers  multiplied,  she  turned  her  attention'  to  other  philan- 
thropic labors,  for  her  spirit  was  far  too  active  and  her  capac- 
ity too  great  to  make  her  satisfied  with  the  small  compass  of 
her  own  four  walls.  She  walked  the  difficult  path  of  public 
trust,  side  by  side  with  Eliza  R.  Snow. 

When  the  Relief  Society  was  reorganized  in  Utah  by 
Brigham  Young,  Aunt.  Zina  was  chosen  as  treasurer. 
Later,  when  the  general  organization  was  completed,  she  was 
the  first  counselor  to  Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow.  This  office  she 
held  until  the  death  of  Sister  Snow,  when  she  was  elected 
the  president  of  that  historic  society,  and  she  continued  in 
that  office  till  her  own  death,  on  the  28th  of  August,  1902. 
She  was  thus,  for  ten  years,  Elect  Lady  of  the  Church,  and 
no  more  beautiful  soul  ever  occupied  that  exalted  position. 

She  was  chosen  in  the  early  seventies  by  Brigham 
Young  to  take  up  the  "mission"  of  establishing  silk-culture 
in  the  Territory, and  to  her  death  she  was  faithful  to  the  trust 
then  imposed  upon  her.  To  hear  her  modest  story  of  the 
suffering  she  endured  in  silence ,  while  working  on  the  silk 
farm  established  by  President  Young  in  the  suburbs  of  the 
city,  was  to  hear  what  real  heroism  means.  She  was  afflict- 
ed with  a  mortal  terror  of  worms,  having  a  birth  mark  in 
the  palm  of  her  hand  in  the  shape  of  a  curled-up  worm.  But 
when  she  was  called  upon  to  take  up  the  work  in  sericulture, 
she  told  no  one  of  her  affliction,  but  resolved  that  she  would 
conquer  her  terror,  if  she  died  of  heart-failure  in  the  attempt. 
And  conquer,  to  an  extent,  she  did.  She  fed  and  took  care 
of  millions  of  worms,  and  although  there  were  months  that 
her  dreams  were  nightmare  remembrances  of  her  daily  horror, 
she  never  faltered.  She  lived  to  see  the  silk  industry  fos- 


tered  and  made  comparatively  successful  through  legislative 
enactment.  And  she  wore,  for  many  years,  home-made  silk 
dresses  as  her  best  attire. 

In  no  other  line  of  work  and  effort  was  Aunt  Zina  better 
known  and  more  appreciated  than  in  her  ministrations  to  the 
sick  and  dying  in  the  household  of  faith.  She  was  an  angel 
of  hope  and  faith  to  thousands  and  thousands  of  the  Latter- 
day  Saints.  Who  has  not  seen  the  heavenly  comfort  and 
faith  beaming  from  her  eye  as  she  knelt  over  the  sick  or 
soothed  the  mourner!  In  those  early  days,  whose  child  was 
not  nursed  back  to  health,  or  robed  for  its  last  long  sleep  by 
the  tender  hands  of  this  angelic  woman!  What  household 
was  not  made  better,  purer,  holier  far,  because  of  the  pres- 
ence of  this  saintly  woman  and  womanly  saint! 

She  was  early  educated  in  the  simple  mysteries  of  obstet- 
rics by  a  visiting  physician  to  the  Territory  of  Utah,  and  ever 
after  she  was  called  from  her  home,  in  season  and  out  of 
season,  to  preside  as  high  priestess  at  the  altar  of  birth.  She 
heard  the  birth-cry  of  more  children  than  any  other  woman 
in  Utah.  And,  withal,  she  bore  three  and  reared  a  large 
family  of  her  husband's  children. 

She  was  the  soul  of  generosity,  and  yet  not  lavish;  she 
was  forgiving  to  a  fault,  and  still  she  always  knew  when  peo- 
ple assailed  her.  She  was  eloquent,  and  had  a  personal 
magnetism  which  attracted  the  merest  stranger  instantly  to 
her  side.  She  was  sweetly  proud,  and  her  soul  was  filled 
with  an  exquisite  dignity. 

She  labored  for  years  as  a  high  priestess,  first  in  the  En- 
dowment House,  and  then  in  the  Salt  Lake  Temple,  where 
she  presided  among  the  women  workers  to  the  day  of  her 

It  is  with  her  work  in  the  Mutual  Improvement  Associa- 
tion that  this  history  is  chiefly  concerned,  and  Aunt  Zina's 
work  in  that  direction  is  co-equal  with  the  labors  of  Sister 
Eliza  R.  Snow.  Together  they  traveled,  Sister  Snow's  ring- 
ing challenge  penetrating  into  the  very  depths  of  the  girls' 
minds  and  brains,  while  Aunt  Zina's  loving  appeal  sank 
into  their  hearts  and  distilled  upon  their  souls  like  the  dews 
upon  the  thirsty  hills  around  their  valley  homes.  They  trav- 
eled thousands  and  thousands  of  miles,  mostly  in  carriages 
or  wagons,  holding  two  and  sometimes  four  meetings  a  day, 

26  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

organizing  branches  of  the  Retrenchment  or  Mutual  Im- 
provement Associations,  meeting  with  the  Relief  Societies, 
"preaching  up"  silk,  or  the  loyal  support  of  home  industry; 
securing  subscribers  to  the  Woman  s  Exponent;  urging  the 
women  and  the  girls  to  study  well  their  responsibilities,  as 
mothers,  wives  and  daughters.  Then,  one  meeting  dis- 
missed, the  same  audience  would  assemble  while  these  two 
orators  and  organizers  would  call  a  session  of  the  Suffrage 
Society,  or,  perhaps,  a  meeting  of  the  children's  Primary 
Associations.  And  in  this  taxing  and  yet  glorious  life  this 
woman,  these  women,  lived,  labored,  suffered,  and  passed  to 
their  rewards.  God  enrich  their  memory  to  all  the  readers 
of  this  history! 


Mrs.  Bathsheba  W.  Smith  is  the  fourth  general  presi- 
dent of  the  Woman's  Relief  Society,  and  is  herself  a  remark- 
able woman.  She  was  born  May  3,  1822,  in  West  Virginia, 
and  is  the  daughter  of  Mark  Bigler  and  Susannah  Ogden. 
She  was  reared  in  a  well-to-do  southern  family,  and  had  all 
the  advantages  attendant  upon  such  conditions.  She  was  an 
accomplished  horsewoman  in  her  youth,  and  to  this  fact  may 
be  attributed  some  of  her  remarkable  vigor  and  comeliness  in 
this  the  far  evening  of  her  life.  She  sacrificed  much  to  join 
the  unpopular  religion  of  Christ,  and  she  brought  with  her  to 
Nauvoo  all  her  inherited  love  of  refinement  and  womanly 
dignity,  while  not  forgetting  the  industry  and  frugality  which 
so  characterized  the  early  life  of  the  founders  of  this  Ameri- 
can nation.  She  was  married  to  George  A.  Smith,  a  cousin 
of  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  in  Nauvoo,  on  July  25,  1842. 
Mrs.  Smith  was  very  soon  an  intimate  friend  of  the  Prophet's 
family,  and  she  was  as  much  attracted  by  the  unusual 
strength  and  brilliancy  of  his  wife,  Emma  Hale  Smith,  as 
she  was  by  the  majesty  and  power  of  the  great  Prophet  him- 
self. Mrs.  Bathsheba  W.  Smith  still  cherishes  the  memory 
of  Emma  Smith,  as  that  lady  rode  on  her  white  horse  beside 
her  husband  through  the  streets  of  Nauvoo,  as  one  of  her 
priceless  visual  mementoes. 

Mrs.  Smith  was  a  member  of  the  first  Relief  Society, 
organized  by  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  in  1842  in  Nauvoo. 
She  is,  therefore,  the  only  living  charter-member  of  that 



Society;  she  sat  under  the  inspired  teachings  among-  those 
early  women,  while  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  Brig-ham 
Young-,  and  Heber  C.  Kimball  instructed  them  in  their  un- 
usual duties  and  privileges.  She  does  not  forg-et  those  days 
nor  those  teaching's.  She  was  also  permitted  to  receive  her 
endowments  under  the  hands  of  the  same  inspired  Prophet 
and  his  wife  Emma.  Sister  Smith  is  still  alive  and  is  the 
only  living-  person  who  thus  received  these  blessings  from  the 
Prophet.  She  has  seen  the  Relief  Society  grow  from  a  local 
society  to  a  great  organization  of  forty  thousand  or  more 
women,  engaged  in  philanthropic  and  sociological  work.  She 
has  worshiped  and  labored  in  every  Temple  ever  built  in 
these  latter  days,  and  has  indeed  done  more  of  this  glorious 
ordinance  work  than  any  other  woman,  living  or  dead.  She 
has  also  had  more  public  honors  paid  her  than  has  any 
other  woman  in  the  Church,  and  she  bears  them  all  with 
gracious  calmness  and  dignity. 

Mrs.  Smith  is  the  mother  of  three  children.  Her  oldest 
son  was  slain  by  the  Indians  and  his  mother's  heart  is  still 
sore  and  tender  for  that  loss;  her  other  son  John  died  a 
few  hours  after  birth.  Her  daughter,  named  for  herself, 
Bathsheba,  married  Clarence  Merrill  and  has  brought  to 
this  world  fourteen  children  for  this  grandmother  in  Is- 

Sister  Smith  is  tall,  gracious  and  queenly  in  presence, 
dignified  and  affable  in  manner,  true  and  unswerving  in  her 
convictions  of  right.  Her  husband  was  first  counselor  to 
President  Brigham  Young  and  Church  historian  for  many 
years  in  the  early  Utah  days,  and  Mrs.  Smith  kept  an  open 
house  for  all  his  friends.  Home  industry  was  a  favorite  sub- 
ject for  her  husband's  speech  and  endeavor,  and  his  wife 
was  a  beautiful  exemplification  of  his  highest  ideals,  for  she 
spun  and  wove,  embroidered  and  crocheted  her  own  adorn- 
ments, as  well  as  those  which  enriched  her  home. 

Mrs.  Smith  labored  in  the  Nauvoo  Temple  and  in  the  old 
Endowment  House,  where  she  was  called  to  assist  Sister 
Eliza  R.  Snow  in  Utah's  early  days;  and  she  has  rarely 
missed  one  day  in  the  Salt  Lake  Temple  since  its  opening. 
It  is  a  lovely  and  an  inspiring  sight  to  see  this  high  priest- 
ess of  righteousness  arrayed  in  her  simple  white  gown  of 
home-made  silk,  her  dark  eyes  still  bright,  her  fair,  deli- 

28  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I  .A. 

cate  face  crowned  with  lustrous  bands  of  shining'  white  hair, 
her  finely-shaped  head,  with  its  rich,  white  lace  draping,  held 
erect,  as  her  stately  figure  moves  down  the  long  aisle.  The 
sweet  smile  of  welcome  greets  all  alike  in  its  impartial  gra- 
ciousness.  She  is  indeed  the  Elect  Lady,  and  wisdom  and 
peace  crown  her  days. 



Retrenchment    among   the    older    women. — Senior    and   Junior    De- 

WHEN  some  temple  or  pyramid  is  to  be  built  by  hu- 
man hands,  the  builder  ponders  long-  as  to  its  de- 
tails. His  plans  are  studiously  drawn.  His  materials  are 
sought  with  reference  to  the  exact  place  which  they  are  to 
occupy.  If  the  building  is  to  be  massive,  he  selects  with 
care  his  foundation  stones.  He  is  not  satisfied  with  the 
recommendation  of  his  workmen,  he  pays  a  visit  to  the 
quarry  for  his  own  eyes  to  see,  his  own  hands  to  select. 
He  examines  the  mountain  ledges  to  discover,  if  he  can, 
the  choicest  and  soundest  stone  for  the  first  course  which 
is  to  be  laid  deep  in  the  earth.  And  how  great  is  his  anx- 
iety as  the  workmen  uncover  some  huge  stone,  to  see  with 
what  temper  it  will  bear  the  blow  of  chisel  and  hammer! 
For  on  these  stones  is  to  rest  the  superstructure  which 
shall  rise  into  the  clouds,  and  carry  with  each  uplifting- 
course,  strength,  grace  and  beauty.  Care  in  the  details 
of  the  whole  is  necessary,  but  upon  the  strength  of  his 
foundation  shall  rest  the  security  of  his  temple. 

The  foundation  of  any  great  nation  or  people  is  al- 
ways laid  by  strong  and  mighty  men  and  women.  Only 
such  have  the  disposition  and  the  capacity  to  meet  and 
overcome  the  tremendous  obstacles  which  the  beginning 
of  things  entails. 

The  Gospel  is  interwoven  closely  with  mingled  threads 
of  democratic  and  republican  principles;  or,  rather,  it  is 
carefully  constructed  of  the  best  elements  of  individualism 
and  communism.  The  work  of  establishing-  the  Church 
was  not  accomplished  alone  by  Joseph  Smith;  he  was  sup- 

30  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

ported  and  assisted  by  a  group  of  as  strong-  and  mighty 
souls  as  ever  dwelt  in  the  flesh — both  men  and  women. 
They  were  of  powerful  mold,  fit  to  bear  up  the  tremen- 
dous weight  of  the  superstructure  of  the  work  of  the  Dis- 
pensation of  the  Fulness  of  Times.  So  it  was  with  the 
establishment  of  the  work  of  the  Young-  Ladies'  Mutual 
Improvement.  Brig-ham  Young-  and  Eliza  R.  Snow  were 
the  corner  stones  of  this  movement.  But  there  were  other 
powerful  spirits  who  were  among  the  foundation  stones. 
We  who  study  the  lives  and  characters  of  these  pioneer 
workers  are  more  and  more  impressed  with  this  fact, 
as  time  and  perspective  give  us  better  chances  to  see  them 
as  they  were.  "There  were  giants  in  those  days." 

It  would  seem,  in  reviewing  the  events  and  records 
of  that  time,  that  the  thought  of  retrenchment  was  upper- 
most in  the  minds  of  the  leaders  of  the  people. 

President  Young  was  not  satisfied  with  the  efforts  of 
his  daughters  alone  in  this  direction,  but  was  bent  on  estab- 
lishing a  society  which  should  encourage  all  the  young 
girls  in  the  Church  to  retrench  from  foolish  habits,  and  to 
secure  testimonies,  as  they  studied  the  Gospel.  Not  only 
were  the  girls  in  need  of  wise  "retrenchments,"  but  the 
older  sisters  also  were  spending  much  needless  time  in  the 
cooking  and  serving  of  meals  and  especially  were  they  ex- 
travagant in  the  giving  of  banquets  to  their  friends,  each 
one  vieing  with  the  other  in  the  preparation  of  elaborate 
feasts.  Among  the  leading  women  of  the  Church,  there  was 
none  who  possessed  more  force  and  determination,  or  had 
greater  zeal  to  carry  out  the  commandments  of  the  Lord, 
than  had  Sister  Mary  Isabella  Home.  Once  a  saint,  al- 
ways a  saint;  and  once  a  truth,  always  a  truth,  was  the 
motto  of  her  life. 

To  this  noble  and  good  woman,  President  Young 
committed  a  grave  trust.  In  the  fall  of  1869,  before  the 


first  organization  of  the  Young-  Ladies  had  been  effected 
in  his  own  parlor,  President  Young:  and  party  were  mak- 
ing a  tour  of  southern  Utah.  He  noticed  that  wherever  the 
party  went  great  preparations  were  made  for  their  entertain- 
ment: the  sisters  were  necessarily  kept  at  home  instead 
of  going  to  meeting  to  receive  spiritual  inspiration  and 
encouragement  from  their  leaders. 

Sister  Home  was  at  that  time  visiting  her  son,  Bish- 
op Home  of  Gunnison.  When  the  President  arrived  in 
Gunnison,  he  found  the  same  condition  that  had  been  noted 
elsewhere,  so  looking  at  M.  Isabella  Home,  he  said: 

Sister  Home,  I  am  going  to  give  you  a  mission,  to 
begin  when  you  return  to  your  home — the  mission  of 
teaching  retrenchment  among  the  wives  and  daughters  of 
Israel.  It  is  not  right  that  they  should  spend  so  much 
time  in  the  preparation  of  their  food  and  the  adornment 
of  their  bodies,  and  neglect  their  spiritual  education. 

Sister  Home  felt  the  great  responsibility  of  this  mis- 
sion and  modestly  replied  that  she  ''could  not  undertake 
it."  However,  it  was  placed  upon  her;  and  shortly  after 
returning  to  Salt  Lake,  she  invited  Sister  E.  R.  Snow  and 
Sister  Margaret  T.  Smoot  to  go  with  her  to  have  an  inter- 
view with  President  Young,  during  which  he  entered  more 
fully  into  the  subject  and  gave  them  instructions  as  to  the 
proper  steps  to  take  to  effect  an  organization.  In  accord- 
ance with  these  instructions  a  preliminary  meeting  of  the 
older  sisters  was  held  at  the  home  of  Sister  Home  in  the 
Fourteenth  ward  to  which  were  invited  twelve  branch  pres- 
idents of  the  Relief  Society.  An  informal  organization  was 
effected  at  this  time,  and  there  was  considerable  interest  man- 
ifested by  the  older  women.  Though  no  record  has  been  pre- 
served of  them,  we  learn  from  the  minutes  of  the  first 
public  meeting,  in  May,  1870,  that  eight  of  these  meetings 
were  held  through  the  winter, 


HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Very  soon  after  this  followed  the  public  organization 
of  the  senior  and  junior  departments  of  the  Retrenchment 
Associations.  It  will  be  seen  that  Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow 
had  direct  and  detailed  charge  of  all  the  work,  she  being 
especially  interested  in  the  junior  departments.  With  her 
was  associated,  as  always,  Aunt  Zina  D.  Young".  But  the 
mission  of  retrenchment  among"  the  older  sisters  was  com- 
mitted entirely  to  Sister  M.  I.  Home.  At  first  the  rule 
was  to  give  each  president,  in  either  the  senior  or  junior 
department,  six  counselors.  This  rule  was  finally  aban- 
doned, but  it  was  of  great  service  in  the  inception  of  the 

It  was  in  the  latter  part  of  May  that  the  first  public 
meeting  was  held,  and  as  we  have  the  full  minutes  of  that 
historic  gathering,  they  will  be  here  introduced. 

This  meeting,  as  hundreds  of  subseqiient  meetings 
of  the  sisters,  was  held  in  that  well-known  gathering  place 




in  the  center  of  Salt  Lake  City,    the  Fourteenth  ward  as- 
sembly hall. 

MINUTES     OF    THE     NINTH     MEETING    OF      THE    LADIES'    CO-OP- 

Held  at  the  Fourteenth  ward  assembly  hall,  May  28th, 

The  meeting-  was  called  to  order  by  Mrs.  M.  I. 
Home.  Mrs.  Zina  D.  Youngf  was  nominated  as  president- 
ess  of  the  meeting",  and  Mrs.  Zina  Williams  (Card)  as  sec- 

Choir  sang",     On  the  Mountain  Tops  Appearing","  etc. 

Prayer  by  Mrs.  M.I.   Home. 

Choir  sang-,  "We  Thank  Thee,  O  God,  for  a  Proph- 
et," etc. 

Mrs.  Eliza  Dunford  read  the  minutes  of  the  former 
meeting-,  which  were  accepted. 

Sister  Zina   D.    Young-  then   said  that   we  had  met  to 

34  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  J.  A. 

serve  God,  that  she  was  happy  to  see  so  many  of  the  sis- 
ters tog-ether.  She  stated  that  the  Female  Retrenchment 
Society  had  never  been  organized  in  public;  that  they  had 
met  at  Sister  Home's  and  organized  there,  but  it  was  nec- 
essary to  do  so  in  public.  She  then  presented  Mrs.  Mary 
Isabella  Home  as  presidentess  of  the  Ladies'  Co-operative 
Retrenchment  Association.  Unanimously  accepted.  Sis- 
ter Home  said  as  she  was  called  upon  to  act  as  president- 
ess  of  the  society,  she  would  try  to  do  her  duty.  She  had 
no  desire  to  do  anything  else.  She  desired  an  interest  in 
the  faith  and  prayers  of  all  her  sisters.  That  she  had  no 
ambition  to  be  placed  in  such  a  position;  but  with  the  help 
of  the  Lord,  and  so  many  good  sisters  to  back  her,  she 
would  do  her  best.  She  then  selected  her  four  counselors, 
viz.,  Miss  Eliza  R.  Snow,  Mrs.  Zina  D.  Young,  Mrs.  Mar- 
garet T.  Smoot,  and  Mrs.  Sarah  M.  Kimball.  They  were 
then  presented  by  the  president  of  the  meeting  and  unani- 
mously accepted. 

Sister  Zina  D.  Young  said  she  wanted  to  speak  on 
another  subject.  It  was  about  the  Young  Ladies'  depart- 
ment, the  object  of  which  was  to  retrench  in  dress,  and 
to  be  reasonable  and  modest  in  all  things.  Not  to  run 
headlong  after  Gentile  fashions,  but  to  set  a  good  example 
in  Israel.  For,  she  said,  we  do  not  realize  what  we  are 
here  for,  and  the  greatness  of  the  work  in  which  we  are 
engaged.  She  then  presented  Mrs.  Ella  Young  Empey  as 
presidentess  of  the  Young-  Ladies'  department.  Also  her 
counselors,  which  were  as  follows:  Mrs.  Emily  Y.  Claw- 
son,  Mrs.  Zina  Y.  Williams,  Mrs.  Maria  Y.  Dougall,  Miss 
Caroline  Young,  Miss  Etidora  Young,  and  Miss  Phebe 
Young.  They  were  unanimously  accepted. 

Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow  then  said  she  wished  to  make 
a  few  remarks  with  regard  to  the  Young  Ladies'  depart- 
ment. It  was  President  Young- 's  sug-gestion,  because  he 
thought  they  would  have  more  influence,  as  the  reform 
was  to  consist  not  only  in  table  retrenchment,  but  in  the 
trimming's,  and  trailing  dresses,  also  short  ones.  That  the 
sisters,  when  they  begin  to  retrench  in  long  dresses,  might 
not  shorten  them  so  that  modesty  blushes.  And  in  run- 
ning from  Babylon,  they  must  not  run  so  fast  that  they 
get  beyond  Jerusalem.  If  the  angels  were  to  come  in  our 


midst,  how  would  they  be  able  to  distinguish  us  from  the 
Gentiles?  We  dress  the  same,  and  too  often  act  the  same. 
We  must  be  in  earnest  in  our  generation;  it  is  too  late  in 
the  day  to  sleep.  Sisters,  we  have  everything  to  encour- 
age us  in  this  work.  Said  she  met  with  a  society  at  Wil- 
low Creek,  day  before  yesterday,  and  that  they  were  alive 
in  the  work.  She  feared,  however,  we  were  taking  too 
much  time,  as  the  funeral  services  of  the  father  of  Apostle 
Taylor  would  be  held  here  at  three  o'clock.  Apostle  Tay- 
lor had  said  if  he  had  known  of  the  meeting  he  would  have 
made  different  arrangements. 

Sister  Zina  D.  Young  presented  Miss  Susa  Young  as 
general  reporter  of  the  society's  meetings.  Accepted. 

Sister  Phoebe  Woodruff  then  said  she  came,  not  ex- 
pecting to  speak,  but  she  was  glad  to  see  so  many  together. 
That  it  speaks  well  for  the  sisters.  That  she,  for  one, 
wished  to  do  all  that  she  could.  And  who  of  us  did  not 
wish  to  be  ready  when  Jesus  Christ  again  comes  on  the 
earth?  That  she  felt  as  Sister  Young  had  said,  that  none 
of  us  realize  what  we  are  here  for.  That  the  sisters  should 
not  be  backward  in  coming  to  meetings,  and  doing  the  lit- 
tle things  that  God  requires  at  our  hands.  Prayed  the 
Lord  to  bless  them  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ. 

The  meeting  was  then  adjourned  till  two  weeks  from 
that  day. 

Choir  sang,  "Praise  God  from  Whom  all  Blessings 

Benediction  by  Miss  Eliza  R.  Snow. 

ZINA  Y.  WILLIAMS,  secretary. 
SUSA  YOUNG,  reporter. 

It  is  good  for  us  to  study  the  words  and  acts  of  those 
early  days.  The  spirit  of  worldly  pleasure  and  vain  fash- 
ions was  rapidly  creeping  into  the  ranks  of  the  daughters 
of  Zion.  We  women  are  no  better  than  we  should  be  to- 
day, nay,  nor  half  as  good;  but  can  the  mind  picture 
where  we  should  have  been,  if  the  training  and  check 
of  these  associations  had  not  been  given?  No  one  will 

36  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

deny  that  the  women  of  the  Church  have  been  magnif- 
icently disciplined  by  their  various  organizations,  begin- 
ning with  the  Relief  Society;  and  it  would  be  a  much 
easier  thing-  for  a  great  reform  movement  to  sweep  through 
our  midst  today  than  it  was  thirty-five  years  ago.  All  in 
all,  there  is  much  to  encourage  the  sociologist  in  the  steady 
improvement  and  progress  of  the  women  of  the  Church. 
It  would  be  a  blind  if  not  an  ungenerous  historian  who 
would  not  consider  the  cheering  conditions  which  obtain 
among  us  today  as  the  result  of  these  early  struggles. 

The  principle  of  evolution  is  as  true  of  organizations 
as  of  any  other  field  of  activity.  It  is  as  impossible  for  a 
great  movement  to  spring  into  active  being  fully  developed 
and  perfected  as  it  would  be  for  a  fruit  to  spring  out  of  a 
tree  without  leaf,  bud  and  blossom  to  precede  it.  It  was 
so  with  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  The  one  thought  of  simpler 
dress,  simpler  food,  simpler  habits  of  life  and  speech  first 
impressed  the  girls;  but  the  spiritual  meaning  of  all  these 
things  grew  with  its  growth  and  the  leaves  began  to  put 
forth,  the  slender  stem  enlarged,  the  blossoms  hung  under 
the  leaves,  and  now  the  fruit  ripens  yearly  upon  the 
spreading  branches  for  the  people  to  partake  of  and  be  re- 

i  Following  the  public  organization,  the  sisters  went  from 
ward  to  ward  in  Salt  Lake  City,  organizing  the  young  ladies 
in  Junior  Retrenchment  Associations.  Other  towns  and 
communities  also  took  up  the  spirit  of  the  times,  and  Young 
Ladies'  Retrenchment  Associations  began  to  multiply. 
There  are  some  records  of  these  early  efforts  now  accessible, 
and  they  will  be  treated  in  a  later  chapter.  It  will  be  no- 
ticed, however,  that  the  branch  of  the  work  among  the  older 
sisters,  termed  the  Senior,  or  General,  Retrenchment  Asso- 
ciation, was  confined  to  the  one  large  organization  in  Salt 
Lake  City,  under  the  presidency  of  Sister  Home.  Thus  it 


came  about  that  the  general  idea  and  purpose  of  retrench- 
ment centered  gradually  around  the  young  women  of  Zion. 

The  minutes  of  the  second  public  meeting  show  that  the 
officers  of  the  newly  organized  Young  Ladies'  Retrenchment 
Associations  brought  their  records  and  reports  for  the  meet- 
ings of  the  Senior  department.  One  reason  for  this  was  that 
these  two  associations  were  identical  in  structure  and  pur- 
pose, were  organized  at  about  the  same  date,  and  for  a  time, 
at  least,  were  so  closely  interwoven  that  they  may  well  be 
studied  as  companion  associations. 

The  second  and  best  reason  why  the  girls  came  to  the 
Fourteenth  ward  was  that  thus  far  there  were  no  stake  or 
general  organizations  in  any  of  the  auxiliary  societies.  So 
the  semi-monthly  meeting  of  the  Senior  department  of  the 
Retrenchment  Associations  of  the  Fourteenth  ward  was  the 
only  general  meeting  of  the  women  in  the  Church. 

The  following  are  extracts  from  the  minutes  of  the  second 
public  meeting  of  the  two  branches  in  combined  session: 


Meeting  called  to  order  by  Sister  M.I.  Home. 

Choir  sang  "Do  What  is  Right,"  etc. 

Prayer  by  Sister  Phoebe  Woodruff. 

Choir  sang  "We  Thank  Thee,O  God,  fora  Prophet,"  etc. 

Sister  M.  I.  Home  said  she  wished  to  nominate  two 
more  sisters  as  her  counselors,  namely,  Sister  Phoebe  Wood- 
ruff, and  Sister  Bathsheba  W.  Smith,  who  were  unanimously 

Minutes  of  the  last  meeting  read  by  Miss  Lydia  Young, 
secretary,  and  accepted. 

Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow  said  there  had  been  other  branches 
of  the  Young  Ladies'  department  organized,  which  she 
wished  to  present  to  the  meeting  as  follows:  Miss  Julia  Home, 
pr-esident  of  the  Fourteenth  ward  department;  Miss  Jennie 
Seaman,  Miss  Annie  Taylor,  Miss  Harriet  Taylor,  Mrs. 

38  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Beulah  Beatie,  Miss  Sophia  Taylor,  Miss  Georgiana  Fox, 
counselors;  Mrs.  Isabella  Pratt,  secretary. 

Resolutions  of  said  department  read  by  Miss  Julia 
Home,  president,  and  accepted.  Article  read  by  Sister  Bath- 
sheba  W.  Smith  from  a  Boston  paper. 

Sister  Zina  Y.  Williams  then  read  an  article  from  the 
first  department  of  the  Young-  Ladies'  Association.  Article 
read  by  Miss  Susa  Young-  of  her  own  composition. 

A  meeting:  having:  been  org-anized  in  the  Fifteenth  ward, 
Sister  Snow  presented  Miss  Sarah  Russell  as  president  of  the 
Fifteenth  ward  department;  Mrs.  Janet  Grigg-s,  Miss  Janet 
Swan,  Mrs.  Lucy  Russell,  Miss  Mary  Wright,  Miss  Sarah 
Price,  and  Miss  Mary  Greenig-,  counselors;  Mrs.  Bell  Guth- 
rie,  secretary.  Resolutions  read  by  Mrs.  Bell  Guthrie;  also 
an  article  from  the  pen  of  Sister  S.  M.  Kimball  descriptive  of 
her  travels  in  California. 

Sister  Home  said  she  was  pleased  to  meet  with  the 
sisters  ag'ain  after  an  absence  of  three  weeks .  She  was  very 
much  pleased  to  hear  the  minutes  and  articles  read  by  the 
young"  ladies.  While  on  her  visit  north,  she  heard  many  say 
they  had  read  the  papers,  and  learned  of  the  success  of  the 
meeting's.  Some  thought  they  would  carry  the  retrench- 
ment too  far,  others  thought  it  an  excellent  thing-,  if  properly 
carried  out.  She  then  g"ave  a  brief  account  of  her  trip 

After  some  days  of  travel,  they  went  to  Richmond;  held 
a  meeting-,  thence  to  Smithfield,  and  held  a  meeting-  and  par- 
took of  a  sumptuous  dinner  prepared  for  them  in  the  Smith - 
.field  hall.  Then  drove  to  Log-an,  stayed  two  days  and  held 
meeting's.  After  meeting"  on  the  second  day,  accepted  an  in- 
vitation to  go  to  Providence,  a  distance  of  about  two  miles. 
Then  returned  to  Log-an,  and  attended  a  party  in  the  evening". 
Arrived  in  Box  Elder  next  day,  then  rode  over  to  Og-den,  and 
took  the  cars  for  home,  where  all  arrived. 

Sister  Snow  said  although  this  was  a  Retrenchment 
meeting,  she  wished  to  speak  to  the  Relief  Society;  said  she 
was  very,  very  sorry  to  hear  that  some  of  the  wards  had 
been  raffling  quilts,  etc.  She  said  the  society  was  first 
organized  by  Joseph  Smith;  it  was  designed  to  be  a  sacred 
and  holy  organization,  and  to  save  souls — to  improve  the 
habits,  feelings  and  thoughts  of  those  connected  with  it.  It 


should  have  nothing  demoralizing  in  it;  said  she  did  not  think 
God  would  bless  money  for  the  poor  obtained  by  unrighteous 
means.  She  would  just  as  soon  play  cards  for  money  as  to 
raffle  for  it.  She  wished  to  say  to  the  presidents  of  the  Re- 
lief Societies  that  President  Young  denounced  raffling.  If 
mothers  set  the  example  of  raffling,  they  need  not  expect 
their  children  to  increase  iii  goodness.  We  care  more  for 
the  morals  of  the  society  than  the  relief  of  the  poor.  Said 
she  would  rather  possess  one  shilling  with  the  blessing  of 
God  upon  it,  than  to  have  thousands  that  he  did  not  sanction. 
If  our  consciences  are  founded  on  the  Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ, 
they  will  not  yield  to  unholy  things.  If  there  are  sisters 
who  hold  office  here,  let  them  speed  the  work  of  God;  they 
should  not  do  that  which  has  been  disapproved  by  proper 
authorities.  The  evil  one  is  always  on  the  alert  to  lead  us 
astray.  The  love  of  money  is  the  root  of  all  evil.  We  had 
better  go  without,  than  to  get  means  unrighteously.  We 
live  in  a  day  of  revelation,  and  it  is  our  privilege  to  know 
the  mind  and  will  of  our  Father,  and  we  need  not  be  in  the 
dark;  for  there  are  ways  by  which  we  can  be  instructed.  We 
have  God's  Spirit  and  agency  at  our  head;  there  is  a  way 
appointed  by  which  we  may  know  the  law  and  will  of  God. 
She  knew  that  it  was  the  wish  of  all  the  sisters  to  do  all  the 
good  they  could  and  obey  God's  laws.  Said  she  felt  deeply 
on  this  point.  Let  us  be  faithful;  we  have  the  power  of  God 
in  our  midst;  then,  sisters,  let  us  be  up  and  doing. 

Sister  Bathsheba  W.  Smith  said  she  coincided  with  what 
Sister  Snow  had  said;  she  knew  it  was  not  the  President's 
wish  to  have  raffling  carried  on  anywhere,  especially  in  the 
Relief  Society;  said  we  must  sustain  him  by  faith,  and  also 
by  works,  and  God  will  sustain  us,  and  we  wrill  be  blessed. 

Mrs.  Zina  D.  Young  said  her  feelings  corresponded  with 
what  had  been  said  concerning  the  practice  of  raffling;  said 
we  must  do  little  by  little,  if  we  wished  to  be  saved;  this  is 
what  we  want;  our  deeds  and  actions  should  coincide  with 
what  we  preach.  When  we  follow  the  example  of  the  world 
we  are  not  keeping  the  commandments  of  God.  We  have  a 
more  noble  purpose  than  following  the  vain,  foolish  fashions 
of  the  world.  It  is  for  us  to  walk  in  the  footsteps  of  our 
Heavenly  Father.  May  his  Holy  Spirit  be  iipon  us.  May 
the  peace  of  God  be  with  you. 

40  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Miss  Snow  then  presented  Mrs.  Jtilina  Smith  as  presi- 
dentess  of  the  Sixteenth  ward  department;  Mrs.  Sarah  E. 
Smith,  Miss  Margaret  A.  Winegar,  Mrs.  Mary  J.  Taylor, 
Miss  Elizabeth  M.  Yates,  Miss  Mary  A.  Riser,  Miss  Effie  L. 
Minkler,  counselors;  and  Mrs.  Caddie  McKean,  secretary. 
Unanimously  accepted.  Resolutions  of  said  department  were 
read  by  the  presidentess,  Mrs.  Julina  Smith. 

Sister  Keaton,  who  spoke  next,  made  remarks  that  were 

Sister  Margaret  T.  Smoot  said  her  heart  rejoiced  to  see 
the  movement  taken,  and  would  be  glad  to  see  the  day  when 
the  daughters  of  Zion  should  be  known  by  the  dress  they 
wear.  Said  she  felt  that  the  time  had  come  and  felt  to  re- 
joice that  steps  had  been  taken  that  would  unite  us,  that  our 
examples  may  be  worthy  of  imitation.  Said  she  was  in  a 
store,  not  long  ago,  and  asked  one  of  the  brethren  who  was 
clerking  if  he  thought  the  retrenchment  was  taking  hold.  He 
said  he  thought  it  was;  said  our  sisters  were  working  by  ex- 
ample as  well  as  precept.  She  urged  us  to  press  forward 
and  not  let  our  young  sisters  go  ahead  of  us  in  this.  She 
said  the  center  stake  of  Zion  would  be  the  place  where  our 
fashions  would  originate.  Said  she  had  visited  some  of  the 
settlements  south;  the  people  rejoiced  in  the  good  work. 
Said  she  felt  President  Young's  daughters  would  be  pat- 
terned after.  Asked  God  to  bless  the  young  sisters  and 
to  bless  all. 

Sister  East  said  she  felt  God  would  bless  her  young 
sisters;  said  her  heart  was  filled  with  praise  to  see  them  get 
up  and  read  their  resolutions .  She  had  noticed  a  great  many 
of  the  sisters, who  have  been  to  the  House  of  the  Lord,  wear- 
ing their  dresses  low  in  the  neck;  she  knew  all  the  saints 
of  God  would  see  that  she  was  not  honoring  the  command- 
ments given  her  by  God,  if  she  did  these  things.  She  also 
quoted  a  few  of  Paul's  sayings  with  regard  to  cutting  the 
hair;  she  was  taught  that  her  hair  was  the  greatest  orna- 
ment she  could  wear,  it  was  given  as  a  glory  to  women,  etc. 


Other  speakers  were  Sisters  Mary  Ann  Pratt,  Eleanor 
Pratt,  Sarah  Phelps  and  Mercy  Thompson. 

Choir  sang,  "I  Saw  Another  Angel  Fly." 
Benediction  by  Sister  Smith. 



What  a  worthy  cause  was  this:  to  engage  the  best  efforts 
of  these  heroines  of  Mormonism!  What  greater  field  for  their 
activities  than  this  broad  and  noble  one  of  establishing  or- 
ganizations wherein  the  women  of  a  whole  people,  both  young 
and  old,  should  find  time  and  place  for  the  development  of 
the  God-given  gifts  within  them;  associations  where  the 
spirit  and  soul  should  be  of  paramount  importance;  where 
the  social  instinct  was  made  active  through  the  mingling 
of  all  classes,  the  mind  and  the  spirit  cultivated  through 
proper  exercise;  where  all  that  was  ennobling  was  encour- 
aged, while  that  which  was  degrading  and  corrupting  was 
recognized  and  battled  against  in  a  common  struggle  for  re- 
finement and  education!  That  the  girls  who  undertook  this 
novel  and  exacting  yoke  were  in  earnest,  and  that  they  were 
ready  to  set  about  their  work  with  very  definite  objects  in 
view,  is  amply  testified  by  an  examination  of  the  various 
resolutions  which  were  prepared  as  a  sort  of  informal  consti- 
tution and  by-laws  of  the  local  associations  in  all  parts  of  the 
Church.  The  minutes  of  some  of  those  far-away  local  ses- 
sions are  also  extremely  interesting,  as  indicating  the 
earnestness  with  which  the  girls  were  taking  this  new  and 
untried  flight  into  the  mental  and  spiritual  world.  It 
will  be  profitable  to  examine  later  the  resolutions  and 
minutes  of  these  local  beginning's  of  the  Mutual  Improve- 
ment work. 



When  a  woman's  life  runs  along  in  a  smooth  domestic 
course  with  nothing  outside  of  the  four  walls  of  home-life 
to  mark  its  progress,  it  is  easy  to  record  the  simple  story 
thereof;  but  when  it  has  been  as  crowded  with  private  and 
public  acts  as  was  the  life  of  Sister  Home,  the  historian 

42  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

with  small  space  at  command  hesitates,  appalled  at  the 
task  of  selecting"  the  necessary  and  vital  facts — those  most 
worth  recording-.  The  life  of  Mary  Isabella  Home  was  so 
full  of  color  and  incident,  and  that,  too,  of  the  noblest  and 
best,  that  much  of  real  importance  must  be  left  unsaid  in 
the  narrow  confines  of  this  book.  But  it  is  imperative 
that  the  main  facts  connected  with  the  histories  of  the 
pioneer  women  who  were  associated  with  the  beginning"  of 
the  Mutual  Improvement  work  shall  be  put  on  record  as  a 
lesson  to  the  youth  of  Israel. 

Mary  Isabella  Hales  was  born  November  20,  1818,  in 
England,  in  the  town  of  Rainham,  Kent.  Her  parents  were 
of  the  vigorous,  sound-minded  middle  class,  and  their 
children  were  brought  up  with  the  sober  and  sane  lessons 
of  self-restraint  well  drilled  into  them.  Little  Mary  was 
of  a  spiritual  turn  of  mind,  and  at  as  early  an  age  as  eleven 
years,  was  a  devoted  reader  and  student  of  the  Bible. 
In  1832,  her  parents  removed  to  "Upper  Canada,"  bringing 
with  them  a  family  of  seven.  Mary  Isabella  was  the 
eldest  child,  and  as  her  mother  was  in  delicate  health,  the 
thirteen  year  old  girl  was  burdened  with  the  heavier  cares 
of  the  family.  She  was  married  to  Joseph  Home  on  the 
9th  of  May,  1836  A  few  weeks  after  the  marriage  rumors 
of  a  strange  religion,  and  a  strange  young"  prophet,  reached 
the  neighborhood.  The  Hales  family  were  then  living-  in 
the  country,  about  eight  miles  from  the  village  of  York,  in 
"Upper  Canada."  Elder  Parley  P.  Pratt  followed  close 
upon  these  rumors.  The  newly  married  couple  attended  the 
first  meeting  held  by  Elder  Pratt, and  both  were  ripe  for  con- 
version to  the  truth.  Sister  Home  was  baptized  in  July,  1836, 
by  Elder  Orson  Hyde.  From  that  hour,  the  home  of  the 
Homes  held  wide  its  hospitable  doors  for  the  entertainment 
of  all  traveling  elders  and  Saints. 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  summer  of  1837,  Sister  Home 
first  saw  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith;  he  came  to  her  hus- 
band's house,  and  she  entertained  him  at  her  own  hearth- 
stone. She  never  tired  of  telling  of  that  event.  No 
stronger  testimony  of  the  majesty  and  power  exerted  by 
that  mig-hty  man  of  God  can  be  adduced  than  the  force 
and  strength  of  the  impressions  which  he  made  upon  the 
great  men  and  women  who  had  but  to  know  him  to  love 


and  revere  him.  Sister  Home's  description  is  so  vivid  and 
convincing-,  that  it  is  here  given.  She  said: 

"On  shaking  hands  with  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  I 
received  the  Holy  Ghost  in  such  abundance  that  I  felt  it 
thrill  my  whole  system  from  the  crown  of  my  head  to  the 
soles  of  my  feet.  I  had  never  beheld  so  lovely  a  counte- 
nance; nobility  and  g'oodness  were  in  every  feature.  I  said 
to  myself,  'O  Lord,  I  thank  Thee  for  g; ranting-  me  the 
desire  of  my  heart  in  permitting  me  to  associate  with 
prophets  and  apostles.'  ' 

Sister  Home  was  also  well  acquainted  with  the  Patri- 
arch, Hyrum  Smith,  and  from  him,  later,  she  received  a 
patriarchal  blessing. 

The  young  couple  emigrated  to  Far  West  in  1838.4  In 
common  with  the  rest  of  the  Saints,  the  Homes  suffered, 
labored,  and  were  driven  from  place  to  place.  They  lived  in 
Nauvoo,  and,  while  there,  were  the  intimate  associates  of  the 
Prophet  and  his  family.  After  the  martyrdom,  they  shared 
the  troubles  and  persecutions  of  that  terrible  time.  They  came 
to  Utah  in  the  pioneer  year,  reaching"  here  October  6th, 
1847.  They  lived  in  the  Old  Fort,  until  the  husband  could 
build  a  home.  For  many  years  they  lived  in  the  Fourteenth 
ward,  and  there  Sister  Home  did  much  of  her  public  work. 
She  was  the  mother  of  fifteen  children,  four  of  whom  died  in 
infancy;  the  others  have  been  honored,  useful  members  of 
society  and  of  the  Church.  Almost  all  of  them  have  been 
leaders  in  some  capacity.  And  no  woman  in  this  Church 
had  more  occasion  to  thank  the  Lord  for  the  splendid  spirits 
which  drew  their  life  and  inspiration  from  her. 

Sister  Home  held  many  offices  of  trust  among"  her 
sisters.  She  was  one  of  the  members  of  the  original  Relief 
Society,  formed  in  Nauvoo  by  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith. 
From  the  early  days  in  LTtah  to  the  day  of  her  death,  she 
served  in  one  capacity  or  another  in  that  society.  She 
acted  as  counselor  to  Mrs.  Phoebe  Woodruff  in  the  Fourteenth 
ward  Relief  Society  for  a  number  of  years.  Then,  on 
December  12,  1867,  she  was  chosen  as  president  of  that 
Relief  Society.  This  was  a  surprise  and  a  trial,  as  she  was 
reserved  and  somewhat  timid  in  her  nature.  But  she  had 
never  learned  to  say  No  to  a  call  of  duty,  so  she  accepted  the 
trust,  and  went  bravely  forward.  Let  us  quote  from  a 

44  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

sketch  prepared  for  the  Representative  Women  of  Deseret,  as 
to  what  followed  this  event: 

"Under  the  wise  management  of  the  president,  the 
Fourteenth  ward  Relief  Society  increased  in  numbers,  great 
good  was  accomplished  in  the  relief  of  the  poor  and  afflicted 
and  means  multiplied  in  the  treasury.  A  two-story  brick 
building  was  erected  by  the  society,  part  of  which  was  rented 
for  a  store,  and  the  upper  floor  has  been  used  by  the  society 
for  meetings  ever  since.  The  society  also  built  and  owned  a 
good  granary,  with  a  quantity  of  wheat.  *  *  *  When 
President  Young  instructed  Sister  Snow  to  go  through  the 
Territory  and  organize  the  young  ladies  into  Mutual  Improve- 
ment Associations,  Mrs.  Home  was  called  to  assist.  She  has 
organized  many  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Associations,  also 
Primary  Associations . ' ' 

In  December,  1877,  Sister  Home  was  called  to  act  as 
stake  president  of  the  Relief  Society  in  the  Salt  Lake  stake 
of  Zion.  She  held  that  office  until  the  stake  was  divided 
into  six  stakes,  when  she  was  eighty-five  years  old.  She  was 
an  active  worker  in  the  interest  of  silk  raising,  and  was  for 
years  the  president  of  the  board  of  directors  for  the  Woman's 
Co-operative  Store  in  Salt  Lake  City.  She  was  an  active 
participant  in  securing  the  suffrage  for  women,  and  was 
chosen  more  than  once  to  offices  of  civil  trust.  She  was  a 
prominent  worker,  acting  as  chairman  of  the  executive  com- 
mittee of  the  Deseret  Hospital .  during  the  many  struggling 
years  of  that  pioneer  effort  of  the  women  of  Mormondom. 

We  have  seen  the  result  of  the  work  done  by  Mrs. 
Home  in  the  Senior  Retrenchment  Associations,  and  yet 
none  may  measure  the  profound  effect  of  the  example 
and  teachings  of  this  godly  woman.  Her  family  was 
large,  yet  she  found  time  to  travel,  organize,  expound  the 
Scriptures,  and  to  bless  and  comfort  thousands.  She  was 
economical  without  being  parsimonious  in  her  expenditures 
for  the  cause  of  righteousness;  she  was  hospitable  without 
being  lavish;  she  had  the  manner  of  a  duchess  without 
worldly  pride.  Surely  few  idle  words  ever  passed  her  lips, 
for  she  was  reticent  of  speech.  Her  face  was  a  living, 
radiant  sunbeam.  Its  smooth  lines  never  showed  the 
cankering  cares  of  distrust  in  God  or  in  her  fellow-men. 
She  was  almost  worshiped  by  her  husband  and  children; 


and  so  perfect  was  her  gift  of  government,  that  she  had 
not  only  no  need  to  speak  twice  to  her  children,  but  she 
rarely  had  to  speak  at  all,  after  they  grew  out  of  infancy. 
She  seemed  to  diffuse  righteousness,  as  a  flower  exhales  per- 
fume. Her  soul  was  an  open  book,  for  no  shadow  of  du- 
plicity marred  its  perfectness  or  its  peace;  and  she  had  the 
reward  of  a  simple  life,  living  without  remorse.  She  lived 
to  be  nearly  eighty-seven,  and  died  surrounded  by  her  de- 
voted sons  and  daughters.  If  any  one  would  know  the  re- 
ality of  filial  devotion,  let"  him  listen  to  the  sound  of  her 
name  upon  the  lips  of  one  of  her  children.  No  common 
soul  could  inspire  such  exalted  love  and  reverence. 

The  memory  of  this  good  woman  will  always  bring 
to  mind  the  medium-sized,  comely  figure,  neatly  and  taste- 
fully attired,  with  the  dark  hair  banded  over  the  brow, 
while  the  strands  were  braided  in  open  small  plaits  turned 
under  the  ear,  and  then  folded  under  the  pretty  black  lace  cap 
wrhich  she  wore  for  many  years.  The  bright  eyes  beamed 
with  heavenly  hope  and  peace.  She  was  a  convincing, 
earnest  speaker,  and,  when  strongly  moved ,  her  tones  thrilled 
with  the  eloquence  of  a  pure  and  devoted  love  for  truth. 
She  might  not  always  understand  the  poor  and  tempted 
sinner,  but  she  would  be  just,  no  matter  if  the  heavens  fell. 
Such  was  one  of  the  heroines  of  Mormonism;  yet  herein 
is  but  a  brief  picture  of  a  full  and  beautiful  life. 

Sister  Home  died  Aiig.  25,  1905.  The  funeral  services 
were  held  in  the  Salt  Lake  Assembly  Hall,  Aug.  29,  and 
were  marked  by  the  same  quiet,  peaceful  influence  that 
characterized  her  life. 


The  early  annals  of  this  people  are  crowded  with  the 
names  of  powerful  men  and  mighty  women,  some  of  them 
well  known  and  others  little  heard  of;  all  were  chosen  from 
eternity  to  perform  the  great  tasks  assigned  them  by  our 
Father.  Among  them  there  are  few  that  shine  with  such 
radiance  as  does  the  name  of  Emmeline  B.  Wells. 

Mrs.  Wells  was  born  in  Petersham,  Worcester  Co., 
Mass.,  February  29,  1828,  and  is  of  Puritan  descent.  Her 
forefathers,  the  Woodwards,  came  from  England,  to  Mas- 

46  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

sachusetts  Province,  township  of  Boston,  in  1630.  The  his- 
tory of  the  Woodward  family  is  exceedingly  interesting-;  and 
the  facts  relating  to  the  brilliant  military,  civil  and  profes- 
sional careers  of  the  Woodwards  have  been  verified  from  the 
best  authority.  They  came  from  Normandy  with  the  Nor- 
man invasion  to  England.  They  fought  in  the  battles  of 
Hastings,  Agincourt,  and  Edgehill,  and  won  such  renown 
from  the  king  as  to  receive  from  him  a  shield  of  pure  gold 
with  the  inscription  "Gentle  but  Brave,"  signifying  "The 
Soul  of  Honor;"  they  were  of  the  "court  elite."  Her 
mother's  maiden  name  was  Hare,  and  the  forebears  of  this 
distinguished  family  were  literary,  artistic  and  musical.  The 
military  and  patriotic  character  of  the  Woodwards  continued 
after  coming  to  America,  and  one  of  the  family,  Robert,  was 
killed  in  King  Philip's  war,  in  1675.  Her  own  grandfather 
fought  in  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  her  father  in  the  war  of 
1812,  while  the  Civil  War  had  its  scores  of  blue-coated  repre- 
sentatives . 

When  Mrs.  Wells  was  a  girl  of  thirteen,  her  mother,  a 
widow,  joined  the  Church,  taking  the  younger  children  with 
her,  and  among  them  was  her  spiritual  and  gifted  daughter 
Emmeline.  "Emmie,"  as  she  was  called,  was  exceedingly 
precocious,  and  was  even  then  a  literary  light  among  her 
friends  and  relations .  The  step  taken  by  mother  and  daugh- 
ter was  bitterly  resented  by  friends  and  associates,  and 
they  were  subjected  to  the  many  petty  persecutions  attend- 
ant upon  such  an  uncommon  and  unpopular  departure  from 
the  Puritan  standards.  Joining  the  Church  on  the  1st  of 
March,  1842,  Emmie  taught  school  one  term  in  the  town  of 
Orange,  Mass.,  and  at  the  age  of  sixteen  she  left  her  home 
and  mother,  to  go  to  Nauvoo,  arriving  there  early  in  March, 
1844.  Among  her  companions  en  route  from  Albany  were 
returning  missionaries  who  knew  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith, 
and  the  girl  listened  eagerly  to  the  conversation  and  descrip- 
tions given  of  him  by  his  devoted  followers;  especially  was 
she  delighted  at  the  promise  made  her  by  Mrs.  Mary  Snow 
Gates  to  introduce  her  to  the  Prophet .  When  the  steamboat 
drew  up  to  the  landing  at  Nauvoo,  she  saw  among  the  people 
assembled  on  the  landing,  a  magnificent  head  and  shoulders 
towering  above  the  assembled  crowd,  and  one  look  at  the 
inspiring  face  and  the  piercing  blue  eyes  convinced  the  girl 


that  here  was  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith.  As  soon  as  they 
were  landed,  he  went  among  the  people  shaking  hands  with 
each  one;  and  the  thrill  that  pervaded  the  girl's  system  at 
this  first  view  and  hand-clasp  is  held  in  vivid  remembrance 
to  this  day. 

Through  acquaintances  of  the  Prophet,  Emmeline  became 
familiar  with  members  of  his  household  and  often  saw  him. 
She  heard  him  preach  his  last  sermon  and  deliver  his  mem- 
orable speech  to  the  Nauvoo  Legion;  and  she  garnered  with 
wisdom  beyond  her  years  the  seed-thoughts  which  fell  from 
those  inspired  lips.  In  1845,  on  the  24th  of  February,  she 
became  the  plural  wife  of  the  presiding  bishop  of  the  Church, 
Newel  K.  Whitney.  They  were  sealed  by  Brigham  Young, 
and  from  that  time,  the  young  wife  was  in  daily  association 
with  the  leaders  of  the  Church.  At  the  hospitable  home  of 
the  bishop,  and  his  equally  famous  wife,  "Mother"  Ann 
Whitney,  Emmeline  learned  much;  and  she  absorbed  into 
her  very  soul  the  spirit  and  genius  of  Mormonism.  Once 
when  Bishop  Whitney  was  speaking  to  his  gifted  girl-wife, 
he  said,  "You'll  see  the  day  when  you'll  have  nothing  to  do 
but  sit  and  write."  That  was  in  the  summer  of  1845.  She 
was  stricken  in  common  with  the  people  at  the  terrible  death  of 
the  Prophet  and  Patriarch,  and  she  mourned  as  the  people 
mourned,  like  sheep  without  a  shepherd.  She  formed  one  of 
that  historic  company  under  the  shadow  of  the  bowery,  where 
Sidney  Rigdon  tried  to  persuade  the  Saints  to  accept  of  his 
leadership;  and  she  saw  what  they  all  saw,  the  mantle  of 
Joseph  fall  upon  Brigham  Young  as  that  great  leader  stepped 
to  the  platform  of  the  bowery  and  surprised  them  with  his 
presence.  She  heard  the  voice  of  "Joseph"  speaking,  as  it 
were,  through  the  mouth  of  "Brigham."  She  heard  those 
about  her,  as  she  stood  aloft  on  a  wagon -box,  saying  to  each 
other  in  awe-struck  tones — "See,  it  is  the  Prophet;  he  is  res- 
urrected." But  she  knew  then,  as  she  knows  now,  that  it 
was  not  the  Prophet,  for  he  was  dead.  She  accepted  this 
great  transfiguration  as  a  powerful  testimony  to  the  people 
that  Brigham  Young  was  the  divinely  appointed  successor, 
and  that  Joseph  Smith  was  present  in  the  spirit,  and  was 
pleased  with  him.  She  was  present  with  Mother  Whitney 
and  the  bishop  in  the  dread  winter  days  of  1845  that  fol- 
lowed, and  was  frequently  in  the  Temple,  when  the  crowded 


HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 






companies  were  daily  taken  through  that  sacred  house.  Here 
she  received  her  own  blessings.  She  was  present  at  the  noon 
meal,  and  listened  with  profound  eagerness  to  the  sober  and 
inspired  conversation  of  those  great  leaders,  sometimes  ten  or 
twelve  of  them  at  a  time,  as  they  sat  at  table  in  the  unfin- 
ished dining  room  over  the  tithing  office. 

She  crossed  the  Mississippi  on  the  ice  with  Mother  Whit- 
ney and  the  family,  February,  1846,  and  bore  with  her  sis- 
ters the  trials  and  burdens  of  that  enforced  march  across  the 
trackless  wilds  of  the  west.  She  taught  school  in  Winter 
Quarters,  also  a  Sunday  School,  having  as  pupils  the  sons 
and  daughters  of  the  leaders  of  the  Church.  On  September 
28,  1848,  she  reached  the  valley,  and  in  six  weeks  from  that 
time  her  eldest  daughter,  Isabel,  was  born  in  a  wagon  on 
the  Whitney  block,  on  the  ground  now  occupied  by  the  L. 
D.  S.  University. 

Bishop  Whitney  died  on  the  23rd  of  September,  1850, 
leaving  his  young  wife  with  two  little  children,  the  baby 
being  but  five  weeks  old.  The  two  wives  of  the  bishop  were 
always  very  congenial ,  and  to  this  day  the  name  of  ' '  Mother 
Ann  Whitney"  is  as  precious  and  honored  in  the  heart  of  Mrs. 
Wells  and  her  daughters  as  that  of  any  Hebrew  prophetess . 
During  the  summer  of  1852,  Mrs.  Wells  taught  school  in  the 
Twelfth  ward  of  this  city. 

Two  years  after  Bishop  Whitney's  death,  October  12, 
1852,  she  was  married  to  one  of  the  greatest  of  our  modern 
heroes  and  leaders — Daniel  H.  Wells,  friend  of  the  Prophet, 
and  later  the  counselor  of  President  Brigham  Young.  By 
President  Wells  she  had  three  daughters,  and  she  lived  out 
the  happy  and  burdened  life  of  a  pioneer  mother,  in  common 
with  all  her  associates.  But  Emmeline  was  different  from 
many  of  these,  for  all  her  life  she  had  loved  and  cherished  a 
heavenly  visitor  in  her  soul ;  it  was  the  muse  of  poetry !  When 
trouble  assailed  or  joy  exalted,  this  gifted  daughter  of  New 
England  sang  her  secret  melody,  and  secretly  hid  it  away. 
She  was  too  busy  to  repine,  too  blessed  to  regret.  But  in 
her  heart  there  ever  dwelt  one  star-like  thought:  she  would 
join  the  galaxy  of  the  immortals,  if  only  her  wings  were 
strong  and  sure.  Once  when  her  husband,  President  Wells, 
asked  his  frail  but  dauntless  young  wife  what  she  would  best 
like  as  her  life-work,  she  answered  promptly:  "To  be  the 

50  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

editor  of  a  magazine."  Time  was  to  be  her  friend;  she 
was  not  to  carry  her  unfulfilled  long-ing  into  eternity,  as  so 
many  others  have  done — she  was  to  enter  into  the  Promised 
Land,  at  least  for  a  season. 

In  1874,  Lulu  Greene  Richards,  the  young  editor  of  the 
new  woman's  paper,  "The  Woman's  Exponent,"  which  had 
been  started  under  the  patronage  of  Edward  L.  Sloan,  Presi- 
dent Brigham  Young,  Eliza  R.  Snow  and  others,  invited 
Mrs.  Wells  to  assist  her  in  the  work  of  developing  the  paper. 
It  was  the  first  western  publication  by  women  and  for 
women,  and  there  are  but  two  older  publications  of  its  class 
in  the  world,  these  being  the  Woman  s  Journal,  of  Boston, 
and  the  English  Woman' s  Review,  London.  Sister  Wells 
continued  as  associate  editor  until  July,  1877,  when  she 
assumed  the  position  of  editor-in-chief. 

This  new  venture  demanded  courage,  faith,  ability  and 
patience  from  its  editors  and  promoters;  but  it  must  be 
remembered  that  the  paper  had  Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow  for 
many  years  as  its  patron  saint  and  guardian,  which  will  pave 
the  way  for  that  other  historic  statement,  that  more  than  any 
other  woman,  Emmeline  B.  Wells  was  drawn  and  held  close 
to  that  great  organizer  and  leader.  Sister,  Wells  was  a 
private  secretary  to  her  in  the  early  days  of  Mutual  Improve- 
ment and  Primary  work;  and  she  was  her  bosom  companion 
and  friend  for  years,  as  she  was  and  is  the  closest  friend  and 
associate  of  hersiiccessors,  ZinaD.  H.  Young  and  Bathsheba 
W.  Smith.  It  is  but  justice  thus  to  state  this  enlightening 
fact;  for  more  than  any  other  woman,  Sister  Wells  has  car- 
ried along  through  the  years  the  spirit  and  genius  of  that 
master-mind  among  women,  Eliza  R.  Snow.  She  assidu- 
ously garnered  in  her  youth  the  wisdom  and  the  integrity 
which  brightens  her  mental  and  spiritual  labors  like  a  lumi- 
nous cloud  of  exceeding  beauty. 

From  the  day  when  Sister  Wells  entered  the  Exponent 
office  (then  located  in  the  old  building  where  the  Salt  Lake 
Herald  was  published)  till  the  present  time,  she  has  been 
closely  identified  with  the  public  work  of  this  Church.  Her 
hidden  gifts  of  poetry  and  literary  expression  blossomed  forth 
like  a  flower  first  kissed  by  the  sun,  and  her  fertile  pen  has 
touched  upon  every  issue,  past  and  present,  of  the  woman 
question.  She  has  written  more  than  any  other  Latter-day 


Saint  writer  of  her  sex,  and  has  done  it  in  a  sane,  dignified 
way.  For  thirty-three  years  she  has  been  sole  editor,  pub- 
lisher and  proprietor  of  the  ]\\)inan's  I^.vfiouent.  She  has 
encouraged  and  brought  out  many  present-day  writers;  she 
has  met  and  entertained  at  her  office  thousands  of  the 
strangers  within  our  gates,  both  great  and  small,  rich  and 
poor,  foreign  and  local.  Her  correspondents  have  numbered 
into  the  thousands,  and  among  them  have  been  such  as  Rose 
Elizabeth  Cleveland,  John  G.  Whittier,  the  Duchess  of 
Sutherland,  the  Princess  Gabrielle  Wiszniewska,  Duchess  De 
Luynes  and  her  brother,  the  Count,  Adeline  D.  T.  Whitney 
and  scores  of  others.  She  has  published  a  volume  of  poems 
entitled  "Musings  and  Memories,"  and  edited  "Songs  and 
Hymns  of  the  Wasatch,"  with  "Charities  and  Philanthro- 
pies," and  a  pamphlet  history  of  the  Relief  Society.  Her 
work  in  the  eastern  conventions  and  Woman's  Congresses 
would  form  a  small  volume  of  itself;  she  was  the  first  Mor- 
mon woman  sent  down  to  Washington  to  appeal  to  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States,  and  to  petition  Congress  on  the 
Mormon  question.  The  occasion  was  as  follows: 

In  November  of  1878,  she  was  instrumental  in  calling  a 
great  mass  meeting  of  the  women  of  Utah,  which  was  pre- 
sided over  by  Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow  herself.  This  was  one 
of  the  most  memorable  meetings  of  Mormon  women  on 
record.  Mrs.  Wells  prepared  the  resolutions  that  were 
voted  upon  by  that  large  assembly  of  women,  and  under  the 
direction  of  President  John  Taylor,  she  was  chosen  to  accept 
the  invitation  of  Susan  B.  Anthony  and  Sarah  Andrews  Spen- 
cer in  that  same  year  at  the  seat  of  government,  to  represent 
the  women  of  Utah.  She  selected  the  only  daughter  of  Sis- 
ter Zina  D.  Young,  Zina  Y.  Williams,  as  she  was  then 
known,  to  accompany  her;  and  together  they  visited  Wash- 
ington, appearing  before  the  committees  of  the  House  and 
the  Senate  to  plead  the  cause  of  the  women  and  children  who 
would  suffer  from  the  law  of  1862.  She  also  prepared  and 
presented  a  memorial  to  Congress  asking  for  the  repeal  of 
the  anti-polygamy  law  of  1862,  and  for  legislation  to  protect 
the  Mormon  women  and  children  of  Utah  Territory.  Num- 
berless times  she  has  attended  the  Woman's  Congresses  held 
in  Washington,  Omaha,  New  York,  Chicago,  Indianapolis, 
Des  Moines,  New  Orleans,  Minneapolis  and  other  cities,  and 

52  HISTORY   OF  Y.  L.  M.   I.  A. 

in  each  of  these  great  gatherings,  Mrs.  Wells  was  a  modest 
but  popular  figure.  She  proved  of  such  value  in  the  coun- 
cils of  the  women  of  this  nation  that  she  was  chosen  in  1899 
to  act  as  the  second  recording  secretary  of  the  National 
Council  of  Women.  She  was  an  intimate  friend  of  Elizabeth 
Cady  Stanton,  of  Lucy  Stone,  of  Julia  Ward  Howe,  Matilda 
Joslyn  Gage,  Frances  Willard,  Susan  B.  Anthony,  May 
Wright  Sewall  and  others. 

At  the  great  London  Conference  of  Women  held  in 
June,  1899,  Mrs.  Wells  was  a  speaker  and  appeared  at  the 
select  audience  held  in  Convocation  Hall,  Church  House, 
Deanery  of  Westminster  Abbey.  She  visited  historic  places 
while  in  England,  Scotland  and  France,  and  spent  an  eve- 
ning- with  Marie  Corelli  at  Stratford -on -A  von. 

Mrs.  Wells  served  for  several  years  as  vice-chairman  of 
the  Republican  state  committee,  and  she  is  a  devoted  poli- 
tician and  an  excellent  speaker.  She  was  a  member  of  the 
Constitutional  convention  of  1882,  and  is  still  an  active  par- 
ticipant in  the  political  affairs  of  the  state.  One  amusing  in- 
cident which  occurred  in  Atlanta,  Georgia,  at  the  W.  S.  A. 
convention  in  1895,  has  been  published  far  and  wide.  In  her 
address  at  the  Opera  House  in  that  city  upon  Utah's  being 
admitted  to  statehood  she  was  so  enthusiastically  applauded 
that  the  staid  Quaker,  Mis^  Anthony,  came  forward  and  em- 
braced her  upon  the  platform. 

Entirely  disproving  the  Osier  theory  about  old  age,  Mrs. 
Wells  has  performed  her  greatest  work — has  made  more  his- 
tory for  herself  and  for  the  Church  and  State  in  her  later  life, 
than  she  did  in  her  young  or  middle  life.  Her  children 
reared,  she  has  devoted  her  whole  life  to  the  public  good. 
She  has  been  a  living  encyclopaedia  of  information  on  all  sub- 
jects connected  with  the  cause  of  woman,  both  historical  and 
civil.  She  has  been  and  is  a  bureau  of  information  for  every 
association,  society  and  club  in  the  state.  It  is  a  liberal  edu- 
cation to  listen  to  her  conversation,  and  she  is  possessed  of 
some  of  the  rarest  traits  ever  given  to  woman.  She  is  sensi- 
tive without  smallness,  she  is  wise  without  narrowness,  and 
religious  without  bigotry.  She  is  a  tender,  loving  link  be- 
tween the  women  of  the  Church  and  those  without,  both  of 
whom  reverence  and  love  her  for  the  good  she  has  done. 


She  is  sarcastic  at  times,  not  to  say  caustic,  but  her  repent- 
ance follows  swift  on  the  heels  of  her  offense. 

If  you  would  know  what  hard  work,  indomitable  faith 
and  divine  intelligence  can  do  for  a  woman,  just  watch  '  'Aunt 
Em;"  see  her,  for  instance,  as  she  threads  her  way  across  a 
crowded  thoroughfare,  flouting-  all  assistance,  and  then  see 
her  emerge  on  the  other  side  of  the  street  to  hold  converse, 
perchance,  with  some  busy  politician  where  in  ten  minutes 
you  will  hear  the  fate  of  the  Republican  party  in  this  state 
cooked,  carved,  and  served,  in  a  most  delectable  way.  Ob- 
serve her  at  a  social  function — the  observed  of  all  observ- 
ers with  her  waving  white  hair  tucked  carelessly  about 
her  shapely  ear — her  delicate  gray  silk  trailing  behind  her 
slender  form,  as  she  moves  about  to  give  a  loving  greeting 
to  all  her  numberless  friends.  That  is  a  picture  of  old-time 
grace  and  refinement  that  will  not  soon  fade  from  the  mind . 
The  most  unusual  and  delightful  trait  about  Mrs.  Wells  is 
her  keen  sense  of  humor;  this  power  has  prolonged  her  life 
and  preserved  her  reason,  in  the  midst  of  crushing  trials, 
while  it  makes  her  a  delightful  companion  to  men  and  women 
alike.  If  one  were  to  sum  up  in  one  word  the  deepest  im- 
pression given  by  this  remarkable  woman,  it  would  be  done 
in  that  elusive  term  ' 'refinement."  She  is  exquisitely  deli- 
cate and  dainty,  in  her  writing,  her  living,  and  in  her  life. 
Such,  briefly,  is  the  woman  who  is  an  inspiration  to  her 
friends,  a  thorn  to  her  envious  associates,  and  "a  companion 
of  princes'-'  in  her  own  right. 


One  of  the  women  engaged  in  this  early  work  was,  as 
we  have  seen,  Sister  Margaret  T.  Smoot,  wife  of  President 
Abraham  O.  Smoot.  She  was  worthy  of  her  great  associ- 
ates. Tall  in  stature,  with  portly  form,  she  possessed  the 
dignity  and  proud  humility  which  characterizes  the  truly 
high  bred  woman. 

Born  in  Chester  district,  South  Carolina,  April  16,  1809, 
she  inherited  the  Scotch  determination  of  her  father,  Anthony 
McMeans,  who  emigrated  to  America  before  the  war  of  the 
Revolution.  He  was  fired  with  patriotic  zeal  in  the  crisis 

54  HISTORY   OF  Y.   L.   M.   I.  A. 

that  swept  over  the  country,  and  he  immediately  enlisted  in 
the  patriot  ranks  and  continued  in  the  struggle  until  the 
close  of  the  war.  Her  mother's  name  was  Hunter,  and  she 
was  of  Irish  birth.  Her  Grandfather  Hunter  served  in  the 
Revolutionary  war,  being"  an  intimate  friend  of  General 
Washington.  Her  husband,  Abraham  O.  Smoot,  came  of 
equally  patriotic  stock,  the  Smoot  family  of  Virginia  being- 
well  known  in  that  state's  history. 

"Ma"  Smoot,  as  she  was  lovingly  known  for  over  half 
her  life,  was  married  in  1834,  and  in  1837  she  and  her  hus- 
band went  to  Far  West,  Missouri.  From  that  time  they  par- 
took of  the  bitter  cup  of  mobbing-  and  persecution  which  was 
poured  out  upon  their  people. 

They  were  among  the  Utah  pioneers,  coming  in  the  fall  of 
1847.  They  settled  in  the  Twentieth  ward  of  Salt  Lake  City, 
where  Brother  Smoot  was  bishop  for  years;  he  also  served 
the  people  as  mayor  of  the  city  for  several  terms.  Sister 
Smoot  was  president  of  the  Twentieth  ward  Relief  Society. 

When  Bishop  Smoot  was  called  to  Provo,  he  was  con- 
siderably tried  by  the  sacrifice  involved;  but  "Ma"  was  his 
cheerful  counselor  and  inspirer,  and  she  imparted,  not  only 
to  him,  but  to  his  entire  family,  a  portion  of  her  own  brave 
faith  and  trust. 

"Pa"  Smoot  was  the  father  of  nearly  every  good  and 
great  enterprise  in  Utah  county,  but  every  one  knew  that 
while  he  administered  justice,  "Ma"  stood  by  his  elbow  to 
inculcate  mercy  and  peace.  The  people  and  the  family  re- 
vered Brother  Smoot,  but  they  almost  worshiped  Sister 
Smoot.  Her  strong  yet  gentle  influence  was  everywhere 
present,  and  none  loved  her  better  than  the  wives  and  chil- 
dren of  her  husband.  What  grander  tribute  could  be  paid  to 
a  mortal  or  an  immortal  woman! 

Sister  Smoot  was  associated  closely  with  Sisters  Eliza  R. 
Snow  and  Zina  D.  Young  in  every  plan  for  the  advancement 
of  women.  Her  voice  was  raised  in  the  first  convention  of 
women  in  Utah  in  1870  which  pleaded  for  the  right  of  equal 
suffrage  from  Congress.  She  was  identified  with  the  original 
Silk  Association,  and  was  an  officer  and  promoter  of  every 
phase  of  Relief  Society  work.  Small  wonder,  then,  that  she 
was  chosen  by  Sister  Snow  to  assist  in  the  work  of  establish- 
ing associations  for  the  mental  and  spiritual  welfare  of  the 


young  women  of  Zion.  Right  nobly  did  she  respond  to  the 
call,  and  later,  on  her  removal  to  Provo,  she  assumed  the  re- 
sponsibility of  the  work  in  that  district.  She  also  traveled 
much,  under  Sister  Snow's  direction,  throughout  the  Terri- 


Mrs.  Sarah  M.  Kimball  would  have  been,  in  any  other 
community,  a  powerful  leader  and  the  foremost  woman;  in- 
deed, she  came  near  to  that  distinction  in  a  community  where 
there  were  a  multitude  of  strong  and  superior  women.  She 
was  born  in  New  York  state,  and  was  of  New  England  ex- 
traction. She  was  extremely  active,  ambitious  and  aggres- 
sive, yet  reserved  and  prudent.  She  it  was,  in  Nauvoo,  who 
had  moved  out  to  establish  a  sewing  circle  for  the  benefit  of 
the  workers  on  the  Temple,  when  the  Prophet  called  the 
women  together  to  give  them  the  more  perfect  organization 
of  the  Relief  Society.  She  was  prominent  in  all  the  work 
for  women  in  this  Church,  and  was  not  only  one  of  the  early 
organizers  of  the  Junior  Retrenchment  Associations,  but  she 
was  claimed  by  Sister  Taylor  as  an  honorary  counselor  in 
the  wrork  of  the  general  board.  She  was  a  strong  advocate 
of  woman's  suffrage,  and  was  very  advanced  in  all  her  opin- 
ions on  sex  questions.  She  was  a  fine  speaker,  and  an  ex- 
cellent writer.  She  was  an  active  advocate  of  home  litera- 
ture, and  often  spoke  in  favor  of  the  women's  organizations 
owning  and  publishing  their  own  papers  or  magazines. 

Sister  Kimball  was  an  intimate  friend  of  Miss  Susan  B, 
Anthony  and  other  great  suffrage  leaders.  She  was  presi- 
dent of  the  Fifteenth  ward  Relief  Society  for  many  years, 
and  acted  upon  many  boards  in  spiritual  and  industrial  ad- 


Mrs.  Phoebe  Carter  Woodruff,  one  of  the  early  workers 
for  women  in  Utah,  was  born  in  Maine,  and  was  of  Puritan 
descent.  She  was  of  the  type  of  women  who  make  one  think 
of  tempered  steel — so  strong,  so  true,  and  so  absolutely  puri- 
fied of  base  and  common  metals.  She  was  of  vigorous  habit 
and  of  invincible  will.  No  word  of  complaint  or  recital  of 


HISTORY   OF  Y.  L.   M.   I.  A. 

her  troubles  and  difficulties  was  ever  heard  from  her  lips. 
She  was  a  rock  of  sure  anchorage  in  the  midst  of  all  storms. 
Her  speech  was  earnest,  if  not  eloquent,  and  her  words  were 
few  and  wisely  chosen.  Who  that  remembers  her  deep- 
toned  voice  does  not  recall  the  sense  of  security  and  faith 
which  it  carried  to  every  listening-  ear?  She  was  associated 
with  Sister  Snow  in  the  establishing"  of  Retrenchment  Asso- 
ciations among1  the  daughters  of  Zion. 


Mrs.  Jane  S.  Richards,  wife  of  Elder  Franklin  D.  Rich- 
ards, was  born  January  31,  1823,  at  Pamelia,  Jefferson 
county,  New  York.  She  was  one  of  the  early  workers  in  the 
Relief  Society  of  the  Church,  being-  a  member  of  the  first 

association,  in  Nauvoo,  and 
continuing-  her  labors  in  this 
state.  She  was  also  very  ac- 
tive in  the  work  done  for  the 
org-anization  of  the  Young- 
Ladies'  Associations  through  - 
out  the  Church .  She  traveled 
much,  especially  in  the  north- 
ern counties,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow, 
to  set  in  order  the  various 
associations  throughout  the 
north.  And  to  her  was  ac- 
corded a  special  honor:  when 
President  Brigham  Young: 
went  up  to  Weber  stake  July 
19,  1877,  to  organize  the 
stake  Relief  Society — the 
first  and  only  one  done  by 
President  Young-  —  he  set 
apart  Sister  Richards  to  pre- 

JANE  s  RICHARDS.  side  over  these  stake   Socie- 

ties. She  was  also  first  coun- 
selor to  Zina  D.  Young,  the  general  president  of  the  Relief 
Societies  of  the  Church,  until  Sister  Young's  death,  since 
which  time  Sister  Richards  has  been  senior  member  of  the 
General  Board,  where  she  is  loved,  honored  and  respected 


by  every  member  of  that  body  of  women  workers.  At  the 
same  time  that  President  Young  placed  her  over  the  Relief 
Society  of  Weber  stake,  he  gave  her  the  entire  charge  of  the 
woman's  work  in  that  stake;  which  of  course  included  the  Y. 
L.  M.  I.  Associations.  She  wras  therefore  a  mother  to  all  the 
young  women  in  the  stake,  and  was  and  is  beloved  not  only 
by  all  the  older  women  in  the  Relief  Societies,  but  also  by 
all  the  young  ladies,  as  well  as  by  the  little  children  in  the 
Primary  Association.  In  accordance  with  the  familiar  and 
loving  custom  among  this  people,  she  is  "Aunt  Jane"  to  all 
Weber  stake  to  this  day.  She  has  lived  a  long  and  useful 
life,  and  now  sits  at  the  evening  of  her  day  looking  down 
into  the  sun-kissed  and  sorrow-scarred  fields  of  her  yester- 
days with  reverent  and  peaceful  eyes. 


Some  of  their  resolutions. — Travels  of  pioneer  organizers. 

THE  present  age  is  the  admitted  "woman's  age."  The  great 
underlying  unrest  and  upheaval  in  all  classes  of  society 
on  this  important  subject  constitutes  a  grave  promise  and  an 
equally  grave  menace  to  the  future  of  our  race.  It  would  be 
difficult  to  find  in  any  age  or  community  as  many  progressive, 
intelligent,  and  capable  women,  other  things  being  equal,  as 
can  be  found  among  the  Latter-day  Saints.  Such  a  state- 
ment would  not  be  contradicted  by  one  who  is  familiar  with 
our  life  and  our  people;  but  necessarily  it  would  excite  scorn 
if  voiced  to  strangers.  There  are  two  fundamental  reasons 
which  have  contributed  to  create  this  condition.  It  requires 
decision  of  character,  moral  courage  and  fine  self-denial  to 
accept  and  maintain  an  unpopular  religion.  And  if,  as  in 
this  case,  the  religion  is  hated  and  its  adherents  despised, 
then  indeed  nmst  the  men  and  women  who  accept  it  be 
possessed  of  high  courage  and  great  patience.  Add  to  this 
persecution  and  mobbings,  and  you  have  fruitful  soil  for  the 
growth  of  the  Christian  virtues,  if  such  a  people  survive  and 
preserve  the  elements  of  truth.  All  new  religionists  have 
been  termed  fanatics;  but  from  just  such  material  have  been 
fashioned  the  Luthers,  the  Crom wells,  the  Knoxes,  and  even 
the  great  Master  himself,  with  his  circle  of  despised  followers. 
The  second  great  factor  in  shaping  strong,  self-reliant 
and  original  characters  is  found  in  the  many  problems  of 
pioneering  and  empire-building  which  have  confronted  our 
people.  We  have  been  and  constantly  are  "pioneering"  in 
this  and  other  countries.  To  conquer  the  rude  strength  of 
the  wilderness;  to  soften  the  hard  crust  which  had  hidden 


the  face  of  nature  for  uncounted  centuries;  to  trail  the  chains  of 
a  measured  distance  over  a  desert  which  knew  only  the  path 
of  savage  whim  or  the  untrammeled  rush  of  buffaloes;  to 
quiet  the  wild  pangs  of  fear  and  loneliness  with  the  whirr  of 
the  loom  and  the  whiz  of  the  spinning  wheel ;  to  fill  the  deep 
brooding  silence  of  ages  with  the  lowing  of  cows  and  the 
laughter  of  growing  children;  to  plant,  to  reap,  to  sow,  to 
garner;  to  build  and  to  fashion  homes  and  cities  in  the  close 
embrace  of  a  forbidding  desolation — to  do  these  things  is  to 
develop  every  known  resource,  and  to  originate  some  un- 
known ones.  Such  experiences  give  great  initiative  power 
and  executive  ability. 

Let  a  new  movement  be  suggested  among  our  people, 
instantly  there  are  found  thousands  ready  to  carry  it  to  suc- 
cessful completion.  This  being  true,  it  is  not  to  be  expected 
that  a  movement  like  this  new  one  of  retrenchment  would 
wait  long  for  progressive  and  bright  minds  to  grasp  its 
potentialities  and  reduce  its  truths  to  individual  or  to  local 

There  lived  in  the  Nineteenth  ward  of  Salt  Lake  City 
the  large  and  intelligent  families  of  the  philosopher  and 
orator  Apostle  Orson  Pratt  and  his  brother  Parley  P.  Pratt. 
They  have  bequeathed  to  their  children  some  of  the  rare  gifts 
which  so  distinguished  them  for  the  first  half  century  of  our 
existence  as  a  Church.  Among  the  daughters  of  Parley  P. 
Pratt  was  one  Lona  Pratt,  now  Eldredge.  She  was  a  young 
school  teacher  and  an  intimate  friend  of  Dora  Young,  one  of 
the  youthful  counselors  to  Ella  Empey. 

Miss  Dora  Young  described  the  initial  Retrenchment 
meeting  of  her  father's  family  in  the  Lion  House  in  such 
glowing  terms  to  her  friend  Lona  Pratt,  together  with  the 
benefits  to  be  derived  from  such  an  association,  that  Miss 
Lona  was  filled  with  the  desire  to  do  some  similar  work 
in  her  own  neighborhood.  Lona  Pratt  was  then  only 

60  HISTORY   OF  Y.   L.   M.   I.   A. 

about  eighteen  years  of  age,  but  she  was  full  of  zeal. 
Accordingly  one  day  she  invited  her  girl  friends,  many 
of  whom  were  her  pupils,  to  meet  her  at  the  close  of  the 
school  in  the  schoolhouse.  This  was  May  29,  1870.  She 
opened  this  little  gathering  with  prayer,  and  called  on  those 
assembled  to  give  expression  to  their  thoughts.  To  her  sur- 
prise she  found  her  friends  already  converted  to  her  idea, 
and  there  was  no  need  of  urging  them  to  form  a  society — 
they  were  eager  for  its  inception.  Accordingly  there  was 
a  board  appointed,  after  the  pattern  described  by  Miss  Dora 
Young,  and  the  following  were  chosen  as  officers:  Lona 
Pratt,  president;  Libbie  Rich,  Viola  Pratt,  Mrs.  Louie  Wid- 
dison,  Ellen  Wilcox,  Lucy  Arnold,  Mary  Nebeker,  coun- 
selors; Annie  Smith,  secretary. 

Meetings  were  held  during  the  winter  in  the  Nineteenth 
ward  house,  in  the  schoolroom,  and  at  Lucy  Arnold's  home. 
Sister  E.  R.  Snow  heard  of  this  voluntary  work,  and  she  in- 
vited the  girls  to  attend  the  meeting  of  the  Senior  association 
in  the  Fourteenth  ward  hall,  and  there  they  would  be  organ- 
ized in  due  form  and  ceremony.  This  was  done,  and  the 
example  of  the  Nineteenth  ward  association  was  rapidly  fol- 
lowed in  the  other  wards. 

The  resolutions  passed  by  the  various  ward  departments 
were  alike  in  nature,  and  yet  each  one  had  some  special  fea- 
ture to  distinguish  it  from  the  others.  One  speaks  of  taking 
up  the  study  of  the  Scriptures,  and  of  cultivating  reverence 
for  sacred  things;  another  denounces  gossip;  another  re- 
solves to  shun  all  evil  associations;  another  inveighs  against 
the  then  prevalent  fashion  of  wearing  short  hair;  another  re- 
solves to  cultivate  the  mind  and  become  more  enlightened  and 
intelligent;  while  still  another  decides  to  study  self-govern- 
ment as  well  as  other  desirable  qualities.  All  were  united, 
however,  in  the  one  central  thought  of  electing  a  greater 
simplicity  of  dress  and  of  living;  and  of  cultivating  the  mind 


rather  than  ministering  to  the  pleasure  of  the  body.  There 
were  many  excellent  thoughts  contained  in  these  resolutions, 
copies  of  some  of  which  have  been  preserved.  The  names 
and  labors  of  the  early  officers  attached  thereto  have  entered 
into  the  history  of  this  people. 

We  have  not  the  resolutions  of  the  Nineteenth  ward 
society,  but  here  follow  some  of  the  other  early  ones: 

Resolutions  of  the  Fourteenth  ward  Young  Ladies'  de- 
partment of  the  Ladies'  Co-operative  Retrenchment  Associ- 
ation, organized  June  4.  1870. 

Resolved,  That  we  as  members  of  the  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints,  having  great  responsibilities 
resting  upon  us,  and  feeling  grateful  for  the  privileges  we 
enjoy  as  wives  and  daughters  of  elders  in  Israel,  do  mutually 
agree,  to  sustain  each  other  in  all  good  works. 

Resolved,  That  realizing  the  magnitude  of  the  work  in 
which  we  are  engaged,  and  the  importance  of  the  position 
we  occupy  as  daughters  in  Zion,  we  do  consider  it  unbecom- 
ing in  us  to  pattern  after  the  pride,  ^vanity  and  folly  of  the 
world,  and  feeling  that  we  have  worshiped  at  the  shrine  of 
fashion  too  long,  do  solemnly  pledge  ourselves  to  retrench  in 
our  dress,  and  to  wear  only  that  which  is  becoming  to  women 
professing  to  be  Saints. 

Resolved,  That  as  Saints  being  accountable  to  God  for 
the  use  we  make  of  the  abilities  and  intelligence  he  has 
given  us,  we  are  determined  to  devote  our  time  and  talents 
in  governing  ourselves,  storing  our  minds  with  useful  knowl- 
edge, and  improving  every  opportunity  afforded  us  of  qualify- 
ing ourselves  to  fill  useful  and  honorable  positions  in  the 
Kingdom  of  God. 

Resolved,  That  as  President  Young  has  repeatedly  coun- 
seled us  to  let  our  garments  be  plain,  and  to  cease  following 
after  the  world,  we  will  co-operate  together,  both  by  precept 
and  example,  in  carrying  out  his  counsel,  and  doing  every- 
thing required  of  us,  that  we  may  gain  the  approbation 
of  ,our  Heavenly  Father  and  the  confidence  of  all  good  Saints . 

Julia  M.  Home,  president;  Jennie  Seaman,  Harriet  A. 
Taylor,  Sophia  E.  Taylor,  Annie  M.  Taylor,  Beulah  Woodruff 
Beatie,  Georgiana  Fox,  counselors;  Isabella  Pratt,  secretary. 

62  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Resolutions  of  the  Thirteenth  ward  Young-  Ladies'  de- 
partment of  the  Ladies'  Co-operative  Retrenchment  Associ- 
ation, organized  June  27,  1870. 

Resolved,  That  we,  the  daughters  of  Zion,  perceiving" 
that  many  duties  are  incumbent  upon  us,  heartily  concur  with 
those  resolutions  already  adopted  by  the  departments  of 
different  wards,  and  are  eager  to  offer  our  influence  to  this 
noble  reform  in  dress.  Inasmuch  as  our  Prophet,  Brigham 
Young,  has  led  us  here  into  these  pure  and  peaceful  vales, 
far  from  the  midst  of  Babylon,  we  believe  it  ignoble  to  imi- 
tate those  worthless  and  inconsistent  habits  acquired  by  the 

Resolved,  That  we  are  now  determined 'to  maintain  an 
independence  as  regards  the  refinement  of  our  apparel.  We 
will  conform  to  no  customs  inconsistent  with  true  taste,  deli- 
cacy and  judgment;  but  the  adornment  of  our  persons  shall 
be  compatible  with  becoming  gentility,  regardless  oj:  the 
fashion  plates  of  the  day,  and  we  will  place  before  the  world 
an  example  worthy  of  imitation,  for  we  realize  that  the  culti- 
vation of  our  immortal  minds  is  of  more  value  than  perish- 
able ornaments. 

Resolved,  That  we  make  an  effort  to  be  temperate, 
avoiding  the  useless  habit  of  frivolous  conversation,  and 
strive  to  become  more  enlightened  and  intelligent;  to  be 
judicious  in  the  selection  of  our  companions,  and  in  our  asso- 
ciations endeavor  to  inspire  a  sentiment  of  improvement. 

Resolved,  That  we  will  carry  out  the  advice  of  President 
Young  and  his  counselors;  we  feel  to  sustain  the  priest- 
hood and  every  institution  organized  by  it.  We  will  endeavor 
to  keep  the  commandments  of  God,  and  humbly  live  the  re- 
ligion we  profess  and  never  speak  lightly  of  its  sacred  prin- 

Flora  L.  Shipp,  president;  Frank  Wells,  Mary  Woolley, 
Dessie  Wells,  Belle  Park,  Emma  Wells,  Kate  Wells,  coun- 
selors; Lydia  Young,  secretary. 

Resolutions  of  the  Sixteenth  ward  Young  Ladies'  de- 
partment of  the  Ladies'  Co-operative  Retrenchment  Associ- 
ation . 

Resolved,  That  we,  the  danghters  of  Zion,  residents  of 
the  Sixteenth  ward,  Salt  Lake  City,  realize  in  a  measure  the 


sacred  duties  devolving:  upon  us  in  the  Gospel,  and  the  great 
responsibilities  that  rest  upon  us  as  present  and  future  wives 
and  mothers  in  Israel,  and  also  the  greatness  and  worth  of 
the  glorious  cause  that  we  have  of  our  own  choice  most 
cheerfully  and  solemnly  espoused,  do  agree  and  covenant 
that  we  will  not  be  one  whit  behind  our  sisters  according  to 
our  abilities  in  carrying  out  practically  all  just  and  righteous 

Resolved,  That  we  will,  by  the  aid  of  the  Holy  Spirit, 
not  only  profess  but  live  the  Gospel,  and  seek  diligently  that 
wisdom  and  discernment  by  which  we  shall  rightly  judge 
between  the  vain  and  foolish  fashions  and  measures  of  a 
heartless  and  corrupt  world,  and  the  neat,  simple  and  befit- 
ting apparel,  and  the  modest,  chaste  and  prudent  conduct  of 
a  Saint. 

Resolved,  That  we  will  be 'guided  by  the  holy  priesthood, 
hearken  to  the  voice  of  experience,  wisdom  and  revelation, 
associate  with  the  pure,  the  virtuous  and  good,  shun  evil 
society  and  communications  and  the  glitter  and  tinsel  of  hol- 
low fashion,  forms,  and  hearts — that  we  will  not  neglect  our 
prayers;  and  that  we  will  ever  bear  in  remembrance  that 
"pure  and  undefiled  religion  before  God,  the  Father,  is  this: 
to  visit  the  fatherless  and  the  widows  in  their  affliction,  and 
to  keep  ourselves  unspotted  from  the  world." 

Julina  L.  Smith,  president;  Sarah  E.  Smith,  Mary  A. 
Riser,  M.  A.  Winegar,  Elizabeth  M.  Yates,  Effie  L.  Minkler, 
counselors;  Caddie  McKean,  secretary. 

Resolutions  adopted  by  the  Twentieth  ward  department 
of  the  Young  Ladies'  Retrenchment  Association,  organized 
July  8,  1870. 

Resolved,  That  we,  realizing  the  sacred  and  important 
duties  devolving  upon  us  as  daughters  of  Zion,  will  from  this 
day  retrench  in  dress,  and  follow  no  more  the  vain  fashions 
of  the  world,  but  help  to  create  a  fashion  acceptable  to  all 
Israel  and  pleasing  in  the  sight  of  heaven. 

Resolved,  That  we,  believing  in  the  sacred  Scriptures, 
and  as  St.  Paul  says:  "The  hair  is  given  to  woman  for  a 
glory  and  a  covering" — will  not  hereafter  have  our  heads 
shorn  of  their  glory. 

Resolved,  That  we,  realizing  that  all   will  be  judged  ac- 

64  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

cording"  to  their  actions  here  below,  will  cease  to  be  heady, 
high-minded,  lovers  of  pleasure  more  than  lovers  of  God, 
and  walk  with  a  meek  spirit  which  is,  in  the  sight  of  God,  of 
g-reat  price. 

Resolved,  That  we  will  devote  such  opportunities  as  we 
derive  from  this  association  to  self  improvement,  and  instead 
of  wasting"  precious  moments,  will  use  them  for  the  purpose 
of  becoming-  better  acquainted  with  the  laws  of  God,  and  we 
will  also  read  the  best  books. 

Kate  Sharp,  president;  Aggie  Caine,  Lizzie  Sharp, 
Emma  Fowler,  Georgiana  Calder,  Rebecca  Daynes,  Eliza  M. 
Williams,  counselors;  Sarah  M.  Napper,  secretary. 

Resolutions  adopted  by  the  Eighth  ward  department  of 
the  Ladies'  Co-operative  Retrenchment  Association,  Salt 
Lake  City,  organized  July  12,  1870. 

Resolved,  That  we,  the  daughters  of  Zion,  in  conformity 
with  the  wish  of  our  beloved  President  Brigham  Young,  and 
realizing  that  it  is  our  duty  as  daughters  of  elders  of  Israel , 
do  most  truly  and  sincerely  sustain  and  enter  into  the  co- 
operative association  that  the  ladies  of  the  Latter-day  Saints 
formed,  and  we  are  determined  by  the  help  of  the  Almighty 
to  so  order  our  lives  that  we  shall  be  worthy  the  name  we 
bear,  and  we  do  unitedly  pledge  ourselves  to  uphold  and  sus- 
tain the  sisterhood  in  doing  good. 

Resolved,  That  inasmuch  as  we  have  come  out  from  the 
world  that  we  may  become  a  light  thereto,  we  will  show  by 
our  daily  walk  and  conversation,  also  by  our  dress,  that  we 
are  that  light.  We  will  dress  in  a  becoming  manner.  We 
will  not  follow  the  fashions  of  the  wicked  world,  but  will  en- 
deavor to  attire  ourselves  as  become th  Saints  of  God,  and  as 
much  as  possible  in  the  workmanship  of  our  own  hands. 

Resolved,  That  inasmuch  as  order  is  the  first  law  of 
heaven,  we  will  endeavor  to  learn  the  law  by  making  our- 
selves acquainted  with  the  principles  of  life  and  salvation. 
We  will  study  the  Bible,  Book  of  Mormon,  Doctrine  and 
Covenants,  and  all  works  pertaining  to  our  holy  religion. 
We  will  not  speak  lightly  of  the  sacred  ordinances  of  the 
house  of  God,  nor  ridicule  our  brethren  and  sisters,  but  will 
sustain  them  with  our  faith  and  prayers  when  they  speak  to 
each  other  of  the  things  pertaining  to  the  Kingdom  of  God. 


Resolved,  That  we  will  not  speak  evil  of  anyone,  but  will 
be  kind  to  all,  especially  the  aged,  and  infirm,  the  widow  and 
orphan.  We  will  endeavor  to  become  acquainted  with  the 
laws  of  nature,  that  we  may  become  strong",  healthy  and  vig- 
orous. We  will  also  study  all  literature  that  will  qualify 
us  to  become  ornaments  in  the  kingdom  of  God,  that  we 
may  merit  the  approbation  of  our  brethren  and  sisters  and  of 

Clara  E.  Robinson,  president;  Ellen  H.  McAllister, 
Bethula  Palmer,  Esther  J:  Fletcher,  Mary  S.  Leaver,  Ellen 
Barnes,  Mary  E.  Bringhurst,  counselors;  Annie  B.  Starr, 

Two  years  active  work  served  to  establish  the  new 
organizations  on  a  sound  footing.  As  rapidly  as  might  be, 
Sister  Snow,  assisted  by  Sisters  Zina  D.  H.  Young,  Mary 
Isabella  Home  and  Margaret  T.  Smoot,  formed  Young 
Ladies'  Retrenchment  Associations  in  the  wards  of  the  city, 
then  in  adjoining  towns  and  counties.  They  all  traveled 
extensively  in  connection  with  this  work;  and  while  urging 
the  older  sisters  to  take  up  the  labor  placed  upon  them,  they  did 
not  fail  to  encourage  the  Young  Ladies'  departments  or  asso- 

The  Eleventh  ward  of  Salt  Lake  City  had  one  of  the 
strongest  and  best  organizations  in  the  city,  although  it  was 
not  one  of  the  first.  Among  the  best  early  associations  were 
the  Nineteenth,  Thirteenth  and  Fourteenth  wards,  which 
were  among  the  first  ones  organized  after  the  original  one  in 
the  Lion  House;  other  early  ones  were  the  First  ward,  the 
Tenth,  the  Eighth,  the  Fourth,  the  Fifteenth,  and  the  Six- 
teenth, which  followed  in  the  order  given. 

The  Eleventh  ward  association  was  organized  by  Miss 
Flora  Shipp,  under  the  direction  of  Sister  Zina  D.  H. 
Young.  The  officers  were:  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Freeze,  president; 
Mrs.  Ellis  Shipp,  Mrs.  Jane  Freeze  and  Miss  Mary  Jones, 


66  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

counselors;  Mrs.  Maggie  Shipp,  secretary.  The  minutes  of 
the  first  meeting-  held  are  highly  interesting,  and  as  they  are 
a  fair  example  of  all  similar  meetings  held  in  those  early 
times,  they  are  here  appended: 

Minutes  of  the  Eleventh  ward  Retrenchment  Society, 
October  18,  1872.  First  meeting  held  at  the  residence  of 
Mrs.  Mary  A.  Freeze,  corner  of  Second  South  and  Seventh 
East  streets. 

Singing — "Hark,  Ye  Mortals." 

Prayer  by  President  Mary  A.  Freeze. 

Hymn — '  'Hail  to  the  Prophet. ' ' 

Roll  called. 

An  essay  was  read  by  Counselor  Mary  Jones  on  "What 
is  Vulgarity?"  Select  reading  by  Counselor  Ellis  R.  Shipp, 
entitled  "Female  Education." 

President  Mary  A.  Freeze  said:  "This  is  a  new  business 
to  me;  still  I  wish  to  advance  and  answer  to  every  call.  By 
speaking,  we  gain  confidence  and  improve  in  our  language;  also 
by  speaking  new  ideas  are  elicited.  Let  us  exert  ourselves 
to  bring  more  of  the  girls  to  our  meetings.  As  Sister  Eliza 
R.  Snow  says,  let  us  retrench  in  our  ignorance  and  assist 
each  other  to  conquer  our  failings.  By  comforting  others,  we 
not  only  do  them  good,  but  we  also  comfort  ourselves,  and 
this  principle  will  appear  more  plain  and  beautiful." 

Counselor  Ellis  R.  Shipp 's  remarks:  "Retrenchment  is 
like  Mormonism— it  embraces  everything  which  is  good. 
We  should  be  diligent  in  this  duty,  for  it  is  a  commandment 
from  President  Young.  We  often  wish  we  could  compre- 
hend fully  what  is  meant  by  obeying  the  commandments  of 
God.  I  think  it  is  obedience  to  the  Priesthood,  the  servants 
of  God.  President  Young  has  said  if  we  would  carry  out  his 
counsels,  he  would  lead  us  unto  eternal  life.  If  we  are  not 
faithful,  depression  follows,  and  the  righteous  suffer  for  the 
sins  of  the  wicked." 

Counselor  Mary  Jones  '  'knew  we  were  doing  right.  Hoped 
the  girls  would  attend  the  meetings;  and  we  will  try  and 
benefit  and  interest  them." 

Counselor  Jane  Freeze  remarked  that  it  would  be  better 


to  change  the  hour  of  meeting:,  so  that  it  might  be  more  con- 
venient for  the  girls. 

Secretary  Maggie  C.  Shipp  said:  "Well,  girls,  let  us 
improve  in  one  particular  especially,  and  that  is  in  this  habit 
of  gossiping.  You  know  that  it  is  natural  for  women  to 
slander,  and  how  true  it  is  that  an  offense  appears  much 
more  offensive  after  being  repeatedly  told.  Let  us  deal  in 
encouragement.  Our  lives  are  but  short  to  prepare  us  for 
celestial  glory;  then  let  us  awaken  and  comprehend  our  posi- 
tion. Always  have  a  kind  word  for  every  one.  O  seek  for 
the  Spirit  of  God,  that  you  may  accomplish  good." 

Appointments  were  made  for  next  meeting.  Adjourned 
for  one  week. 

Hymn — "O  Ye  Mountains  High." 

Benediction  by  Mrs.  Ellis  R.  Shipp. 

What  a  world  of  thought  and  struggle  is  comprised  in 
the  brief  records  which  have  come  down  to  us  from  these 
first  meetings  of  the  young  women  of  Zion!  No  Primary 
Association,  and  practically  no  Sunday  School,  had  prepared 
the  young  people  to  stand  upon  their  feet  and  express  in  elo- 
quent phrase  their  thoughts .  There  were  no  Church  schools 
then  to  train  the  young  to  think  logically  and  connectedly  on 
religious  subjects.  Think  of  it,  sheltered  and  educated 
daughters  of  the  present  day\  Utah  was  still  a  hard  country; 
pioneer  conditions  held  strong*  men  and  sturdy  women  in 
thrall.  Schools  were  taught  in  every  town  and  hamlet,  but 
under  difficulties,  for  lack  of  books  and  means.  In  some 
parts  of  the  country  the  Bible  was  the  school  reader  and  the 
home  instructor.  Hand  looms  still  whizzed  out  their  homely 
music,  and  cook  stoves  were  a  costly  luxury. 

Without  training,  and  with  only  the  bare  elements  of 
education,  these  pioneer  girls,  the  daughters  of  pioneers, 
came  forward  to  answer  to  the  call  made  upon  them.  To 
retrench,  to  improve,  to  grow  and  to  develop  was  their 
object.  And  how  well  they  have  carried  on  their  mission 

68  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

is   well   attested    by    the   results  that  have  followed    their 

Other  associations  outside  of  Salt  Lake  City  held  inter- 
esting" sessions  and  adopted  similar  resolutions.  One  of  the 
first  organized  was  that  in  Bountiful,  Davis  County.  Their 
resolutions  are  as  follows: 

Inasmuch  as  it  is  the  wish  and  counsel  of  our  beloved 
President  Brig-ham  Young  that  the  young  ladies  should  be 
organized  into  Co-operative  Retrenchment  Associations,  we 
desire  to  show  our  willingness  in  the  same  by  stepping-  for- 
ward and  adopting-  the  following  resolutions: 

Resolved — 1st,  That  we  strive  to  the  best  of  our  ability  to 
carry  out  the  counsel  and  instructions  that  fall  from  the  lips 
of  those  that  are  sent  to  counsel  us,  well  knowing-  that  it  is 
for  our  g-ood. 

2nd,  That  we  cease  to  run  after  the  fashions  of  the 
world,  but  consult  our  own  taste,  and  strive  to  dress  in  a 
neat  and  becoming-  manner,  with  a  view  to  health,  long-  life 
and  happiness . 

3rd,  That  we  speak  no  evil  of  one  another,  nor  of  those 
placed  over  us;  but  rather  seek  to  uphold  them  by  our  faith 
and  prayers,  that  they  may  have  wisdom  to  teach  us  the  prin- 
ciples of  life  and  salvation. 

4th,  That  we  give  more  of  our  time  and  attention  to  the 
reading-  of  good  books,  especially  the  publications  of  the 
Church;  and  seek  to  improve  our  minds  and  store  them  with 
useful  information,  that  in  the  future  we  may  be  able  to 
assist  those  under  our  care. 

5th,  That  we  use  no  hot  drinks,  but  carefully  adhere  to 
the  Word  of  Wisdom,  as  made  known  to  us  for  our  benefit, 
that  we  may  live  long  on  the  earth  to  be  useful  daughters  of 

6th,  That  inasmuch  as  any  of  us  have  been  giiilty  of 
using  immodest  or  unbecoming  language,  that  we  cease  to  do 
so  from  this  time  forth,  and  endeavor  to  cultivate  that  mod- 
esty which  is  so  becoming  to  young-  ladies  in  every  society 
and  association  in  life. 


The  following-  officers  were  chosen:  Susan  Grant,  presi- 
dent; Rosetta  Eldredge,  Nancy  Willey,  Mary  A.  Call,  Mary 
Standford,  Helen  Ellis,  Caroline  Corbridge,  Rachel  Brown, 
Lucy  Fackrell,  counselors;  Jane  Alice  Crosby,  secretary. 

This  work  begun  in  Salt  Lake  City  rapidly  extended  into 
every  city  and  town  in  Utah,  as  well  as  into  such  surround- 
ing- states  and  territories  as  held  communities  of  the  Latter- 
day  Saints.  Gradually,  regrular  programs  for  the  evening's 
exercises  were  adopted.  Manuscript  papers  began  to  take  a 
permanent  place  in  the  programs,  supplemented  by  essays, 
select  readings  and  recitations.  Program  committees  were 
appointed,  and  regrular  provision  was  thus  made  for  each 
evening's  work  and  entertainment. 

Who  may  describe  the  labors  of  the  women  who  began 
and  carried  forward  for  years  the  organization  and  oversight 
of  the  various  local — and  later  the  stake — associations  of 
the  three  great  women's  organizations  of  the  Church!  Like 
the  companies  who  crossed  the  plains,  these  women  made  the 
hardest  trip  a  pleasure -jaunt,  and  the  most  forbidding 
journey  was  turned  into  a  merry  picnic.  The  woman  who 
now-a-days  boards  a  luxurious  car,  secures  a  sleeper,  and 
finds  herself  the  next  morning  at  the  farther  end  of  the  state, 
can  have  little  conception  of  the  journey  that  began  in  Salt 
Lake  City — or  some  nearby  large  town — in  a  lumber  wagon, 
or  at  best  in  a  spring  wagon  which  never  sprang  once  but  to 
jolt  twice;  and  whose  primary  destination  was  always  "the 
next  town"  only,  even  if  the  "next  town"  came  finally  to  be 
St.  George  in  the  south,  or  Bear  Lake  on  the  north.  How 
the  travelers  were  to  get  on  from  town  to  town  was  as  much 
a  mystery  as  it  came  later  to  be  a  matter  of  history.  A  most 
implicit  reliance  upon  an  overruling  Providence  was  more 
necessary  than  a  piece  of  candle  in  the  small  satchel;  and 
both  were  vital  parts  of  a  traveler's  outfit  in  those  days. 

70  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Providence  never  betrayed  the  trust!  The  candle  might 
sputter  and  go  out  in  the  middle  of  a  bad  piece  of  road; 
the  women,  being  their  own  teamsters,  might  sometimes  lose 
the  way  on  a  dark  night;  or  that  same  candle  might  get  itself 
forgotten  in  the  press  of  other  preparations,  and  the  good 
sister  might  wake  tip  in  the  night  with  a  sudden  illness  or 
want,  to  find  herself  candleless  and  forlorn.  But  Providence, 
that  sweet  and  constant  light  in  dark  places,  was  always  very 
close  at  hand  to  supply  every  righteous  need.  God  could 
and  did  heal  their  ailments.  After  a  trying  experience,  gen- 
erally a  good  bishop  or  some  liberal-minded  brother  would  be 
moved  upon  to  hitch  up  his  team  and  carry  the  sisters  one  or 
even  two  stages  on  their  journey. 

Who,  indeed,  that  once  knew  them  can  forget  the  simple 
delights  of  that  early  morning  start  across  the  grey-green 
valley,  or  up  through  the  rugged  canyon  defile;  so  early  that 
even  the  meadow  larks  were  barely  twittering  to  the  fledg- 
lings in  the  nest;  the  smell  of  the  pungent  sagebrush,  the 
purple  shadows  on  the  mountains  that  blended  and  merged 
into  riotous  harmony  of  color;  the  still  roads,  upon  which  the 
fleeing  night  had  laid  fingers  of  motionless  silence!  And 
the  spell  of  newness  and  youth  and  growth  which  was  upon 
all  the  face  of  nature!  This  it  was  which  thrilled  the  soul  of 
the  travelers  with  the  freshness  and  renewal  of  uncon- 
taminated  atmosphere.  The  Spirit  of  God  seemed  very  near 
on  such  mornings,  and  there  was  the  presence  of  guardian 
angels.  Sweet  communion  marked  the  progress  of  the  daily 
journey.  Prayer-meetings,  experiences,  testimonies,  heal- 
ings and  divers  profitable  discussions  occupied  the  hours.  The 
singer  in  the  company  would  pipe  up  the  strains  of  "Come, 
come,  ye  Saints,"  or  "O  my  Father;"  the  others  would 
join  in  and  then  even  birds  would  listen  to  the  sweet  sounds 
of  praise,  and  the  prairie  dogs  would  stand  on  their  hind 


legs  like  little  grey  posts,  wondering-  at  the  strange  melody. 

Those  were  the  days  before  cars  and  telephones  had 
developed  the  "strenuous  life"  and  consequent  nervous- 
prostration  habit.  One  can  find  traces  of  these  times  and 
customs  in  our  remote  villages  of  today;  and  poor,  indeed,  is 
the  memory  and  experience  of  any  Mutual  Improvement 
worker  that  does  not  contain  some  chapter  which  answers  to 
this  description. 

For  twenty  years  the  organizing"  and  visiting"  of  the  asso- 
ciations was  done  by  representatives  of  the  three  women's 
organizations,  traveling-  together,  in  company  perhaps  with 
some  local  or  stake  organization  official.  A  stake  officer 
in  one  town  whose  husband  or  son  owned  a  carriag-e  or 
spring-  wag-on,  might  drive  the  team  herself,  or  press  into 
service  her  boy  or  a  neig-hbor's  son;  and  around  that  stake 
the  Salt  Lake  party  would  g-o,  sending-  word  ahead  by  the 
prized  local  telegraph.  When,  in  after  years,  regular  confer- 
ences began  to  be  called,  it  became  quite  usual  to  devote  the 
Friday  before  the  reg-ular  stake  conference  to  the  holding:  of 
a  conference  of  the  three  women's  societies.  The  morning- 
meeting's  would  probably  be  devoted  to  the  Primary  Associa- 
tion, the  afternoon  to  the  Relief  Society  and  the  evening"  ses- 
sion to  the  Young"  Ladies'  meeting".  It  is  an  interesting 
fact  that  in  those  days  the  audiences  at  all  these  meetings 
would  be  very  much  the  same,  the  speakers  were  generally 
the  same  and  the  topics  were  not  very  dissimilar.  Thus  was 
engendered  a  delightful  unanimity  and  harmony  in  the 
ranks  of  these  three  sister  organizations. 

After  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor,  in  1880,  was  made 
general  president  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement 
Associations,  she  traveled  thousands  of  miles  in  this  primitive 
fashion,  accompanying  Sisters  Eliza  R.  Snow,  Zina  D.  H. 
Young,  M.  I.  Home,  Emmeline  B.  Wells,  Louie  B.  Felt  or  Lillie 

72  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

T.  Freeze.  These  sisters  represented  the  various  interests 
of  the  Relief  Society,  Silk  Association,  Grain  Saving-  move- 
ment, Retrenchment,  Woman's  Exponent,  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 
and  the  Primary  Association.  There  would  be  sent  out  from 
Salt  Lake  City  a  representative  of  each  of  the  three  large 
general  organizations,  and  these  three  sisters  would  naturally 
attend  each  of  the  three  conferences  held  on  the  Friday.  Of 
course  all  would  be  invited  to  speak  at  each  meeting,  and 
those  who  were  fortunate  enough  to  be  present  on  some  of 
those  glorious  occasions  will  bear  testimony  to  the  fact  that 
those  impromptu,  inspired  discourses  were  indeed  eloquent 
outpourings  of  the  soul . 

The  principle  of  true  evolution  is  as  applicable  to  the 
growth  of  an  organization  as  it  is  to  the  development  of  an 
acorn.  That  which  grows  rapidly  and  attains  maturity  too  soon 
is  as  apt  to  die  quickly  as  is  the  °:ourd  or  the  poppy.  It 
came  naturally  to  pass  that  the  M .  I .  Associations  were  first 
encompassed  in  a  private  parlor.  Then  one,  two,  a  half 
dozen  wards  began  small  and  comparatively  insignificant 
associations.  The  work  spread  from  ward  to  ward,  until  the 
whole  Church  saw  these  vigorous  associations  numbered  as 
an  integral  part  of  its  spiritual  organization.  When  the  local 
branches  had  multiplied  and  gathered  sufficient  strength, 
there  arose  a  necessity  for  a  stake  and  finally  a  central  organ- 
ization— fora  general  head  was  necessary,  to  unify,  strength- 
en and  direct  the  work.  The  time  was  then  ripe  for  combin- 
ing the  integral  parts  into  one  perfect  whole,  each  complete 
in  itself,  and  each  entirely  independent  in  its  sphere,  but 
all  bound  together  in  perfect  unity. 




MARY    A.    FREEZE. 

There  are  very  few  women  in  the  Church  who  have  done 
as  much  for  the  Mutual  Improvement  " cause"  as  the  sub- 
ject of  this  sketch.  In  that  service  has  been  embraced  all 
the  inspiration  that  comes  from  pure  sacrifice,  and  all  the 

power  which  emanates  from 
unselfish  labor.  Sister  Freeze 
was  the  president  of  one  of 
the  very  first  organizations  of 
the  original  Retrenchment 
Associations, — the  Eleventh 
ward;  and  she  has  Deen  in 
office  continuously  since  that 

Mary  was  the  daughter  of 
James  Lewis  Burnham  and 
Mary  A.  Huntley  Burnham. 
The  Burnhams  are  of  the 
best  Puritan  stock,  coming 
to  America  in  1620.  They 
were  landed  proprietors  in 
England,  but  they  gave  up 
everything  and  emigrated  to 
America  for  the  same  reason 
that  two  hundred  years  later 
their  descendants  moved  out 
into  the  trackless  deserts  of 
western  America.  They  trace  their  line  back  in  an  unbroken 
chain  to  the  year  1200  A.  D.  Mary  was  born  in  Nauvoo, 
October  12th,  1845,  four  days  after  the  death  of  her  father. 
Will  our  modern  luxurious  environment  permit  us  to  imagine 
the  sorrow  of  that  death  and  that  birth — a  widow  left  alone 
with  four  little  children,  poor,  and  utterly  without  home  or 
relatives?  Saints  were  very  kind  to  the  widow,  but  the  con- 
dition of  poverty  was  hers  to  meet  and  overcome.  Her  rela- 
tives in  the  east  would  gladly  have  sent  means  to  her  if  she 
would  have  consented  to  retiirn  and  renounce  her  unpopular 


74  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

religion;  but  she  was  a  Saint,  and  she  had  put  her  hand  to 
the  plow.  She  was  later  sealed  for  time  to  Joseph  Young, 
the  president  of  the  quorum  of  Seventy. 

Mary  was  brought  by  her  mother  to  Salt  Lake  valley  in 
1852,  and  located  in  Bountiful.  She  was  an  anxious  student, 
and  was  qualified,  when  eighteen  years  of  age,  to  assist  in 
teaching  school.  The  principal  of  the  school  was  James 
Perry  Freeze,  and  to  him  she  was  married  in  March,  1863. 
The  young  couple  came  to  Salt  Lake  shortly  after  their  mar- 
riage, and  settled  in  the  Eleventh  ward.  In  18 71  Mary  was 
called  to  preside  over  the  newly  organized  Retrenchment 
Association  in  that  ward,  and  accepted  the  call  with  that 
gentle  dignity  and  humility  which  has  always  seemed  so 
much  a  part  of  her  character.  Her  husband  felt  it  his  duty 
to  take  three  other  young  wives;  and  in  that  view  he  was 
sustained  by  that  heroine,  his  first  wife.  To  witness  the 
love  and  harmony  which  has  existed  in  his  family  from  that 
day  to  this  has  been  an  object  lesson  of  divine  virtue.  When 
one  of  the  four  young  women  died,  the  other  three  mourned 
her  as  deeply  as  if  she  were  an  own  sister.  Whatever  the 
world  may  say  or  think  about  the  principle  of  plural  mar- 
riage, it  has  given  to  Utah's  history  a  group  of  such 
heavenly  women  as  Mary  Burnham  Freeze, and  her  associate, 
Lillie  T.  Freeze.  No  evil  could  possibly  come  of  such  holy 
examples  of  devoted  love  and  pure  unselfishness. 

In  1878,  on  the  14th  day  of  September,  the  first  stake 
organization  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  effected  in  Salt  Lake 
City,  and  Mary  A.  Freeze  was  chosen  president.  She  had 
proven  a  most  faithful  shepherd  over  the  little  flock  put  in 
her  charge  in  the  Eleventh  ward.  Her  association  was 
everywhere  spoken  of  as  the  leading  one  in  the  Church.  She 
had  the  wisdom  to  choose  the  best  and  brightest  assistants  in 
her  work,  and  she  gave  them  scope  to  follow  their  own 
plans  and  ideas.  In  all  the  work  done  by  Sister  Freeze,  that 
power  of  surrounding  all  she  does  with  ah  atmosphere  of  up- 
lifting, purifying  spirituality  is  her  most  marked  and  vital 
characteristic.  She  has  lived  her  whole  life  in  the  sanctuary 
of  prayer  and  self-sacrifice,  and  the  radiance  of  that  altar 
shines  out  of  her  soul  to  illumine  all  who  come  near  her. 
She  carried  some  of  her  strong  workers  from  the  Eleventh 
ward  into  the  stake  organization.  Margaret  C.  Roberts, 


Louie  Felt,  Clara  Conrad,  Ellis  R.  Shipp — these  helped  in 
the  new  labor. 

In  1878  Sister  Freeze  took  a  trip  east,  visiting"  Washing- 
ton, as  well  as  other  large  cities.  She  spent  some  time  in 
Pennsylvania  visiting-,  in  company  with  her  husband,  his 
nearest  relatives.  In  1885  she  took  up  another  important 
labor — she  went  to  Logan  and  began  the  work  for  her  dead. 
She  had  secured  records  carrying-  her  family  back  to  1200, 
and  giving:  thousands  of  names  for  Temple  ordinances. 
While  in  Logan  she  was  chosen  to  act  as  a  Temple  worker; 
and  when  the  Salt  Lake  Temple  was  completed,  she  was 
called  to  labor  there  by  President  Snow,  he  himself  going-  to 
her  house  to  issue  the  invitation.  Here  she  has  labored 
faithfully  and  well. 

Sister  Freeze  was  chosen  by  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor, 
October  3rd,  1898,  to  act  upon  her  board,  and  she  continues 
in  that  position.  She  has  visited  most  of  the  stakes  since 
she  became  an  aid  to  the  General  Board.  She  was  greatly 
beloved  in  her  own  board,  and  they  tendered  to  her  two 
beautiful  receptions  in  token  of  their  esteem, — one  in  1895,  and 
one  in  1898,  when  she  was  released  from  stake  work  in  order 
to  go  a  step  higher. 

Every  one  who  knows  Sister  Freeze  is  the  better  for  that 
knowledge.  To  be  her  intimate  friend  is  to  acquire  a  liberal 
spiritual  education.  To  be  her  associate  in  eternity  will 
mean  the  highest  exaltation  possible  for  a  woman  to  attain. 


Lona  Pratt  Eldredge  was  the  daughter  of  that  gifted  and 
inspired  writer  and  prophet,  Parley  P.  Pratt;  her  mother 
was  Agatha  Walker.  Lona  was  born  April  15th,  1850.  She 
was  of  a  refined,  sensitive  nature,  full  of  zeal,  yet  withal 
easily  discouraged.  With  the  aid  of  love  and  appreciation 
she  could  have  accomplished  wonders  in  this  work;  but  with- 
out that  incentive,  she  shrank  within  herself,  and  in  later 
years  was  lost  to  public  affairs.  She  is  tall,  stately  in 
carriage,  and  with  a  winning,  persuasive  personality,  cover- 
ing an  inner  sensitiveness  with  an  outer  cloak  of  pride.  She 
was  a  quick  student,  and  soon  mastered  the  common  branches 
of  our  pioneer  education  and  was  ready  to  go  out  into  the 


HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

/   **m  \ 








ranks  of  wage-earners  when  but  fifteen  years  old.  She  had 
need,  for  her  widowed  mother  was  glad  of  assistance  in  rear- 
ing her  family.  Lona  secured  a  room  in  Sister  Ann  A. 
Gheen  Kimball's  commodious  home  in  the  Nineteenth  ward, 
and  here  she  opened  a  school  for  all  grades.  She  was  emi- 
nently successful,  and  her  pupils  soon  grew  to  love  her  as  a 
companion  while  they  did  not  forget  to  respect  her  as  a 
teacher  and  guide.  It  was  in  this  very  room  that  the  first 
ward  organization  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Retrenchment  Asso- 
ciation had  its  inception,  as  has  been  told  in  this  history. 
Lona  carried  on  her  work  in  the  association  for  some  months , 
but  in  the  year  1870  she  was  married  to  Elnathan  Eldredge, 
and  one  year  later  she  removed  with  her  husband  to  settle 
up  the  new  country  in  Bear  Lake  stake.  She  became  the 
mother  of  eight  children,  and  has  lived  a  peaceful,  prosper- 
ous life  since  that  day.  She  is  now  a  resident  of  Salt  Lake 
City.  In  speaking  of  her  labors  in  the  inception  of  this 
work,  she  says  with  emotion,  "those  were  the  happiest  days 
of  my  life." 


The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  the  ninth  child  of  her 
parents,  who  were  Joseph  and  Mary  Isabella  Home.  She 
was  reared  in  an  atmosphere  of  sobriety,  prudence  and  rev- 
erence. She  partook  largely  of  the  influence  of  her  surround- 
ings and  was  ever  known  as  a  most  exemplary  child  and 
woman.  She  was  born  in  Salt  Lake  City,  in  August,  1851, 
followed  the  usual  course  of  pioneer  living,  and  acquired  the 
usual  pioneer  education.  She  attended  the  University  of 
Utah  when  it  first  opened  in  the  old  Council  House.  When 
the  Young  Ladies'  Retrenchment  Associations  were  formally 
organized,  she  was  chosen  to  fill  the  office  of  president  of  the 
Fourteenth  ward  association.  She  married  in  the  early  spring 
of  1872,  and  died  in  the  late  fall  of  the  same  year,  leaving  a 
babe  behind  her.  Her  young  husband,  William  S.  Burton, 
eldest  son  of  Bishop  Robert  T.  Burton,  was  crushed  with  the 
blow,  and  many  recall  the  deep  grief  which  the  death  of  this 
amiable  young  wife  caused  her  family  and  friends.  She  was 
of  a  modest,  retiring  disposition,  but  was  willing  and  eager 
in  the  service  of  the  Lord. 

78  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


Flora  Shipp  was  born  at  Edenburg,  Johnson  county, 
Indiana,  January  31,  1848.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Austin 
Shipp  and  Laura  Caroline  Farns worth.  She  died  Friday, 
December  15,  1905,  at  the  L.  D.  S.  hospital. 

These  few  details  would  not  betray  the  sensitive  poet 
soul  of  the  gentle,  fair-haired  girl  who  was  the  joy  of  her 
friends  and  the  enemy  of  no  living-  soul.  Flora  was  ever 
keenly  attuned  to  emotion,  but  she  had  received  in  her  early 
youth  the  testimony  of  the  truth,  and  none  of  the  trials  and 
vicissitudes  of  her  life  ever  shook  that  faith.  She  was  also 
one  of  the  early  heroines  who  came  out  in  obedience  to  the 
call  and  helped  to  make  possible  the  cause  of  Retrenchment. 
She  was  married  to  Theodore  Curtis — handsome,  debonair 
brilliant  Theodore  Curtis.  But  with  his  defection  from  the 
faith  of  her  father,  she  left  him,  and  remained  for  years  a 
sorrowing-  but  faithful  youn«g  mother  to  her  children.  She 
was  a  writer  of  no  common  promise.  At  one  time,  she  had 
a  great  box  full  of  manuscript  stories  and  took  them  to  a  good 
man  for  counsel  as  to  what  disposition  to  make  of  these  treas- 
ures of  her  brain.  He  was  not  an  imaginative  man;  he 
hewed  close  to  fact,  and  dropped  his  plummet  only  into  the 
wells  of  hard  practicalities.  Flora  was  told  to  destroy  them 
all  and  destroy  them  she  did.  She  was  too  retiring  and 
modest  to  put  out  much  of  her  work  after  that,  and  as  a  con- 
sequence, we  have  suffered  the  loss  of  some  beautiful  contri- 
butions to  Utah  literature.  She  left  one  long  story,  however, 
which  may  some  day  see  the  light.  She  was  full  of  that  in- 
definable charm  which  is  likened  to  flowers  and  soft  breezes. 
She  was  true  to  the  last,  and  left  two  splendid  sons,  Theodore 
E.,  and  Clarence  S.  Her  son  Theodore,  who  writes  for  the 
Era,  is  a  faithful  example  of  her  own  modest  worth. 


Mrs.  Julina  L.  Smith  was  one  of  the  early  devotees  to 
the  cause  of  Retrenchment;  indeed,  she  has  never  departed 
from  the  early  ideals  planted  in  her  young  mind  when  Presi- 
dent Young  and  Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow  pleaded  so  eloquently 
with  the  daughters  of  Zion  to  eschew  all  evil,  and  cleave  to 


purity,  simplicity  and  righteousness.  Mrs.  Smith  was  born 
June  18,  1849,  and  is  the  first  wife  of  President  Joseph  F. 
Smith  today;  but  she  went  into  the  celestial  order  with  all 
the  courage  and  unselfishness  which  those  early  trials  de- 
manded. She  was  a  tender  nurse  and  sympathizer  with  the 
delicate  young  first  wife  of  her  husband,  and  has  been  a 
mother  and  a  friend  to  all  his  later  wives.  She  was  one  of 
the  first  duly  qualified  midwives  in  this  state,  and  she  exerted 
her  widely  sought  skill  for  her  husband's  family,  for  the  poor 
and  destitute,  as  well  as  for  the  sojourners  by  the  sea,  when 
she  was  away  upon  her  mission  to  the  Sandwich  Islands. 
She  is  the  mother  of  eleven  children,  ten  of  whom  are  still 
living;  and  she  is  grandmother  of  nineteen.  If  there  is  a 
more  exemplary  mother,  wife,  and  friend  than  this  noble 
woman,  the  writer  has  yet  to  meet  such  a  paragon. 

Mrs.  Smith  is  now  a  member  of  the  General  Board  of 
the  Relief  Society.  "The  heart  of  her  husband  doth  safely 
trust  in  her.  She  will  do  him  good  and  not 

evil,  all  the  days  of  her  life.  She  seeketh  wool  and  flax,  and 
worketh  willingly  with  her  hands.  *  *  *  She  riseth 
also  while  it  is  yet  night,  and  giveth  meat  to  her  household, 
and  a  portion  to  her  maidens.  .  *  *  *  She  is  not 
afraid  of  the  snow  for  her  household;  for  all  her  household 
are  clothed  with  scarlet.  Her  husband  is 

known  in  the  gates  when  he  sitteth  among  the  elders  of  the 
land.  Strength  and  honor  are  her  clothing; 

and  she  shall  rejoice  in  time  to  come.  *  *  *  Her 
children  rise  up  and  call  her  blessed;  her  husband  also,  and 
he  praiseth  her." 

If  a  woman  is  to  be  known  by  her  children,  surely  Sister 
Smith  will  not  fail  of  praise;  for  her  sons  sit  in  the  councils 
of  the  priesthood,  and  her  daughters  are  among  the  mothers 
in  Israel. 



The  Young  Men's  Mutual  Improvement  Association  organized. — 
The  name  Retrenchment  Association  changed  to  Young  Ladies' 
Mutual  Improvement  Association. — Stake  organizations  effected. 
— Central  or  General  Board  organized. 

A  VERY  full  chapter  of  Utah  history  was  made  in  the 
•*  *-  first  half  of  the  seventies.  President  Young-  was  in- 
spired to  set  in  order  all  the  quorums  of  the  priesthood,  to 
organize  stakes  and  to  regulate  the  auxiliary  organizations. 
He  was  also  devotedly  laboring  to  complete  the  Temple  at 
St.  George,  while  choosing  sites  for  other  temples  in  Manti 
and  Logan.  However,  he  had  plenty  of  time  always  to  con- 
sider the  needs  of  a  most  important  element  in  the  commu- 
nity— the  young  people;  and  so  it  came  about  that  he  under- 
took the  task  of  organizing  the  young  men  of  Zion  into  asso- 
ciations with  similar  aims  and  purposes  to  those  which 
formed  the  now  flourishing  associations  for  the  girls. 

The  story  of  the  organization  of  the  young  men,  with 
the  title  chosen  and  afterwards  adopted  by  the  girls, was  told 
graphically  at  the  June  conference  in  1905  by  Junius  F. 
Wells,  the  man  who  can  best  tell  it.  And  the  story  of  the 
beginning  of  the  brother  organization  fits  naturally  into  the 
recital  of  our  auxiliary  beginnings.  Brother  Wells  said: 

With  respect  to  the  organization  of  the  Young  Men's 
associations,  it  was  brought  about  through  the  inspiration  of 
the  Holy  Spirit.  It  came  at  a  time  when  we  needed  some- 
thing to  inspire  the  youth  of  our  people  and  to  prepare  them 
for  the  greater  labor  and  duty  that  was  before  them.  So  far 
as  my  connection  with  it  is  concerned,  it  came  in  this  wise: 
I  found  myself  upon  a  mission  before  I  was  eighteen  years 


old,  standing  for  the  first  time  in  my  life  before  an  audience 
to  speak.  I  was  in  Liverpool,  six  thousand  miles  away  from 
home.  '  I  was  introduced  by  the  president,  and  being"  a  son 
of  President  Wells,  there  was  much  expected  of  me.  It  took 
the  president  of  the  branch  several  minutes  to  introduce  me, 
but  it  took  me  just  one  and  one-quarter  minutes  to  say  all 
that  I  knew.  I  desired  in  my  heart  that  my  brothers  should 
be  better  prepared  than  I  was  for  such  a  position.  That 
thought  was  uppermost  in  my  mind.  I  presume  Brother 
Lyman  could  testify  of  it,  and  perhaps  President  Smith  will 
recall  it,  because  I  was  on  a  mission  with  them  at  the  time 
and  they  know  that  if  there  was  anything-  that  characterized 
my  efforts  it  was  to  benefit  the  youth  and  prepare  the  young- 
men  to  perform  missions. 

When  I  came  home,  I  was  called  upon  to  visit  a  number 
of  the  wards;  and  the  preparation  of  the  youth  of  Israel  for 
missionary  work  was  the  subject  of  my  discourse  very  large- 
ly. There  were  associations  of  the  young  ladies  of  which 
Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow  was  the  genius.  I  met  with  her  and 
she  spoke  of  the  need  of  an  organization  of  the  young  men. 
On  Thursday  or  Friday  before  the  10th  of  June,  1874,  my 
father  came  home  from  the  President's  office,  and  I  met  him 
at  the  front  door.  He  said:  "The  President  wants  you  to 
organize  the  young  men."  I  asked  my  father  what  I  should 
do.  "Well,"  he  said,  "you'd  better  do  it." 

The  spirit  of  the  work  came  with  the  call,  and  I  knew 
just  what  to  do.  We  called  a  meeting  in  the  Thirteenth 
ward.  It  was  announced  in  the  Sunday  evening  service  that 
a  meeting  would  be  held  to  organize  the  young  men's  asso- 
ciation in  that  hall  on  Wednesday  evening.  I  called  on  Pres- 
ident Young,  but  could  not  see  him  until  Wednesday  morn- 
ing. I  asked  if  he  would  be  present — I  expected  he  would 
be  there  to  take  charge,  as  I  thought  I  had  been  called  sim- 
ply to  make  the  preparations.  President  Young  was  not  feel- 
ing well,  and  he  said  he  hardly  thought  he  would  venture 
out  that  evening.  He  turned  to  President  George  Q.  Cannon 
who  was  present,  and  asked  him  if  he  could  attend  the 
meeting, and  President  Cannon  said  a  meeting  of  his  quorum 
had  been  called  for  that  date  so  he  could  not  be  there.  Then 
the  President  commenced  to  talk  of  the  organization.  The 
question  came  up  as  to  wrhat  the  society  should  be  called; 

82  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

and  as  nearly  as  I  can  recall  his  words  they  were  as  follows: 
'  'We  want  to  organize  the  young-  men  into  an  association — 
an  improvement  association — a  mutual  improvement  asso- 
ciation— Young  Men's  Mutual  Improvement  Association. 
There's  your  name."  That  is  how  we  came  by  our  name. 
Then  he  went  on  speaking  in  regard  to  our  exercises.  He 
said  we  should  have  a  roll  of  all  the  members,  and  at  the  first 
meeting  commence  at  the  head  of  the  roll  and  call  upon  them 
to  arise  and  speak.  Said  he,  "We  want  to  get  our  boys  into 
the  habit  of  trying  to  say  something  in  the  name  of  the 
Lord.  More  people  have  received  testimonies  on  their  feet 
than  down  on  their  knees  praying  for  them." 

This  was  the  extent  of  the  instructions  we  received.  To- 
wards evening  I  called  at  the  President's  office  hoping  to 
meet  President  Cannon,  but  he  was  not  there.  I  remember 
walking  down  the  Theatre  hill;  I  never  had  such  feelings  or 
thoughts  as  filled  my  bosom.  I  was  very  humble  and  prayer- 
ful and  greatly  desired  that  the  Lord  would  give  us  success 
in  our  undertaking.  When  I  reached  the  Thirteenth  ward, 
Brother  B.  Morris  Young,  son  of  President  Young, was  there 
and  also  the  bishop  of  the  ward.  Brother  Young  acted  as 
secretary,  and  was  very  willing  to  assist  me.  We  had  the 
greatest  difficulty  in  persuading  three  or  four  young  men  to 
come  to  the  stand.  A  pledge  was  given  to  the  one  who 
offered  prayer.  He  agreed  to  open  the  meeting  by  prayer 
provided  he  was  not  called  upon  to  speak.  I  went  back  into 
the  vestry  before  the  commencement  of  the  meeting  for  a 
moment  of  silent  prayer,  and  when  I  came  back  to  the  room, 
I  felt  great  confidence.  The  way  seemed  clear  and  I  spoke 
for  about  fifty  minutes.  The  Spirit  of  the  Lord  was  there 
and  those  who  were  present  felt  it.  The  bishops,  some  of 
them,  since  that  time  have  told  me  of  it.  The  result  was 
that  a  vote  was  taken  and  they  all  voted  for  the  organization. 
Brother  Henry  A.  Woolley  was  called  to  be  president, 
Brothers  B.  Morris  Young  and  Heber  J.  Grant  were  counsel- 
ors, Brother  Hyrum  H.  Goddard  was  made  secretary.  When 
we  called  for  members,  seventeen  or  eighteen  enlisted.  That 
is  the  story  of  the  organization. 

Afterwards  I  visited  a  number  of  settlements.  St. 
George  was  one  of  them.  Brother  B.  Morris  Young  was  as- 
sociated with  the  organization  then  and  has  been  active  in  it 


ever  since.  I  went  to  Brigham  City  and  organized  the  as- 
sociation there.  Then  I  was  called  to  go  on  a  mission  to  the 
states  of  Illinois  and  Missouri.  The  Mutual  Improvement 
Association  work  was  taken  up  by  Brother  Milton  H.  Hardy 
and  others.  After  I  returned  from  my  mission  we  organized 
a  central  committee  to  push  this  work.  I  think  I  have  been 
present  and  assisted  in  the  organization  of  one  hundred  and 
ten  societies. 

In  1877  President  Young  completed  the  organization  of 
the  stakes  in  Zion,  Bear  Lake  being  the  last  one.  Immedi- 
ately after,  he  was  taken  ill,  the  last  week  in  August,  and  in 
a  few  days  the  weary  eyes  were  closed,  the  busy  brain  was 
stilled,  and  the  great  pioneer  who  had  dominated  the 
West  for  so  many  stirring  years  was  quietly  sleeping  in  his 
last  earthly  bed. 

The  feeling  of  dismay  which  followed  the  death  of  one 
of  the  greatest  leaders  and  men  among  this  people  was 
gradually  dispersed  by  the  grave  and  dignified  admin- 
istration of  the  Twelve  Apostles,  under  the  wise  lead- 
ership of  President  John  Taylor.  He,  too,  was  a  hero 
and  a  statesman.  As  he  had  -stood  by  the  Prophet  at  his 
death,  so  now  President  Taylor  took  up  the  role  of  leader- 
ship, without  faltering  and  without  fear.  To  him  was  left 
the  task  of  completing  the  regulation  of  all  the  affairs  of  the 
Church;  and  royally  and  grandly  did  he  discharge  this  duty. 
The  work  among  the  women  was  left  by  President  Taylor, 
as  it  had  been  by  President  Young,  to  the  care  of  Sister 
Eliza  R.  Snow. 

It  had  been  the  wish  and  purpose  of  President  Young,  at 
the  time  the  Young  Men's  Association  was  organized,  to 
change  the  name  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Retrenchment  Asso- 
ciations to  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Associations; 
but  this  was  not  accomplished  in  his  lifetime .  Soon  after  his 
death  the  change  was  made  by  Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow,  the  new 
title  being  adopted  locally;  for  there  were,  as  yet,  no  stake 

L4  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

or  general  organizations.  In  the  year  1878,  the  first  stake 
organization*  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement 
Association  was  effected,  under  the  direction  of  Sister  E.  R. 

Salt  Lake  Stake  board  was  organized  September  14th, 
1878.  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Freeze,  by  a  unanimous  vote  of  the 
sisters,  was  made  stake  president  over  this  largest  and  most 

*The  division  into  stakes  is  peculiar  to  our  Church  organ- 
ization. And  as  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Associa- 
tions follow  the  same  pattern,  it  may  be  well  to  give  a  brief  outline 
of  this  ecclesiastical  machinery.  No  other  such  compact,  simple 
and  altogether  perfect  organization  exists  upon  the  earth.  Nor 
should  there,  for  it  was  revealed  from  heaven  to  the  Prophet  Joseph 

The  people  living  in  a  small  town  are  organized  into  a  ward. 
This  ward  limit  can  be  compared  to  what  is  called  by  some  sects  a 
parish,  and  in  civil  parlance  it  is  termed  a  precinct.  The  larger 
towns  or  cities  are  divided  into  ecclesiastical  wards  of  suitable  and 
convenient  proportions.  A  ward  rarely  contains  more  than  twelve 
hundred  or  fewer  than  two  hundred  people.  If  there  are  fewer  than 
this  a  temporary  organization,  with  a  presiding  elder,  is  formed 
until  a  sufficient  number  of  people  permits  the  regular  ward  to  be 
organized.  Over  the  ward,  a  bishop  and  two  counselors  are  in- 
stalled; under  them  are  the  ward  quorums  of  the  priesthood,  the 
priests,  the  teachers  and  the  deacons.  In  this  ward  are  also  formed 
a  local  Relief  Society,  a  Sunday  school,  a  Young  Men's  Mutual  Im- 
provement Association,  a  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Asso- 
ciation, and  a  Primary  Association,  each  with  its  corps  of  officers. 
Once  each  year  a  ward  conference  is  held  at  which  all  these  officers 
are  presented  for  the  suffrage  of  the  people.  All  things,  therefore, 
are  done  by  common  consent. 

The  cities  and  towns  comprised  in  a  county  are  usually  formed 
into  a  stake.  If  the  town  becomes  a  city,  one  or  more  stakes  may 
be  organized  therein,  as  was  recently  done  in  Salt  Lake  City.  A 
nresident  and  two  counselors  are  set  to  preside  in  the  stake,  and 
associated  with  this  presidency  is  a  high  council,  consistin~  of 
twelve  high  priests.  These  officers  have  the  spiritual  affairs  of  the 
whole  stake,  with  its  bishoos,  its  quorums  of  the  Priesthood  and  its 
auxiliary  organizations,  under  their  charge. 

Over  all  the  stakes  is  set  the  quorum  of  the  twelve  apostles, 
with  the  president  of  the  Church  and  his  two  counselors  above 
them  in  rank  and  authority.  Thus,  then,  the  line  runs  down:  from 
the  presidency  of  the  Church  to  the  twelve  apostles;  from  these  to 
the  presidents  of  stakes,  then  to  the  bishops  of  wards;  and  then  on 
to  the  local  and  auxiliary  associations. 


important  stake  association.  Subsequently  she  chose  Mrs. 
Louie  Felt  and  Mrs.  Clara  Y.  Conrad  as  her  counselors.  By 
this  time  the  custom  of  having-  two  coimselors  instead  of  six 
was  adopted  in  the  local  associations. 

The  organization  of  stake  boards  was  rapidly  carried 
forward,  during:  the  next  two  years — 1878-80,  under  the 
charge  of  Sister  Snow,  who  was  also  busy  in  other  fields  of 
progress  and  education  for  women. 

In  the  summer  of  1880,  President  John  Taylor  instructed 
Sister  Snow  to  issue  a  call  for  all  the  women  of  the  Church 
to  assemble,  as  he  desired  to  form  three  general  heads, 
giving  each  of  the  auxiliary  associations  a  controlling 
board,  the  Relief  Society,  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Im- 
provement Association  and  the  Primary  Association.  Ac- 
cordingly, two  meetings  were  held  in  the  Assembly  Hall, 
Salt  Lake  City,  on  June  19th,  1880,  at  which  Sister  Snow 

In  the  morning,  the  general  organization  of  the  Relief 
Society  was  effected,  with  Eliza  R.  Snow  as  general  presi- 
dent. Her  scope  was  wide  according  to  the  records,  as  she 
is  termed  president  of  woman's  work  of  the  Church  in  all  the 

At  noon  on  that  day,  after  Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow  had 
been  set  apart  for  her  great  field  of  labor,  a  number  of  the 
sisters  went  to  the  home  of  Sister  Bathsheba  W.  Smith  for 
dinner.  Among  them  was  Sister  Elmina  S.  Taylor  of  the 
Fourteenth  ward,  Salt  Lake  City.  In  the  general  conversa- 
tion at  table,  Sister  Snow  looked  keenly  at  Sister  Taylor, 
and  after  the  little  preliminary  "hem,"  which  usually  pref- 
aced her  remarks,  and  which  was  the  only  reminder  of  the 
consumption  that  had  so  nearly  taken  her  away  in  middle 
life,  she  remarked  quietly,  yet  with  that  incisive  voice  which 
arrested  every  ear: 

"Well,  Sister  Taylor,  have  you  chosen  your  counselors?" 

86  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

With  equally  dignified  mien  and  equally  incisive  voice, 
that  now  rang-  out  somewhat  sharply  because  of  the  surprise, 
Sister  Taylor  replied: 

'  'For  what?" 

"We  have  decided  to  make  you  president  of  the  Mutual 
Improvement  Associations  in  all  the  Church,"  replied  Sister 

"I  shall  not  act,"  retorted  the  woman  who  had  shrunk 
from  publicity  all  her  life.  "I  cannot  act  in  that  capacity." 

However,  with  the  wise  arguments  which  always  con- 
vince a  Saint  who  desires  to  be  one,  Sister  Taylor's  scruples 
were  overcome,  and  she  was  voted  in  at  the  afternoon  meet- 

In  the  afternoon,  there  was  also  organized  the  Central 
Board  of  the  Primary  Associations.  Mrs.  Louie  B.  Felt  was 
made  president  of  this  board,  and  a  most  efficient  and  faith- 
ful officer  she  was,  and  is,  for  she  still  occupies  that  exalted 
station.  The  Primary  Associations  have  done  as  much,  per- 
haps, towards  making  good  and  fruitful  history  as  any  aux- 
iliary organization  in  the  Church.  They  have  printed  a 
short  history  of  their  work  and  the  record  thereof  is  both 
valuable  and  interesting. 

To  return  to  our  own  history: 

Mrs.  Taylor  chose  a  wife  of  President  John  Taylor,  Mrs. 
Margaret  Y.  Taylor,  as  her  first  counselor.  President  Taylor 
was  not  related  to  Bishop  George  H.  Taylor  and  his  wife  El- 
mina, although  they  were  intimate  friends  in  the  eastern  states, 
and  both  lived  in  the  Fourteenth  ward,  Salt  Lake  City.  Her 
second  counselor  was  Miss  Martha  Home  (later  Mrs.Tingey), 
a  daughter  of  Joseph  and  Mary  Isabella  Home,  and  one 
of  Zion's  most  exemplary  daughters.  The  secretary  chosen 
was  Miss  Louie  Wells,  a  daughter  of  President  D.  H. 
Wells  and  Mrs.  Emmeline  B.  Wells;  while  the  treasurer, 
Mrs.  Fannie  Young  Thatcher,  was  a  daughter  of  President 


President  Elmina  S.  Taylor 

First  Counselor  Margaret  Y.  Taylor  Second  Counselor  MarthatHorne 

First  Counselor  Maria  Y.  Dougall 


Young-.  Sister  Elmina  S.  Taylor  was  at  that  time  engaged 
in  housekeeping  and  rearing  children;  she  was  also  filling 
an  important  office  in  the  Relief  Society,  and  consequently 
was  a  busy  woman.  But  what  she  undertook  to  do,  she  did 
well.  vSister  Eliza  R.  Snow,  therefore,  relinquished  in  part 
the  care  and  responsibility  of  the  Young-  Ladies'  Association, 
and  the  burden  was  assumed  by  the  new  president,  assisted 
by  her  chosen  officers. 

Into  this  history  there  is  now  introduced  the  name  of 
one  of  Zion's  greatest  women — a  woman  whose  clearness  of 
vision,  firmness  of  purpose,  wisdom  and  executive  ability 
placed  her  side  by  side  with  Eliza  R.  Snow — this  woman 
is  Elmina  S.  Taylor.  Tried  and  tested  in  the  furnace  of 
affliction  and  sorrow,  the  character  of  this  faithful  friend 
and  counselor  was  beautified  and  enriched  and  made  ready 
for  the  eternal  crown  of  peace  which  now  encircles  her 

Sister  E.  S.  Taylor  began  her  labors  vigorously.  The 
first  meeting  which  she  attended  officially  was  a  local  one  in 
Farmers  ward,  at  which  she  and  her  counselors  were  present. 
Thus  began  a  most  energetic  work.  Stakes  were  to  be 
visited  yearly  and  sometimes  semi-annually.  Letters  were 
received  in  gradually  increasing  numbers,  and  for  years  most 
of  these  were  personally  addressed  to  President  E.  S.  Taylor, 
personally  answered  by  her,  and  the  expense  thereof  borne 
by  her.  Naturally,  the  work  at  this  time  was  largely  ex- 
perimental; each  ward  planned  its  own  course  of  study,  the 
work  of  the  General  Board  as  well  as  of  the  stake  boards  be- 
ing for  some  years  that  of  encouragement  and  general  help- 
fulness. Some  knowledge  of  the  magnitude  of  the  work  done 
by  Sister  E.  S.  Taylor  during  the  next  ten  years  may  be  ob- 
tained from  the  fact  that  she  made  between  three  and  four 
hundred  visits  during  that  period,  traveling  thousands  of 
miles,  mostly  by  team;  and  visiting  some  of  the  nearby 

88  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

stakes  two  or  three  times  a  year  in  addition  to  the  regular 
scheduled  visits. 

At  the  time  the  General  Board  was  organized  in  1880, 
the  Salt  Lake  stake  board  was  a  power  in  the  land,  and  its 
meetings  and  deliberations  were  a  stimulus  and  an  example 
to  the  other  stakes.  After  the  installation  of  the  General 
Board,  the  Salt  Lake  stake  officers  were  invited  to  meet  at 
the  home  of  Sister  E.  S.  Taylor,  and  here,  for  ten  years,  the 
joint  affairs  of  the  two  boards  were  considered.  The  mem- 
bers of  the  Salt  Lake  stake  board  were  often  invited  by  Sis- 
ter Taylor  to  accompany  her  on  her  trips,  and  she  in  turn 
gathered  help  and  inspiration  from  association  with  these 
active  workers  in  the  stake  capacity. 

It  was  in  these  meetings  that  she  became  acquainted 
with  the  character  and  labors  of  Mrs.  Maria  Y.  Dougall, 
who  was  then  acting  as  counselor  to  the  Salt  Lake  stake 
president,  Mary  A.  Freeze.  In  the  general  work  Sister 
Taylor  was  assisted  more  or  less  by  her  counselors;  but  Sister 
Margaret  Y.  Taylor  felt  obliged  to  resign  her  position  after  the 
death  of  her  husband  in  1887,  and  then  Sister  E.  S.  Taylor 
looked  about  her  for  another  counselor.  Mrs.  Maria  Y. 
Dougall  had  been  an  active  worker  in  the  M.  I.  A.  since  it 
was  first  organized.  She  was  a  dignified  young  matron,  of 
queenly  manners,  and  withal  humble  and  true  to  the  Gospel; 
She  was  a  worthy  child  of  her  father,  Brigham  Young,  and 
a  gracious  and  wise  daughter  of  Zion.  To  her  Sister  Taylor 
turned  when  she  was  obliged  to  part  with  her  first- chosen 
counselor;  and  certainly  she  never  had  cause  to  regret  this 
choice.  Sister  Tingey,  her  second  counselor,  who  was  al- 
ways very  close  to  Sister  Taylor's  heart,  remained  in  her 
place  for  twenty-five  years,  working  in  perfect  harmony  with 
her  president  and  with  the  other  counselors  as  well. 

In  1887,  the  General  Board  met  with  a  serious  loss  in  the 
death  of  the  secretary,  the  beautiful  and  gifted  Miss  Louie 

OFTHE  Y.  L.M.  i.  A, 

*  OFTHE  Y.  L.M.  I.  A 



Wells.  Miss  Mary  E.  Cook  was  called  to  take  the  place 
made  vacant  by  the  untimely  death  of  Sister  Wells.  Miss 
Cook  was  a  finely  educated  woman,  a  school  teacher  of  great 
natural  ability,  who  would  have  done  a  great  deal  of  good  in 
the  position  which  she  held  had  she  remained  in  Utah,  but 
she  held  her  place  only  until  the  fall  of  1891,  when  she  went 
east  to  live.  For  eight  years  the  general  officers  labored  be- 
fore they  were  blessed  and  set  apart  for  their  office. 

In  January,  1888,  Sister  Elmina  S.  Taylor  and  her  two 
counselors  met  at  the  home  of  Sister  Maria  Y.  Dougall, 
and  there  were  blessed  and  set  apart  to  their  responsible 
positions  by  the  First  Presidency  of  the  Church;  President 
Wilford  Woodruff  pronounced  the  blessing  on  the  head  of 
Sister  Taylor,  President  George  Q.  Cannon  performing  the 
like  office  for  Sister  Dougall,  and  President  Joseph  F.  Smith 
giving  the  blessing  to  Sister  Martha  Home  Tingey.  From 
this  hour  a  new  stride  forward  was  taken  in  the  labors  of 
the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  There  was  a  power  and  strength  im- 
parted to  the  general  work  which  had  never  before  been  felt. 
The  scattered  threads  were  gathered  up,  and  in  the  hands  of 
these  women  they  began  to  be  woven  into  a  fabric  of  lasting 
and  beautiful  design. 

With  the  opening  of  the  second  decade  of  the  General 
Board's  history,  a  vital  force  and  uplift  was  felt  in  every 
part  of  the  work.  Order,  regularity  and  system  began  to 
take  the  place  of  experimental  labor.  A  magazine  was 
launched;  new  aid  was  called  into  the  Board;  a  closer  union 
was  brought  about  between  the  Young  Men's  and  Young 
Women's  Associations.  Lessons  were  mapped  out  for  the 
associations,  and  printed  in  pamphlet  form.  A  yearly  fund 
was  established.  The  traveling  visits,  both  at  home  and 
throughout  the  stakes,  increased  wonderfully,  and  in  all  ave- 
nues great  activity  marked  the  last  decade  of  the  nineteenth 

90  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

This  record  will  now  concern  itself  with  some  of  these 
various  activities,  in  detail,  taking-  them  up  in  the  order  of 
their  occurrence;  beginning  with  the  establishment  of  a  maga- 
zine, as  an  organ  for  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  Associations. 



Elmina  Shepherd  Taylor  wras  born  in  Middlefield, 
Otseg-o  county,  state  of  New  York,  September  12,  1830,  the 
same  year  in  which  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day 
Saints  was  organized. 

Her  parents,  David  S.  and  Rozella  Bailey  Shepherd,  were 
honorable,  intelligent  people,  much  respected  in  the  com- 
munity in  which  they  lived.  They  were  zealous  members  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  church. 

Elmina  was  the  eldest  of  three  daughters.  She  was 
always  a  frail,  delicate  girl,  but  was  endowed  with  strong 
convictions  and  a  will  to  walk  in  the  path  of  duty  wherever 
it  might  lead.  As  a  child,  she  was  an  ardent  lover  of  nature. 
The  whispering  of  the  leaves  upon  the  trees,  the  swaying  of 
the  branches,  the  gentle  murmur  of  the  brook,  always  had  a 
soothing  effect  upon  her  sensitive  temperament,  and  often, 
as  she  wandered  in  the  woods  near  her  home,  she  would  lift 
her  heart  in  prayer  and  gratitude  to  her  heavenly  Father, 
asking  him  in  her  simple,  childish  way  for  blessings  upon  her 
parents  or  upon  her  own  head,  according  to  her  needs. 

At  an  early  age  she  was  sent  to  the  public  schools,  and 
being  a  thoughtful,  studious  child,  she  soon  became  sufficient- 
ly advanced  to  enter  the  Hardwick  academy,  from  whence, 
earnestly  applying  herself,  she  emerged  before  she  was  quite 
sixteen  to  engage  in  the  labor  of  school  teaching.  At  first 
her  duties  were  confined  to  the  rural  districts,  where,  as  was 
the  custom  at  that  time,  she  had  to  board  around  in  payment 
for  the  tuition  of  pupils.  Although  she  made  many  friends 
with  whom  she  might  have  visited  at  pleasure,  the  prac- 
tice was  so  repugnant  to  her  that  she  decided  to  branch  out 


into  broader  fields,  where  the  remuneration  was  sufficient  to 
enable  her  to  choose  her  own  boarding-  place. 

Through  a  cousin  who  was  also  a  teacher  in  southern 
New  York  she  received  an  excellent  offer  to  take  a  school  in 
Haverstraw,  a  beautiful  town  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Hud- 
son river,  two  hundred  miles  away  from  home  where  new 
but,  happily,  pleasant  experiences  awaited  her. 

For  a  young:  girl  to  go  so  far  away  in  those  days  was  an 
event  of  no  little  importance.  At  first  her  parents  demurred, 
but  finally  yielded  a  reluctant  consent  to  her  earnest  desire 
to  make  her  own  way  in  the  world.  So  away  she  went,  her 
first  trip  by  rail — a  truly  wonderful  journey  in  many  re- 

Miss  Shepherd  left  her  home  on  Friday.  On  reaching 
Albany  she  found  that  the  ice  over  the  Hudson  river  was 
breaking  up,  and  the  floating  blocks  had  piled  up  in  a  huge 
mass.  In  order  to  meet  her  appointment  the  following  Mon- 
day, she  must  cross  this  almost  impassable  stream.  Her 
friends  tried  to  dissuade  her  from  making  the  attempt;  but  she 
had  promised,  and  what  was  the  breaking  up  of  the  ice  com- 
pared with  the  breaking  of  her  word?  So  she  hired  two 
strong  Irish  boatmen,  who  with  skilful  rowing,  dodged  the 
ice,  and  landed  her  safely  on  the  other  side,  where  she  was 
soon  most  comfortably  situated. 

Although  Miss  Shepherd  and  her  cousin  taught  in  differ- 
ent districts,  they  boarded  together  in  a  pleasant  little  home 
nestling  at  the  foot  of  the  Catskill  mountains.  Behind  and 
above  towered  the  great  rocky  cliffs,  in  front  stretched  the 
beautiful  Hudson,  dotted  with  shell -like  boats  and  white 
sails,  majestic  steamers  gliding  gracefully  to  and  fro,  and  in 
the  distance  the  eastern  river  bank,  where  the  wealthy  men 
of  New  York  built  their  palatial  summer  residences.  It  was 
a  charming  scene,  and  one  that  was  always  a  source  of  de- 
light to  her. 

From  a  child,  Miss  Shepherd  had  been  spiritual -minded, 
and  at  about  twenty  years  of  age  had  naturally  embraced  the 
faith  of  her  parents.  She  was  an  active,  earnest  worker  in 
the  church  for  about  six  years,  but  was  not  quite  satisfied 
with  some  of  their  doctrines  and  tenets,  while  numerous 
things  perplexed  her.  Sometimes  she  would  go  to  her  min- 
ister, hoping  that  he  might  explain  and  make  things  clear  to 

92  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A, 

her  doubting-  mind,  but  alas!  she  would  leave  him  more  be- 
clouded than  before.  When  she  united  herself  with  the 
church,  she  was  very  anxious  to  be  baptized  by  immeirfion, 
the  pattern  set  by  our  Savior;  but  that,  her  friends  urged, 
was  a  foolish  notion,  so  she  had  finally  yielded  to  the  pre- 
vailing custom  of  sprinkling1. 

During  her  sojourn  in  Haverstraw  Miss  Shepherd  be- 
came acquainted  with  John  Druce  and  his  family,  and  a 
warm  friendship  sprang  up  between  them.  Mr.  Druce  was 
a  trustee  in  the  school  in  which  her  coiisin  taught,  and  he 
was  also  a  "Mormon"  elder.  One  night  he  gave  her  some 
Mormon  books,  asking  her  if  she  woiild  read  them. 

" Prove  all  things  and  hold  fast  to  that  which  is  good," 
was  one  of  the  impressive  things  she  had  culled  from  her 
well-read  Bible.  Acting:  upon  this  she  scanned  the  books 
with  a  prayerful  heart,  and  a  sincere  desire  that  her  mind 
might  be  led  aright.  Her  prayer  was  answered.  She  be- 
lieved the  doctrine,  and,  although  realizing  what  it  meant 
to  embrace  such  an  unpopular  religion,  felt  that  she  must 
carry  out  her  convictions.  Relying  on  the  words  of  Jesus, 
"If  any  man  will  do  my  will,  he  shall  know  of  the  doctrine," 
she  went  into  the  waters  of  baptism  on  July  5,  1856,  and,  on 
being  confirmed,  she  received,  according  to  her  own  state- 
ment, a  testimony  of  the  truthfulness  of  the  Gospel  of  Jesus 
Christ  as  revealed  to  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  which  re- 
mained with  her  until  the  last. 

She  had  taught  school  for  about  four  years  to  the  entire 
satisfaction  of  all  concerned,  when  the  time  arrived  for  the 
trustees  to  decide  on  a  teacher  for  another  year.  One  of  the 
trustees,  a  devout  Methodist,  objected  to  re-engaging  Miss 
Shepherd,  as  he  had  made  the  startling  discovery  that  she 
was  a  Mormon.  The  other,  a  wealthy,  broadminded  gentle- 
man, remarked  that  he  did  not  care  whether  she  was  a  Cath- 
olic, Protestant  or  Mormon,  she  had  kept  the  best  school  they 
ever  had  had  in  that  district.  He  prevailed,  but  upon  their 
offering  her  the  school,  she  declined  to  accept  it,  as  she  was 
about  to  take  a  much  more  important  position. 

She  was  married  August  31st,  1856,  to  Georg:e  Hamil- 
ton Taylor,  a  young  copper  engraver,  whom  she  had  met  at 
the  home  of  the  Druces.  The  late  President,  then  Apostle, 
John  Taylor  performed  the  ceremony.  On  April  15th, 


1859,  after  paying-  a  visit  to  her  parents,  who  were  then 
living-  in  Wisconsin,  they  started  for  Utah  by  ox  team,  arriv- 
ing in  the  Great  Salt  Lake  valley  September  16th  of  the  same 
year.  In  the  spring-  of  1860  they  located  in  the  Fourteenth 
ward,  where  they  ever  after  resided. 

In  accordance  with  a  promise  made  to  her  through  the 
gift  of  tongues,  all  her  father's  house  came  to  Zion;  although 
not  one  of  them  joined  the  Church.  After  the  death  of  her 
mother,  her  father  spent  his  declining:  days  at  her  home. 

Mrs.  Taylor's  public  life  beg-an  when  she  was  elected 
secretary  of  the  Fourteenth  ward  Relief  Society,  December 
12th,  1867,  a  position  she  held  for  twenty-six  years.  Sep- 
tember 23rd,  1874,  by  request  of  Eliza  R.  Snow,  she  was 
appointed  superintendent  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  the  same 
ward.  On  December  23rd,  1879,  when  the  Relief  Societies 
were  organized  into  a  stake  capacity,  with  Mrs.  M.  Isabella 
Home  as  president  of  the  Salt  Lake  stake,  Mrs.  Taylor  was 
chosen  her  first  counselor.  She  held  the  office  for  sixteen 
years,  traveling  considerably,  instructing,  exhorting-  and 
comforting  the  members.  It  is  a  remarkable  testimony  to 
the  executive  capacity  of  our  leader  that  she  held  all  these 
various  positions  simultaneously,  and  did  each  full  justice  in 
its  time  and  place. 

At  the  sisters'  conference  held  June  19th,  1880,  in  the 
Assembly  Hall,  Salt  Lake  City,  Sister  Taylor  was  appointed 
president  of  the  Young-  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Asso- 
ciations in  all  the  world.  Since  that  time,  she  has  traveled 
thousands  of  miles  in  the  company  of  Eliza  R.  Snow,  Zina 
D.  H.  Young-,  Sarah  M.  Kimball,  Emmeline  B.  Wells,  M. 
Isabella  Home  and  other  leading-  sisters,  visiting-  with 
the  Relief  Societies  as  well  as  the  Mutual  Improvement  As- 

In  1891,  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  became  affiliated  with  the 
National  Council  of  Women  of  the  United  States,  and  Mrs. 
Taylor  thus  became  an  ex-officio  vice  president  of  the  organi- 
zation. She  attended  several  eastern  conventions,  and  she 
presided  with  dignity  and  wisdom  over  the  meeting-  held  at 
the  Chicag-o  World's  Fair  in  the  interests  of  the  Y.  L.M.I.  A. 

Sister  Taylor  was  chosen  as  head  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 
at  a  time  when  there  was  no  General  Board,  no  aids,  no 
guides,  no  magazine  no.r  other  publications  for  their  work; 

94  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

no  quarterly  or  yearly  conferences  nor  conventions,  either 
stake  or  general;  no  headquarters,  not  even  any  regular  meet- 
ing's of  the  general  officers.  In  fact,  she  was  at  the  very 
beginning  of  all  these,  nay,  the  cause  itself  of  some  of  these 
splendid  outgrowths  of  M.  I.  work.  She  led  her  forces  for- 
ward step  by  step,  from  an  irregular,  desultory  corps  of  vol- 
unteers to  a  perfectly  disciplined  and  admirably  martialed 
host  whose  every  movement  was  systematized  and  whose 
power  for  good  was  acknowledged  as  paramount  in  Israel. 
She  assisted  in  the  making  of  more  history  for  the  young 
women  of  Israel  than  any  modern  woman  living  or  dead. 
She  lay  down  into  the  earth  at  last  garnered  as  a  shock  of 
corn  ripened  into  full  ear  and  ready  for  the  glorious  harvest 
of  divine  peace.  Just  how  good  and  how  great  she  was  time 
cannot  reveal — the  balance  can  only  be  struck  by  the  Eternal 
»  Adjudicator. 


Mrs.  Taylor  was  born  in  Westport,  Conn.,  on  the  24th 
of  April,  1837.  Her  father's  name  was  Ebenezer  Russell 
Young,  also  of  Connecticut,  but  no  known  connection  of 
Brigham  Young.  Both  Mrs.  Taylor's  parents  joined  the 
Mormon  Church;  and  when  Margaret  was  about  fourteen 
years  old,  she  too  was  baptized.  She  was  well  educated  for 
those  days  and  was  always  a  great  reader,  and  a  lover  of 
books.  She  was  married  to  President  John  Taylor,  and  emi- 
grated to  the  valley  in  1858.  She  was  well  acquainted  with 
Mrs.  Elmina  S.  Taylor,  they  having  formed  a  friendship  in 
New  York.  When  the  Salt  Lake  stake  Relief  Society  was 
organized,  Sister  Margaret  Y.  Taylor  was  chosen  secretary 
of  that  society.  She  also  served  for  a  number  of  years  as 
counselor  to  President  Agnes  Taylor  Schwartz  of  the  Four- 
teenth ward  Relief  Society.  It  was  with  great  timidity  and 
genuine  mental  suffering  that  she  accepted  and  for  seven 
years  held  the  place  of  counselor  to  President  Elmina  S.  Tay- 
lor in  the  original  organization  of  the  Board.  Her  nature 
shrank  with  keenest  pain  from  publicity  of  all  kinds.  But 
she  possessed  a  firm  character,  and  was  an  ideal  mother.  If 
she  had  done  no  other  work  than  to  give  to  the  world  the  nine 
splendid  children  she  has  borne,  her  years  would  be  full  of  joy 


and  eternity  would  crown  her  with  peace.  On  the  death  of 
her  husband,  in  1887,  she  resigned  her  position  as  Counselor 
and  withdrew  from  public  life.  But  she  still  lives  to  bless 
and  comfort  her  family.  Sister  Taylor  possesses  the  true 
refinement  of  a  sensitive,  unselfish  spirit.  She  has  latent 
literary  gifts, which  are  evidenced  by  the  beautiful  letters  she 
writes,  breathing  of  faith,  hope  and  love.  Her  quiet  life 
is  crowned  in  its  closing  days  with  the  love  of  children  and 
grandchildren,  for  they  have  multiplied  as  a  flock.  The 
graciousness  of  heaven  shines  around  her. 


The  second  counselor,  Miss  Martha  Home,  now  Mrs. 
Tingey,  inherits  her  mother's  firm,  wise  temperament.  She 
is  not  strong  physically,  but  her  strong  spirit  and  uplifting 
faith  carry  her  over  every  obstacle.  She  is  gentle  without 
weakness,  and  wise  without  subtlety.  Even  those  who  may 
differ  from  her  in  views  and  opinions  can  but  respect  and 
love  her  for  her  frank  sincerity  and  her  straightforward  hon- 
esty. She  was  very  congenial  to  her  president  and  they 
worked  always  together  and  with  the  greatest  unanimity  and 
harmony.  A  sketch  of  her  life  will  be  given  later  in  this 


Miss  Louie  Wells  was  born  August  27,  1862,  in  Salt 
Lake  City.  She  was  a  gifted  and  lovely  girl.  She  was  a 
natural  musician,  with  a  thrilling  quality  in  the  voice  which 
is  born  only  in  a  deep  and  passionate  soul.  She  was  a  writer 
of  rare  promise  and  wrote  enough  in  her  short  life  to  comprise 
a  huge  volume,  if  her  scattered  articles  in  the  Contributor, 
Exponent,  and  other  home  periodicals  had  been  put  together. 
She  was  so  talented  in  drawing  and  painting  that  she  was 
advised  by  her  friends  to  go  East  and  follow  art  as  a  life 
work.  She  was  an  earnest  and  brilliant  pupil  in  all  these 
artistic  lines,  and  one  who  took  advantage  of  every  opportunity 
offered  by  teachers  or  lecturers,  books  or  schools.  She  was 
one  of  the  most  successful  membe  rs  of  the  Home  Opera  com- 
pany, which,  under  Professor  George  Careless,  produced  the 

96  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

"Mikado"  and  other  operas  in  the  early  eighties.  She  sang 
the  part  of  one  of  the  Three  Little  Maids  in  the  "Mikado," 
and  was  an  unqualified  success  from  the  moment  her  piquant 
personality  appeared  before  the  footlights.  She  was  a  wide- 
ly-read and  highly  intelligent  assistant  to  her  mother  in  the 
editing  of  the  Exponent.  A  whole  people  loved  her  and 
mourned  her  untimely  death  in  San  Francisco,  May  16,  1887. 
Her  labors  as  secretary  of  the  General  Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M. 
I.  A.  were  all  too  brief,  but  what  she  did  do  was  to  estab- 
lish the  general  work  on  a  solid  and  excellent  foundation  as 
to  record-making  and  record-keeping. 


Mrs.  Fanny  Young  Thatcher,  who  was  the  treasurer  of 
the  first  General  Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  was  a  gifted 
daughter  of  a  great  father,  and  was  herself  a  favorite  daugh- 
ter, sister  and  friend.  In  a  family  of  handsome  girls,  she 
was  easily  the  prettiest,  as  well  as  the  best  beloved. 

Fanny  was  born  January  25,  1849;  she  was  married  in 
March,  1867,  to  George  W.  Thatcher,  as  his  second  wife. 
She  had  six  children,  three  of  whom  are  living — Mrs.  Lutie 
Lynch,  Frank  and  Lawrence  Thatcher.  She  lived  out  her 
short  and  quiet  existence  within  the  confines  of  Salt  Lake 
City.  She  was  possessed  of  remarkable  musical  gifts,  her 
playing  and  singing  being  noted  for  exquisite  grace  and 
smoothness.  Her  father,  Brigham  Young,  always  called 
upon  Fanny  to  lead  in  the  evening  hymns,  or  to  play  the 
latest  dance  tune,  or  to  sing  his  favorite  song,  "Hard  Times 
Come  Again  no  More." 

Fanny  was  organist  in  the  first  Tabernacle  built  in  the 
western  wilderness,  in  the  fifties,  long  ago  torn  down  to  per- 
mit the  Assembly  Hall  to  stand  upon  its  site.  Though  rarely 
beautiful,  her  charm  of  face  was  not  half  so  adorable  as  the 
charm  of  her  gentle,  refined,  unselfish  nature.  Her  words 
were  never  sharp,  never  sarcastic,  never  bitter.  She  might 
carry  in  her  bosom  a  sorrow,  but  no  one  would  guess  it  ex- 
cept from  a  deeper  tinge  of  sympathy  in  the  low,  thrilling 
voice.  She  was  of  a  shrinking  nature,  with  sensitive  spirit- 
ual tendrils  which  clung  to  faith  and  affection  with  delicate, 
invincible  coils.  A  keen  and  saving  sense  of  humor  wreathed 


her  tragedies  in  smiling-  question-marks,  thus  meeting  her 
self-pity  with  grim  unresponsiveness.  Fanny's  mother, 
Lucy  Decker  Young,  the  first  plural  wife  of  her  father,  was 
of  good  old  Knickerbocker  stock  on  both  sides — Decker  and 
Wheeler,  both  of  old  New  York  state;  and  from  her  Fanny 
inherited  the  patience  which  could  look  into  the  very  eyes  of 
life  and  death  with  sweet  stillness. 

Fanny  was  president  of  the  Eighteenth  ward  Y.  L.  M.  I. 
A.,  for  one  year  prior  to  the  time  when  she  was  selected  by 
Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow  and  Sister  Taylor  as  treasurer  of  the 
General  Board,  at  its  organization,  June  19,  1880.  She  held 
the  office  of  general  treasurer  until  her  death  on  January  20, 
1892.  She  was  associated  with  the  Board,  therefore,  prior 
to  any  general  conferences,  and  had  small  opportunity  to  ex- 
ercise any  gift  or  labor  in  the  cause  she  had  been  associated 
with  since  its  organization  in  her  father's  parlor  in  1869. 
But  she  loved  the  good,  and  hated  with  calm  serenity  evil, 
gloom,  strife,  worldliness,  and  all  selfishness.  When  she  en- 
tered a  room,  with  her  graceful,  gliding  step,  her  shapely 
head  coiled  about  with  low  braids  of  gleaming,  gold-brown 
hair,  her  blue  eyes  smiling  above  the  curving  lips  of  delicate 
coral,  her  supple  form  robed  ever  in  exquisite  taste  and  sim- 
plicity, her  presence  penetrated  to  everyone  present,  though 
there  were  a  multitude,  like  some  subtle  oriental  perfume 
distilled  in  fairy  vase.  If  she  spoke,  peace  and  good- will 
flowed  through  her  words;  if  she  sang,  music  brooded  with 
hovering  wings  atremble  while  her  voice  floated  along  the 
air.  If  she  swept  the  harp -strings,  or  touched  with  tender 
fingers  the  cold  ivory  of  an  organ,  the  spirit  of  harmony  was 
vivified  and  given  being.  For  Fanny  was  the  incarnate 
muse  of  poetry  and  music.  Such  as  she  make  earth 
endurable  and  heaven  glorious.  The  heaven  we  know 
and  hope  to  reach  has  no  sweeter  picture  than  that  of  Fanny 
Thatcher  at  some  harpsichord,  when  there  are  heavenly 
choirs  assembled  to  greet  some  earth-worn  prophet,  priest  or 
beggar;  her  touch  upon  the  keys,  the  very  essence  of 
heavenly  sympathy  and  rejoicing  as  the  anthem  rolls,  echo- 
ing through  the  halls  of  never-ending  time  and  space. 

98  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


Mrs.  Maria  Young-  Doug-all  is  the  daughter  of  the  late 
President  Brig-ham  Young-  and  his  wife  Clarissa  Ross.  She 
was  born  in  Salt  Lake  City,  December  10th,  1849.  She  is 
on  both  sides  from  old  New  England  stock,  her  ancestors  on 
the  father's  side  being  among  the  colonizers  of  Massachusetts 
as  early  as  1720.  On  her  mother's  side,  Betsy  Ross,  one  of 
her  family,  was  the  fashioner  of  the  first  American  flag. 

Mrs.  Dou gall's  childhood  was  passed  amidst  the  diffi- 
culties and  hardships  endured  by  the  early  settlers  of  Utah, 
although  her  education,  even  under  these  circumstances,  was 
not  neglected;  the  wisdom  of  her  illustrious  father  having 
provided  a  private  teacher  and  school-room  for  his  children 
where  an  excellent  rudimentary  education  could  be  acquired. 
Among  the  studies  taught  was  physical  culture,  with  the 
early  appliances  invented  by  Dr.  Dio  Lewis.  The  quaint, 
single  seats  are  now  all  destroyed;  but  there  are  still  extant 
some  of  the^  back-boards  which  were  used  in  those  early  and 
primitive  "gymnastics."  A  private  music  teacher  was 
always  a  part  of  the  family  life,  the  first  piano  and  organ 
having  been  drawn  across  the  plains  with  ox  teams.  Not  a 
daughter  of  President  Young  lacked  the  musical  ear,  and 
most  of  them  were,  for  those  days,  superior  musicians.  Mrs. 
Dougall  was  one  of  D.  O.  Calder's  solo  singers  in  his  famous 
pioneer  singing  school.  All  this  was  before  high  schools  in 
Utah  were  known,  and  Mrs.  Dougall  was  married  before  it 
became  possible  to  pursue  the  so-called  "higher  education." 

When  eight  years  old,  little  Maria's  mother  died,  and 
her  subsequent  life-training,  until  she  was  married,  was  un- 
der the  judicious  care  of  that  excellent  and  beloved  mother 
in  Israel,  Sister  Zina  D.  H.  Young,  to  whose  teachings  she  is 
indebted  for  much  of  the  solidity  of  character  and  the  good 
judgment  which  she  possesses.  On  June  1st,  1868,  she  be- 
came the  wife  of  William  B.  Dougall,  who  was  for  years 
superintendent  of  the  Deseret  Telegraph  company,  a  young- 
man  of  great  sagacity  and  refinement.  Her  marriage  has 
been  a  happy  one,  and  five  children  have  been  born  to  her. 

Sister  Dougall  has  lived  all  her  life  in  Salt  Lake  City, 
and  from  her  early  years  has  been  earnestly  engaged  in  doing 
good,  both  in  public  and  in  private  life.  She  was  present  at 



that  memorable  meeting  in  the  Lion  House  on  November 
28th,  1869,  and  was  chosen  as  one  of  the  counselors  to  her 
sister,  Ella  Y.  Empey.  In  1879,  she  was  made  president 
of  the  Seventeenth  ward  Association  and  acted  as  such 
till  she  was  chosen  as  first  counselor  to  Mary  A.  Freeze, 
the  first  president  of  the  Salt  Lake  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 
From  this  position  in  1887  she  was  called  to  become  first 
counselor  to  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor.  She  acted  for  six 
years  as  first  counselor  to  Sister  Julia  Howe  in  the  Primary 
Association  of  the  Seventeenth  ward,  and  Sister  Howe  deeply 
regretted  the  necessity  for  her  resignation  from  that  position , 
to  take  up  the  heavier  burdens  involved  in  the  general  work 
of  the  Mutual  Improvement  Association.  She  was  also  con- 
nected for  years  with  the  Woman's  Co-operative  store,  acting 
as  vice  president  to  President  M.  Isabella  Home. 

In  1893  Sister  Doug-all  was  called  to  act  as  a  worker,  at 
the  completion  of  that  great  edifice,  in  the  Salt  Lake  Temple; 
and  here  she  has  remained  at  her  post  in  season  and  out  of 
season.  When  the  Bureau  of  Information  was  opened  Mrs. 
Dougall  became  one  of  the  guides  who  give  their  time  free 
of  charge  for  the  instruction  of  tourists  who  visit  Salt  Lake 
City.  All  this,  too,  in  addition  to  her  duties  in  the  Mutual 
Improvement  Association  and  the  many  loving-  burdens 
which  rest  upon  her  as  mother  and  home-maker. 

As  this  record  will  show,  Mrs.  Dougall  has,  on  three 
different  occasions,  attended  the  great  convention  or  Council 
of  Women,  once  at  Chicago,  once  at  Omaha,  and  once  at 
Washington.  She  attended  also  the  Suffrag-e  convention  in 
1887  held  at  Washing-ton,  D.  C.,  in  company  with  Sister 
Sarah  M.  Kimball,  Sister  Doug-all  being-  chairman  of  the 
executive  committee  of  the  state  association. 

The  brief  facts  here  outlined  of  a  full  and  beautiful  life 
do  not  portray  the  half  of  the  good  deeds  done;  for  it  is  in 
trouble  or  sickness,  in  distress  and  in  poverty  that  the  ten- 
der hand  of  this  wise  counselor  has  been  most  often  extended . 
In  those  offices  where  woman  ministers  to  woman,  her  gentle 
hands  have  comforted  and  blessed  hundreds  of  Zion's  daugh- 
ters. Her  character  is  one  of  force  and  strength;  and  yet  so 
calm  and  equable  is  her  temperament  that  a  storm-tossed  soul 
can  always  find  a  sweet  refuge  in  the  sheltering  love  that 
knows  no  distinction  between  rich  nor  poor,  high  nor  low, 

100  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

only  the  suffering"  and  unfortunate.  Her  beautiful  home  has 
hospitable  doors  swung"  wide  to  every  one  who  knocks  at  the 
portals;  and,  together  with  her  husband,  who  died  April  llth, 
1909,  she  ministered  to  every  traveler  who  went  their  way. 
For  many  years  the  g-eneral  officers'  meetings  of  the  Y. 
L.  M.  I.  A.  held  at  the  April  and  October  conference 
time,  were  convened  in  Sister  Doug-all's  home.  Here  the 
sisters  from  every  part  of  Zion  gathered  and  held  some 
of  the  best  spiritual  and  the  most  profitable  business  'meet- 
ing's ever  known  in  the  history  of  the  Mutual  Improvement 
work.  These  meetings  outgrew  the  parlors,  in  the  course 
of  ten  years;  but  who  that  has  ever  been  at  the  meeting's  in 
the  Doug-all  home  can  forg-et  the  hallowed  influence  of  that 
beautiful  and  consecrated  hearthstone! 



Ii-.  inception. — Its  purpose. — First  number  issued  October,  1889. — 
Mrs.  Susa  Young  Gates,  editor. — President  Elmina  S.  Taylor  car- 

.  ried  moral  responsibility. — Difficulties. — Assistance  from  mem- 
bers of  General  Board. — Other  friends. — Out  of  troubled  waters. — 
President  Taylor  relieved  by  anpointment  of  committee. — Editor 
Gates  resigned. — Mrs.  May  Booth  Talmage  her  successor. — Miss 
Ann  M.  Cannon  succeeded  Mrs.  Talmage. — Miss  Elen  Wallace, 
associate  editor. — Miss  Mary  E.  Connelly  became  editor. — Busi- 
ness department:  A.  H.  Cannon,  Miss  Estelle  Neff,  Miss  Agnes 
S.  Campbell. — First  office. — New  quarters. 

THE  work  was  growing- now  very  rapidly.  Especially  was 
there  felt  a  necessity  for  some  voice  sufficiently  exten- 
sive to  reach  from  one  end  of  Israel  to  the  other.  When 
King-  Benjamin,  among-  the  Nephites,  g-athered  his  peo- 
ple together  to  give  them  his  last  solemn  instructions, 
he  found  it  impossible  to  make  the  thousands  assem- 
bled hear  his  words.  So  he  resorted  to  a  very  un- 
usual custom  in  those  days,  but  a  very  common  one 
now:  he  caused  his  words  to  be  written  and  distributed  to  the 
multitude  who  were  not  within  the  sound  of  his  voice. 
Likewise,  when  Sister  Taylor  received  so  many  questioning- 
letters,  she  long-ed  for  some  means  of  sending:  her  words  to 
the  multitude  of  "her  girls"  whose  ranks  were  increasing 

There  were,  in  the  seventies  and  eighties,  three  printed 
mediums  for  the  chief  auxiliary  organizations:  the  Juvenile  In- 
structor, owned  and  edited  by  President  George  Q.  Cannon, 
for  the  benefit  of  the  Sunday  Schools;  the  Woman '  s  Exponent, 
owned  and  edited  by  Mrs.  Emmeline  B.  Wells,  for  the  use  of 
the  Relief  Society;  and  the  Contributor,  the  organ  of  the 

102  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Young-  Men's  Association,  owned  and  edited  by  Junius  F. 
Wells.  All  of  these  were  excellent  publications,  but  each 
had  its  own  special  line  of  effort,  and  no  one  of  them  was 
suitable  for  Sister  Taylor's  purposes.-  Sister  Sarah  M.  Kim- 
ball  was  always  an  ardent  friend  and  advocate  of  the  idea 
that  the  young  women  should  have  a  printed  organ  of  their 
own,  in  which  to  develop  their  talents,  and  from  whose 
pages  they  should  receive  instruction  and  encouragement 
from  their  leaders.  At  the  same  time  that  the  sisters  were 
considering  the  subject  at  home,  away  off  on  the  Sandwich 
Islands  Mrs.  Susa  Young  Gates,  who  was  there  on  a  mission 
with  her  husband,  was  inspired  with  a  desire  to  establish  a 
magazine  for  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Asso- 

Sister  Gates  wrote  first  to  President  Joseph  F.  Smith, 
suggesting  to  him  her  idea,  which  had  been  sanctioned  by 
her  husband.  His  answer  was  very  encouraging,  and  she 
was  advised  to  communicate  with  the  president  of  the  Church, 
as  well  as  with  the  president  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual 
Improvement  Associations.  This  counsel  was  followed 
immediately;  and  her  letter  to  Sister  Taylor  and  counselors  is 
here  given  in  part: 

LAIE,  August  24,  1888. 
Dear  Sisters: 

In  addressing  you  on  the  subject  of  this  letter,  I  earnestly 
desire  that  God  will  bless  me  and  inspire  my  mind,  that  my 
words  may  be  not  only  the  expression  of  my  heart,  but  bet- 
ter, that  they  may  be  dictated  by  the  Spirit  of  God. 

For  many  years  my  great  desire  has  been  to  occupy  my 
spare  time  in  the  cultivation  of  the  talent  which  was  bestowed 
upon  me,  that  I  might  benefit  myself  and  be  in  some  measure, 
according  to  the  strength  given  me,  a  benefit  and  help  in  a 
literary  way  to  my  sisters  in  their  lives  and  labors.  The 
spare  time  which  many  have  devoted  to  the  pretty  trifles  with 
which  women  delight  to  adorn  their  households,  or  to  the 
making  of  elaborate  and  trimmed  clothing  for  themselves  and 


children,  I  have  used  with  delight  in  the  labors  of  the  pen. 
For  the  last  eight  years  I  have  been  engaged  in  home  duties; 
and  yet  I  have  found  many  moments  to  devote  to  my  writ- 
ings." *  *  * 

Some  time  ago,  my  husband  having'  expressed  a  wish 
that  I  could,  on  my  return  to  Utah,  identify  myself  with  one 
of  our  leading1  publications,  and  then  centralize  my  varied 
efforts  in  the  literary  line, I  addressed  some  questions  to  an  old 
friend,  Dr.  Romania  B.  Pratt  of  your  city,  in  regard  to  this 
matter.  She  wrote  a  kind  letter  in  reply,  and  set  forth  in 
glowing  colors  the  advisability  of  organizing  a  magazine  to 
represent  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  Associations. 

I  asked  myself  and  my  husband  the  question:  can  I  find  the 
strength  for  all  this?  His  reply  in  substance  was,  that  if  I 
could  obtain  good  and  wise  assistants  and  if  the  main  respon- 
sibility of  such  an  undertaking  were  to  rest  upon  a  board  of 
young  women  chosen  for  that  purpose,  and,  above  all,  if  I 
could  be  the  constant  recipient  of  the  faith  and  the  blessings 
of  the  presidency  of  the  Church,  and  the  authorities  and 
members  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Associ- 
ation, he  could  freely  feel  to  give  me  his  trust  and  confidence. 

Thus  encouraged,  I  asked  counsel  of  President  Joseph  F. 
Smith,  and  by  him  was  referred  to  President  Woodruff  with 
his  own  added  approval  of  the  scheme.  To  this  solemn  council 
I  have  now  submitted  the  matter,  and  should  this  letter  reach 
you,  you  will  doubtless  receive  at  the  same  time  some  ex- 
pression of  their  minds  on  the  matter. 

Sister  Gates  then  gave  a  detailed  outline  of  what  she 
thought  such  a  magazine  should  contain,  plans  which  have 
been  generally  followed  in  the  publishing  of  the  Young 
\Vomarfs  Journal.  In  closing  Sister  Gates  said: 

Now  as  to  the  financial  part  of  the  plan:  Although  I  have 
capital  sufficient  to  start  such  an  enterprise,  yet  it  would 
seem  wiser  to  me  to  create  a  stock  company  among  the  asso- 
ciations, and  let  each  society  hold  an  interest  and  receive  of 
the  profits,  if  there  be  any,  thus  becoming  an  interested  party 
in  the  enterprise.  Thus  all  would  feel  it  a  duty  to  uphold  and 
sustain  by  faith  and  works  their  appointed  spokesman  and 
voice . 

104  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Let  me  bring  this  lengthy  epistle  to  a  close.  I  shall 
humbly  pray  that  God  will  inspire  you  in  your  deliberations, 
and  that  no  matter  what  your  decision  as  regards  my  partici- 
pation in  the  affair  may  be,  if  such  a  thing  will  prove  of  last- 
ing benefit  to  the  young  women  of  Utah,  I  pray  that  it  may 
be  carried  successfully  and  gloriously  to  an  issue;  and  that  all 
who  aid  in  any  way  may  receive  the  purest  and  choicest  bless- 
ings of  heaven. 

Dear  sisters,  under  the  decision  of  the  presiding  council 
of  the  Church,  the  matter  now  rests  in  your  hands.  If  you 
so  decide,  communicate  with  me  as  to  your  wishes  in  regard 
to  me  personally,  and  direct  and  suggest  as  the  spirit  in- 

Without  prolonging  words,  I  will  pray  that  this  matter 
may  be  decided  in  all  righteousness,  which  is  the  fervent  de- 
sire of 

Your  sister  in  the  Gospel, 

(Signed)  SUSA  YOUNG  GATES, 

Address:   Honolulu,  Box  410, 
Oahu,  Sandwich  Islands. 

The  communication  to  the  president  of  the  Church  re- 
ceived the  following  answer: 



October  2,  1888. 
Mrs.  Susa  Gates,  Honolulu,   S.  /. 

Dear  Sister: 

Your  letter  of  August  24,  addressed  to  myself,  and  one 
of  the  same  date  addressed  to  Sisters  ElminaS.  Taylor,  Maria 
Y.  Dougall  and  Mattie  H.  Tingey,  the  presidency  of  the 
Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Association,  have  been 
received  and  the  contents  noted  with  pleasure. 

The  subject  on  which  you  write  meets  with  our  approval . 
We  know  of  no  reason  why  our  Young  Ladies'.  Association 
should  not  be  properly  represented, and  the  plan  you  propose, 
we  think,  is  worthy  of  the  consideration  of  our  sisters,  who 
have  been  so  long  engaged  in  the  interest  of  these  associa- 
tions. What  course  they  will  take  in  this  matter,  we  do  not 
know;  but  if  it  is  decided  to  enter  into  such  an  undertaking  as 


you  have  outlined,  and  our  counsel  is  desired,  we  would  sug- 
gest that  it  be  commenced  upon  business  principles — subscrip- 
tions could  be  solicited  in  advance,  proper  estimates  made  of 
the  cost  of  labor  in  all  its  branches,  the  material  needed  in 
the  publication  of  the  work,  etc.;  and  that  suitable  arrange- 
ments be  made  at  the  commencement,  so  that  the  venture 
may  stand  upon  its  own  resources,  independent  of  any  aid 
from  the  Church,  further  than  what  moral  support  we  can 
give  in  its  interest. 

In  regard  to  your  being  engaged  in  the  editorial  depart- 
ment of  the  contemplated  magazine,  we  would  suppose  your 
ability  and  talent  would  eminently  fit  you  for  that  place. 
That,  however,  as  all  other  matters,  would  come  under  the 
supervision  of  the  board  of  managers. 

We  have  forwarded  your  letter  to  the  sisters  of  the  Young 
Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Association  for  their  consider- 
ation and  action,  upon  which  they  will,  no  doubt,  communi- 
cate their  views  to  you;  so  that  you  may  more  fully  enter 
into  suitable  arrangements  for  the  commencement  and 
progress  of  the  work . 

With  kindest  regards  to  yourself,  your  husband  and  fam- 
ily, and  the  Saints  with  whom  you  are  associated,  and  pray- 
ing the  Lord  to  bless  you  in  all  your  laudable  undertakings, 
I  remain, 

Your  brother  in  the  Gospel, 

(Signed)         WILFORD  WOODRUFF. 

In  a  subsequent  private  letter  written  to  Sister  Gates  in 
his  own  peculiar  handwriting,  President  Woodruff  wrote 
(using  red  ink  for  emphasis):  "I  think  the  sisters  voted  to 
publish  the  magazine.  I  said  I  would  subscribe  for  three 
numbers."  And  he  did.  From  the  initial  number  of  the 
journal  to  his  death,  President  Woodruff  personally  sub- 
scribed and  paid  for  three  numbers. 

The  letter  from  Sister  Gates  to  President  Elmina  S.  Tay- 
lor and  counselors  was  read  and  then  presented  by  them  to 
the  First  Presidency  of  the  Church.  It  was  decided  to  estab- 
lish a  magazine  as  soon  as  Sister  Gates  returned  from  the 
islands,  and  suitable  arrangements  could  be  made.  In  May, 

106  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  T  A. 

1889,  Elder  Jacob  F.  Gates  and  family  returned  to  Utah,  and 
the  work  of  planning-  was  begun . 

None  of  the  sisters  having-  had  experience  in  managing 
an  enterprise  of  that  kind,  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor  felt  it 
necessary  to  get  the  advice  and  assistance  of  an  experienced 
man  to  counsel  in  the  business  part  of  the  venture,  until  such 
time  as  a  woman  manag-er  could  be  found.  The  great  desire 
was  to  have  all  the  work  done  by  women ,  as  had  been  advised 
by  President  Joseph  F.  Smith. 

Sister  Gates  then  went  to  the  office  of  her  friend,  Abra- 
ham H.  Cannon,  who  was  manager  of  the  fuvenile  Instructor, 
and  presented  the  matter  to  him.  She  was  received  with  all 
the  warmth  of  encouragement  possible  to  give.  He  expressed 
at  once  his  perfect  faith  in  the  ultimate  success  of  .such  a  ven- 
ture, and  consented  to  assist  the  young  editor  in  every  pos- 
sible way,  and  to  print  the  journal  at  the  fuvenile  Instructor 
office,  trusting  to  the  subscriptions  to  pay  the  expenses,  so 
confident  was  he  of  its  success.  Never  from  that  moment  did 
his  faith  waver.  What  risk  there  was  the  editor  willingly  as- 
sumed, for  she  was  as  sanguine  financially  as  she  was  spirit- 

During  the  summer  of  1889,  President  Taylor  and  her 
counselor,  Sister  Dougall,  visited  the  president  of  the  Church 
at  the  Gardo  House,  and  there  Sister  Susa  Young  Gates  was 
blessed  and  set  apart  under  the  hands  of  President  George 
Q.  Cannon  for  the  work  she  wTas  about  to  undertake. 

In  October,  1889,  the  first  number  of  the  new  magazine 
was  issued.  The  price  was  two  dollars  a  year;  and  the  mag- 
azine, after  the  first  six  issues,  contained,  as  it  did  until  1909, 
forty-eight  pages  of  reading  matter. 

It  was  not  expected  that  a  state  of  perfection  would  be  then 
or  soon  reached;  only  that  the  plane  occupied  would  be  as  high 
as  could  be  attained  with  the  home  talent  available.  There 
were  two  things  of  paramount  importance  to  the  young 


editor:  first,  that  the  spirit  of  the  magazine  should  take  pre- 
cedence above  the  forms  in  which  the  words  mig'ht  be  cast; 
the  polish  and  veneer  might  lack  or  fail,  but  the  genuineness 
of  the  thought,  and  the  indirect  as  well  as  the  direct  teaching 
must  never  be  doubtful;  second,  from  the  first  number  the 
regular  contributors  must  be  home  writers,  and  in  harmony 
with  the  spirit  of  the  associations;  and,  too,  they  should  re- 
ceive something,  if  ever  so  little,  for  their  work.  The  writer's 
brains  were  as  worthy  of  hire  as  the  type-setter's  hands. 

During  the  first  year  some  one  was  needed  to  travel  and 
present  the  new  magazine  to  the  people  of  the  Territory.  Who 
would  undertake  such  a  labor  of  love  without  money  and 
without  price?  In  this  dilemma,  the  mother  of  Mrs.  Gates, 
Sister  Lucy  B.  Young,  wife  of  President  Brigham  Young, 
and  a  devoted  worker  in  the  cause  of  truth  and  womanhood, 
offered  her  services  to  travel  and  secure  subscriptions.  She 
took  her  own  carriage  and  horses  and  traveled  for  months, 
from  north  to  south,  meeting  with  the  Saints,  securing  hun- 
dreds of  subscriptions,  and  acquainting  the  people  with  the 
fact  that  the  young  women  of  Zion  had  now  a  magazine  of 
their  own,  in  which  to  voice  their  sentiments  and  cultivate 
their  God-given  talents. 

The  burden  grew  very  heavy  for  the  editor.  In  Octo- 
ber, 1892,  anew  arrangement  was  suggested  by  the  editor. 
Elder  Abraham  H.  Cannon  had  signified  his  willingness  to 
assume  the  business  management  of  the  magazine,  he  to  own 
one-third,  the  associations  one-third,  and  the  editor  one-third. 
This  agreement  was  signed  by  Elder  Cannon  and  Sister 
Gates,  but  Sister  Taylor  was  unwilling  to  incorporate  the 
associations  in  order  that  they  might  hold  the  stock,  and  she 
would  not  accept  the  trust  as  a  personal  matter.  However, 
Sister  Gates  never  departed  from  the  spirit  of  this  contract, 
although  it  was  not  formally  ratified,  as  the  deed  made  out 
at  the  time  was  signed  only  by  Brother  Cannon  and  herself. 

108  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

From  the  initial  number,  Sister  Taylor  carried  the  moral 
responsibility  of  the  young  publication.  She  read  most  of 
the  matter,  and  gave  of  her  time  and  strength  with  such 
heart  and  soul  that  she  was  heard  to  say  more  than  once  that 
"the  Journal  would  be  the  death  of  her."  Brother  Cannon 
was  the  next  best  friend  of  the  Journal.  In  season  and  out 
of  season,  his  encouragement  and  such  help  as  his  many 
other  cares  permitted  were  freely  given  to  the  editor  and  her 
struggling  enterprise.  His  close  friend  and  associate  in  the 
Juvenile  office,  Elder  Walter  J.  Lewis,  was  another  tried  and 
true  friend.  Especially  was  he  tried!  But  these  with  the 
editor  bore  the  burden  for  eight  long,  weary  and  strenuous 
years.  That  they  remained  true  to  the  Journal  and  to  each 
other  during  those  years  is  no  less  an  honor  to  themselves 
than  a  blessing  to  the  cause  in  which  they  had  engaged. 

However,  there  were  some  extremely  discouraging  fea- 
tures connected  with  the  work;  the  most  trying  one  was  the 
lack  of  agents'  work  in  the  field.  For  this  reason,  unsold 
books  piled  upon  the  shelves  of  the  Juvenile  office,  and  a  con'- 
sequent  debt  accumulated  on  the  office  books.  After  eight 
years  of  varied  experience,  the  Journal  was  suddenly  de- 
prived of  its  managing  head — Elder  Abraham  H.  Cannon. 
Death  carried  away  one  of  the  brightest  and  noblest  apostles. 

Matters  were  now  in  a  very  unsatisfactory  condition. 
The  Journal  was  found  to  be  in  debt  thousands  of  dollars  for 
the  printing.  While  it  was  true  that  the  debt  came  from  un- 
sold volumes,  that  did  not  help  matters. 

Sister  Gates  offered  to  take  an  initial  trip  through  several 
counties  and  make  a  heroic  effort  to  dispose  of  the  back  num- 
bers of  the  Journal,  which  were  at  the  same  time  the  assets 
and  the  cause  of  the  liabilities  of  the  concern.  No  personal 
extravagance  was  imptited  to  either  editor  or  business  mana- 
ger— none  could  be,  where  so  much  labor  had  been  given 
without  sufficient  pay,  or  no  pay  at  all.  Sister  Gates  made 



two  trial  trips  in  the  northern  counties,  covering- Weber,  Box 
Elder,  Cache,  Bingfham,  Fremont  and  parts  of  other  stakes. 
From  the  first  six  weeks'  trip  there  was  realized  over  seven 
hundred  dollars;  and  all  were  benefited  by  the  experience. 


The  associations  made  the  effort  to  buy  the  back  numbers, 
but  they  received  full  value  for  their  time  and  money  in  the 
possession  of  books  that  are  now  well-nigh  priceless,  for  many 
are  long-  out  of  print.  After  this,  other  members  of  the 
Board  took  up  the  matter  of  pushing-  the  sale  of  the  back 

110  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

volumes;  and  soon  after  Sister  Cornelia  H.  Clayton  was  en- 
gaged to  finish  up  the  work.  Corresponding  Secretary  Mae 
Taylor  was  appointed  by  the  Board  and  took  full  care  of  the 
accounts,  without  receiving"  any  money  as  compensation.  As 
a  result  of  these  united  efforts,  thousands  of  dollars  were  re- 
ceived for  the  sale  of  the  Journal,  and  President  Taylor 
and  counselors  succeeded  in  making:  an  amicable  settlement 
with  Cannon  &  Sons.  In  connection  with  the  settlement  of 
the  Journal  debt,  the  generous  assistance  of  Sister  Elizabeth 
Claridge  McCune  is  gratefully  mentioned;  for  she  came  for- 
ward with  the  sum  of  $500  to  assist  in  liquidating  the  debts. 
No  words  can  properly  describe  the  arduous  and  unselfish 
labors  of  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor.  No  one  knew  as  she 
did  what  the  Journal  had  cost  the  editor  in  labor,  sacrifice 
and  tears.  Likewise  can  we  speak  gratefully  of  generous  as- 
sistance rendered  by  every  member  of  the  Board  in  this  try- 
ing time;  and  of  the  faithful  efforts  made  by  the  girls  of  the 
associations  in  assisting  to  make  the  enterprise  the  success 
it  has  since  become.  The  firm  of  Cannon  &  Sons,  led  by 
President  George  Q.  Cannon  of  hallowed  memory,  were  ex- 
ceedingly broad  and  noble  in  their  treatment  and  settlement 
of  this  vexed  matter.  Indeed,  all  connected  with  the  busi- 
ness seemed  to  be  actuated  by  the  one  spirit  of  unity  and 
peace,  under  which  influence  the  project  came  into  existence. 
It  will  be  interesting  to  glance  at  the  actual  work  done 
by  the  Journal,  as  evidenced  by  some  of  the  articles  and 
departments  which  have  appeared  in  its  pages.  The  table 
of  contents  of  the  initial  number  will  give  an  idea  of  the  char- 
acter of  the  projected  magazine: 

Literary  Department:  Hymn,  by  Ruby  Lamont;  Whatso- 
ever a  Man  Soweth  (story),  Homespun;  Bereavement,  (a 
poem),  Josephine  Spencer;  A  Great  Navigator's  First  Love 
(story),  Mrs.  M.  A.  Y.  Greenhalgh;  Longing  (poem),  Lu 
Dalton;  Spiritualism,  or,  What  Became  of  Murphy  (story), 


Ellen  Jakeman;  A  Voice  from  the  Daughters  of  Zion  (poem), 

Our  C/7/-/V  Department:  Introduction;  Letter  of  the 
Presidency  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.;  Aunt  Polly's  Letter;  Our 
Dumb  Animals,  Zina  Crocheron;  Baby's  Brass  Nickel,  Lula. 

House  and  Home:  Our  Design;  Maggie  Farnham's  Ex- 
perience, Homespun;  Cooking  Recipes. 

Dress  Department:  Dress  for  Girls;  Fall  Costumes  for 

Health  and  Hygiene:  Hygiene,  by  Dr.  Romania  B.  Pratt. 

Editor 's  Department:    Editorial;   Domestic  Life. 

The  first  year  the  following  comprised  the  table  of  con- 

Literary  Department:  Our  Sunday  Chapter;  The  World 
as  Seen  Through  a  Woman's  Eyes;  The  Perfect  Woman  (a 
symposium);  Oar  Girls;  House  and  Home;  Dress;  Fancy 
Work;  Hygiene;  Editor's  Department;  Miscellaneous. 

All  these  were  brief  departments,  but  they  were  distinct 
divisions.  This  general  plan  has  since  been  adhered  to  with 
some  changes  in  departments  each  year. 

During  the  eleven  years  that  Mrs.  Gates  edited  the 
Journal  there  was  much  creditable  advancement  made  both 
in  the  Journal  itself  and  by  the  various  writers  who  gained 
experience  by  writing  for  it.  Such  well  known  writers  as 
Josephine  Spencer,  Kate  Thomas,  Annie  Pike  Greenwood, 
Susa  Talmage,  Christine  D.  Young,  Ruth  M.  Fox  and  Leah 
D.  Widtsoe  had  their  initial  training  in  the  Journal  pages. 

In  the  tenth  year  occurred  two  of  the  most  important 
changes  which  have  happened  to  the  Journal.  The  Guide 
Lessons,  which  had  heretofore  appeared  in  pamphlet  form, 
were  introduced.  This  at  once  doubled  the  subscription  list. 
This  latter  result,  however,  was  more  than  helped  by  the 
lowering  of  the  price  of  the  Journal  from  two  dollars  a 

112  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

year  to  one  dollar.  This  project  was  first  advanced  by  Mrs. 
May  Booth  Talmage,  who  was  now  one  of  the  literary  com- 
mittee, and  ably  seconded  by  Miss  Estelle  Neff,  the  busi- 
ness manager.  These  two  led  the  agitation  in  this  direction. 

Volume  XI  was  the  last  one  edited  by  Mrs.  Gates.  Her 
health  was  already  seriously  impaired,  but  she  clung  to  her 
work  with  the  energy  of  faith  and  hope.  In  this  volume  the 
new  Guide  Department  became  a  very  absorbing  feature, 
eight  pages  being-  devoted  to  it. 

The  number  of  subscribers,  during  the  trying-  years  of 
its  early  existence,  varied  from  fifteen  hundred  to  two  thou- 
sand. A  great  increase  in  the  subscription  list  was  made  in 
volumes  X  and  XI,  during-  the  first  two  years  which  marked 
the  decrease  in  the  price  and  the  introduction  of  the  Guide 
Lessons  into  the  Journal.  Now,  with  volume  XXI,  the 
subscription  list  is  between  fourteen  and  fifteen  thousand. 
It  was  gratifying  to  the  long-time  editor,  Mrs.  Gates,  to 
know  that  the  Lord  had  crowned  her  labors  with  partial  suc- 
cess, that  she  had  seen  the  child  of  her  brain  and  heart  grow 
from  a  puny  weakling-  to  a  lusty,  well-developed  child.  She 
had  carried  it  through  the  trying  scenes  of  early  danger  and 
difficulty,  and  when  she  at  last  turned  it  over  to  her  suc- 
cessor, it  bore  all  the  signs  of  long  and  vigorous  life.  Here 
she  left  it. 

During  the  first  eight  years,  Mrs.  Gates  had  submitted 
the  manuscript  to  President  Taylor  and  had  consulted  her 
freely  in  regard  to  all  matters  connected  with  the  work.  Then 
Sister  Taylor  felt  that  she  could  not  continue  her  personal 
labors  in  this  direction.  Accordingly,  a  literary  committee 
was  selected  from  the  members  of  the  Board  to  do  the  work 
which  for  so  many  years  had  been  done  by  Sister  Taylor 
alone.  With  the  beginning  of  volume  IX,  the  General 
Board  assumed  direct  charge  of  the  management  of  the 
Journal,  and  the  following  committees  were  appointed: 


Business  Committee — Martha  H.  Tingey,  Agnes  Campbell, 
Mae  Taylor,  Sarah  Eddington;  Literary  Committee — Adella 
W.  Eardley,  May  Booth  Talmage,  Augusta  W.  Grant.  All 
these  women  came  into  the  work  without  previous  training, 
and  it  was  with  them  a  labor  of  love,  for  they  served  without 
pay.  These  committees  have  been  changed  from  time  to 
time  as  circumstances  have  demanded,  but  the  women,  with- 
out exception,  have  given  of  their  best.  And  the  office  which 
they  hold  is  no  sinecure,  for  meetings  are  frequent,  and 
problems  are  many  and  sometimes  difficult  to  solve. 

When  it  was  understood  that  Sister  Gates  had  decided 
to  resign  her  position  as  editor,  a  question  of  serious  import 
confronted  the  General  Board:  Was  it  possible  to  maintain 
the  standard  of  excellence,  attained  through  eleven  years  of 
experience,  when  the  choice  must  be  made  from  among  those 
who  knew  practically  nothing  of  the  editorial  responsibilities 
of  the  magazine? 

The  matter  was  given  much  earnest  and  prayerful  con- 
sideration by  the  entire  Board,  and  it  was  finally  decided  to 
place  the  Journal  affairs  under  the  management  of  one  com- 
mittee, who  would  have  direct  supervision  over  its  business 
as  well  as  its  literary  interests.  May  Booth  Talmage,  Augusta 
W.  Grant,  and  Emma  Goddard  were  chosen  to  assume  these 
responsibilities,  the  first  named  being  chairman  and  editor,. 
At  the  close  of  a  meeting  held  at  Sister  Doug-all's  home, 
when  the  announcement  of  this  committee  had  been  made, 
Sister  Taylor  went  to  Sister  Talmage,  and  in  her  most  im- 
pressive manner  said:  "It  is  my  earnest  desire  that  you 
should  undertake  this  work;  go  home  and  say  to  your  hus- 
band that  you  have  been  called  to  do  it,  and  that  if  you  will 
accept  the  call  the  Lord  will  bless  you  in  your  effort." 

While,  as  before  suggested,  Mrs.  Talmage 's  experience 
had  been  limited  to  her  work  on  the  literary  committee,  with 
an  occasional  article  for  the  magazine,  yet  constant  associ- 

114  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

ation  with  a  husband  of  recognized  ability  as  an  author,  and 
her  contact  with  a  circle  of  friends  among  whom  were  num- 
bered many  of  Utah's  brightest  literary  lights,  had  enabled 
her  to  acquire  a  good  sense  of  appreciation  of  the  best  along 
literary  lines.  She  realized  fully  that  in  justice  to  her 
young  children  she  could  devote  but  a  portion  of  her  time  to 
Journal  work,  and  must  therefore  rely  largely  upon  the  as- 
sistance of  her  committee,  upon  Miss  Neff ,  without  the  prom- 
ise of  whose  valuable  help  and  experience  she  dared  not  have 
undertaken  her  labors,  and  upon  the  aid  rendered  by  her 
husband.  She  therefore  refused  to  permit  her  name  to  be 
announced  as  editor,  and  from  that  time  on  the  Journal  has 
been  "edited  and  published  by  the  General  Board." 

Mrs.  Talmage  feels  that  too  much  credit  cannot  be  given 
to  Sisters  Grant,  Goddard  and  Neff,  for  their  united  and 
efficient  support. 

This  Journal  committee  was  exceedingly  fortunate  dur- 
ing the  nineteen  months  of  its  existence  in  being  able  to 
secure  the  best  material  obtainable  in  Utah.  But  few  of  the 
names  of  her  ablest  writers  are  found  lacking  among  the  list 
of  contributors  for  volumes  XII  and  XIII,  and  to  this  fact 
Mrs.  Talmage  attributes  the  success  of  maintaining  the  high 
standard  hitherto  reached  by  her  predecessor.  During  this 
period  the  first  change  in  the  cover  design  of  the  magazine 
was  made  and  a  complete  volume  of  the  Journal  was  sent 
gratis  to  each  Mormon  missionary.  This  plan  for  winning 
friends,  introducing  the  magazine  abroad,  and  increasing 
subscriptions,  gave  splendid  results. 

Mrs.  Talmage  was  obliged  to  resign  in  1902  on  account 
of  family  responsibilities.  Her  resignation  was  handed  to 
President  Elmina  S.  Taylor,  who,  not  mentioning  to  her 
Board  the  need  of  finding  a  new  editor  for  the  Journal,  con- 
sulted with  her  counselors  and  appointed  a  special  fast  meet- 
ing for  the  three  at  which  to  consider  whom  to  call  to  that 



work.  President  Taylor  and  her  counselors  were  unanimous 
in  their  selection  of  Ann  M.  Cannon.  The  nomination  was 
therefore  made  to  the  General  Board  and  by  it  approved. 

Miss  Ann  M.  Cannon,  the  general  secretary,  had  for  a 
number  of  years  been  deputy  county  recorder  of  Salt  Lake 
county.  She  was  a  graduate  of  the  University  of  Utah,  a 
careful  student,  an  excellent  critic,  though  without  any  liter- 
ary ambitions,  and  possessed  many  gifts  and  graces.  She 
consented  to  give  up  her  position  and  assume  the  editorship 
of  the  magazine.  She  was  not  strong,  for  her  physical 
health  had  been  undermined  by  her  over-zealous  devotion  to 
duty;  and  yet  she  was  well  qualified  for  her  new  work.  Feel- 
ing as  much  called  of  God  as  any  missionary,  she  began  her 

BUSINESS   OFFICE,   1905-9. 

116  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

new  work  with  much  fear  and  trembling1.  But  her  friends 
may  well  be  proud  of  the  results,  for  she  set  a  high 
standard  for  herself  and  the  Journal,  and  she  found  that 
standard  constantly  ahead  of  her — an  excellent  indication  of 
her  own  progress.  Miss  Cannon  makes  special  mention  of 
the  excellent  work  done  by  those  who  labored  with  her 
on  the  Journal,  and  also  of  the  fact  that  Mrs.  Gates  wrote 
the  editorials  from  January  to  May,  1906,  while  the  associate 
editor  was  in  New  Zealand.  The  first  committee  consisted 
of  Emma  Goddard  and  Adella  W.  Eardley,  both  of  whom 
worked  until  July,  1905.  During  the  spring  of  1905,  Miss 
Elen  Wallace,  who  had  been  suggested  by  President  Taylor 
prior  to  her  death,  was  chosen  as  associate  editor.  And 
when  the  committees  were  re-arranged,  following  the  re- 
organization, a  new  committee  consisting  of  Augusta  Winters 
Grant,  chairman;  Rose  Wallace  Bennett,  Ruth  May  Fox  and 
Alice  Kimball  Smith  was  appointed. 

During  the  incumbency  of  Miss  Cannon,  she  made  some 
valuable  improvements  in  the  editorial  management  of  the 
Journal.  It  is  true  she  was  favored  with  the  expenditure 
of  more  means  than  either  of  the  others,  but  that  was  to  be 
expected  with  the  increased  prosperity  of  the  business.  Her 
own  labors  were  lightened  by  the  assistance  of  a  stenog- 
rapher, and  during  the  latter  part  of  her  time  by  an  associate 
editor.  But  all  of  these  worked  hard  to  increase  the  value  of 
the  business  they  had  undertaken.  The  December  or  Christ- 
mas issue  is  now  made  a  special  feature.  Beginning  with 
volume  XIII  there  were  printed  sixteen  pages  extra  matter  for 
the  Christmas  number.  Miss  Cannon  enlarged  and  greatly 
improved  the  index,  and  in  volume  XVI  she  added  an  au- 
thors' index,  which  has  ever  since  been  continued.  The 
Board  of  late  years  made  a  point  of  changing  the  outside 
cover,  and  in  this  endeavor  Miss  Cannon  has  followed  the 
example  of  her  predecessors,  and  has  sought  to  develop  home 


talent,  rather  than  send  abroad  for  suggestions.  ,  The  object 
which  Miss  Cannon  and  Miss  Wallace  held  before  them  was 
to  better  the  literary  tone  of  the  Journal  without  losing-  any 
of  the  spirit  of  the  Gospel .  That  they  succeeded  no  one  can 
well  deny. 

In  the  spring-  of  1907  Miss  Wallace  found  it  necessary , 
on  account  of  home  duties,  to  give  up  her  work  as  associate 
editor.  It  will  be  seen  from  the  record  elsewhere  that  at 
this  time  Miss  Cannon  was  general  secretary  of  the  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.  as  well  as  editor  of  the  Journal,  while  Miss  Agnes 
S.  Campbell  was  business  manager  of  the  Journal  and  as- 
sistant general  secretary.  The  business  in  each  department 
had  now  grown  to  such  an  extent  that  when  a  release  was 
considered  for  Miss  Wallace  it  was  decided  to  re-arrange  the 
entire  work,  to  release  Miss  Cannon  as  editor,  retaining  her 
as  general  secretary;  to  release  Miss  Campbell  as  assistant 
secretary,  retaining  her  as  business  manager;  and  to  call 
Miss  Mary  E.  Connelly  to  the  editorial  chair.  This  was  ac- 
cordingly done  and  Miss  Connelly  commenced  her  labors  as 
editor  with  the  September  number  of  the  Journal^  1907 
(vol.  XVIII,  No.  9). 

Miss  Connelly  was  well  qualified  for  this  work,  having 
been  graduated  from  the  University  of  Utah  with  the  degree 
B.  A.  This  in  addition  to  her  natural  gifts  fitted  her  for  such 
a  position.  She  was  at  the  time  teaching  English  in  the  Salt 
Lake  High  School,  and  though  her  feelings  inclined  toward 
teaching  rather  than  journalism,  she  accepted  the  call  as  a 
duty,  giving  up  the  more  remunerative  position  to  accept  it. 
She  has  given  the  Journal  most  capable  and  faithful  atten- 
tion, endeavoring  always  to  keep  abreast  with  the  trend  of 
the  best  journalism. 

The  literary  value  of  the  Journal  of  today  can  best  be 
told  by  a  glance  into  its  bright  pages.  The  size  of  the  mag- 
azine during  the  last  few  years  has  been  increased  only  on 


HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

EDITOR'S  ROOM,  1910. 

special  occasions,  but  now,  in  volume  XXI,  four  of  the  num- 
bers will  each  consist  of  sixty-four  pages,  and  the  remaining 
eight  numbers  will  contain  fifty-six.  Each  page  contains 
about  six  hundred  words. 

The  Journal  committee  last  mentioned  continued  to  act 
until  1908,  since  which  time  there  have  been  two  other  chair- 
men— Ruth  M.  Fox  and  Elen  Wallace,  while  the  following 
have  acted  as  members  of  the  committee:  Mae  T.  Nystrom, 
Julia  M.  Brixen,  Lucy  W.  Smith  and  Joan  Campbell.  The 
committee  as  at  present  constituted  is  Adella  W.  Eardley, 
chairman;  May  Booth  Talmage,  and  Estelle  Neff  Caldwell. 

This  record  cannot  afford  to  slight  the  labors  of  one  of 
the  most  efficient  helps  the  Journal  ever  had.  Upon  the 
death  of  Apostle  A.  H.  Cannon,  Sister  Gates  appealed  to 


Miss  Kstelle  Neff  of  Nephi,  Juab  county,  to  come  to  Salt 
Lake  City  and  assume  the  business  management  of  the 
magazine.  Miss  Neff  was  a  graduate  of  the  Brigham  Young 
University  in  Provo.  She  knew  nothing  of  magazine  work, 
but  she  had  a  good  education,  and  was  possessed  of  the 
hardest  sense  and  one  of  the  sunniest  dispositions  ever  given 
to  a  daughter  of  Eve.  Miss  Neff  took  all  the  care  of  the 
business  management  off  the  editor,  and  gave  an  occasional 
helping  hand  in  the  revision  of  manuscripts.  At  the  end  of 
six  months,  the  Board  was  pleased  to  accept  the  free  gift 
tendered  by  Mrs.  Gates  of  her  remaining  interest  in  the  Jour- 
nat,  and  agreed  to  take  the  general  oversight  of  the  whole 
matter.  But  Miss  Neff  was  too  valuable  an  acquisition  to 
lose.  She  was  retained  as  business  manager  and  there  she 
labored  eight  years  until  her  marriage,  in  1905.  The  splen- 
did reputation  of  the  Jou*ml  among  all  businessmen  has 
been  due  largely  to  the  courteous  and  wise  deportment  of  this 
young  lady,  coupled  with  the  excellent  support  which  the 
committee  and  the  Board  itself  rendered.  For  five  months 
during  the  spring  and  early  summer  of  1905,  Miss  Neff,  with 
the  assistance  of  Miss  Elen  Wallace,  edited  the  Journal^  be- 
cause of  the  absence  of  the  editor,  Miss  Cannon,  who  was  in 
California  for  her  health. 

Upon  the  marriage  of  Miss  Estelle  Neff  in  June,  1905, 
Miss  Agnes  S.  Campbell  became  business  manager  for  the 
Journal.  Prior  to  this  time  Miss  Campbell  had  acted  on  the 
business  committee  and  was  quite  familiar  with  the  work. 
She  had  also  had  a  valuable  business  training  in  her  position 
as  cashier  at  Z.  C.  M.  I.  The  work  therefore  progressed 
well  under  her  management.  In  1905,  under  Miss  Neff,  a 
mailing  machine  had  been  installed.  In  autumn  of  the  same 
year,  Miss  Campbell  urged  the  purchase  of  a  stencil  cutting 
machine.  These  two  purchases  so  facilitated  the  mailing 
that  that  business  is  now  attended  to  in  two  days  where  for- 


HISTORY-  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

merly,  with  a  smaller  subscription  list,  it  took  the  greater  part 
of  a  week. 

In  1905,  Miss  Katherine  E.  Stayner  was  employed  for 
stenographic  and  other  clerical  work,  and  has  since  con- 
tinued, always  giving-  excellent  service. 

In  1908,  the  management  of  the  advertisi ng  department 
was  assumed  by  Miss  Campbell  and  Miss  Stayner.  They  have 
made  of  it  a  signal  success,  which  has  added  greatly  to  the 
resources  of  the  journal. 

The  Journal  now  publishes  an  edition  of  fifteen  thou- 
sand; all  business  is  done  on  a  cash  basis  -  no  booking  and  no 
debts,  practically  speaking.  The  business  record  of  the  en- 
terprise is  above  reproach.  Improvements  in  the  magazine 



are  also  being-  made  as  fast  as  the  finances  warrant  them. 
This  plan  is  chosen  rather  than  that  of  storing-  up  money  in 
the  bank. 

In  July,  1897,  an  office  for  the  Journal  was  opened  in 
the  Constitution  building-,  No.  34  S.  Main  street,  Salt  Lake 
City.  It  consisted  of  a  front  room,  or  business  office,  and  a 
store  room.  Instead  of  this  small  office  with  its  borrowed  desks 
and  a  few  donated  chairs,  the  Journal  now  occupies  beautiful 
and  commodious  quarters  in  the  Bishop's  building.  There  are 
the  business  office,  the  mailing-  department,  the  store  room  and 
the  editor's  room.  Never  until  December,  1909,  did  the  edi- 
tor have  private  quarters.  In  the  early  days  there  was  no 
office  at  all;  later,  a  desk  was  located  in  the  business  office; 
then  two  rooms  with  outside  windows  were  secured,  and  here 
the  editor  had  her  corner  in  the  same  room  with  the  mailing: 
and  storag-e  departments.  Those  who  have  labored  in  the  in- 
terest of  the  Journal  are  all  deeply  grateful  for  the  improve- 
ment in  conditions  and  surrounding's.  And  so  we  leave  the 
Young  Woman's  Journal  busy,  prosperous,  and  certainly  a 
tremendous  force  for  good  in  the  ranks  of  the  young  women 
in  Zion.  Who  can  properly  estimate  its  value  or  forecast  its 



By  Estelle  Neff  Caldwell, 

Mrs.  Susa  Young  Gates  is  the  second  daughter  of  Brig- 
ham  Young  and  Lucy  Bigelow  Young,  and  she  was  the  first 
child  born  in  the  historic  Lion  House,  Salt  Lake  City, 
(March  18,  1856). 

Besides  the  many  excellent  qualities  inherited  from  her 
father,  she  is  well  descended  on  her  mother's  side,  the  Bige- 
lows  being  one  of  America's  distinguished  families.  Her 
education  was  begun  in  the  private  school  of  her  father  and 
was  continued  in  the  Deseret  University  (U.  of  U.)  of  which 


HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


she  is  an  alumnus.  Here  her  literary  work  had  its  begin- 
ning-. Dr.  Park  appointed  her  associate  editor  of  the  first 
western  college  paper,  "The  College  Lantern."  Before 
reaching-  the  ag-e  of  fourteen,  she  studied  stenography  and 
telegraphy,  becoming-  so  expert  in  the  former  that  she  can 
still  act  as  a  shorthand  reporter.  In  1870  her  father  moved 
her  mother  and  two  daug-hters,  Susa  and  Mabel,  to  St. 


George.  While  sojourning:  in  Dixie,  she  organized  a  large 
club  of  both  sexes  called  the  "Union  Club."  Since  that 
time  this  progressive  woman  has  won  distinction  as  an  organ- 
izer in  intellectual  lines.  She  organized  the  musical  depart- 
ment in  1878  in  the  Brigham  Young  Academy  at  Provo,  and 
the  domestic  science  department  in  the  same  institution  in 
1897.  She  organized  the  first  state  chapter  of  the  Daugh- 
ters of  the  Revolution  in  Utah.  The  biggest  organization 
work,  however,  was  the  establishment  of  the  Young  Woman' s 
Journal  in  1889  under  the  direction  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

In  1880,  Miss  Susa  was  married  to  Jacob  F.  Gates,  the 
son  of  Jacob  Gates,  who  figured  prominently  in  the  early  his- 
tory of  Utah.  He  is  a  man  of  good  judgment  and  sterling- 
character,  possessing  that  type  of  nobility  which  is  generally 
spoken  of  as  common  sense.  Mrs.  Gates  accompanied  her 
husband  on  a  four  years'  mission  to  the  Sandwich  Islands. 
Three  of  her  children  were  born  there.  She  is  the  mother  of 
thirteen  children,  ten  sons  and  three  daughters;  five  of  these 
are  living — Mrs.  Leah  D.  Widtsoe,  Emma  Lucy,  Brigham 
Cecil,  Harvey  Harris,  and  Franklin  Young  Gates.  The  eldest 
child,  Mrs.  Widtsoe.  is  a  woman  of  broad  interests  and  true 
culture,  and  the  second  daughter,  Emma  Lucy,  the  Utah 
nightingale,  is  famous  in  two  continents. 

When  we  turn  our  attention  to  the  work  this  versatile 
woman  has  done  in  the  cause  of  Mutual  Improvement, 
we  are  reminded  that  she  was  present  at  the  initial  organiza- 
tion in  the  Lion  House  in  1869,  and  that  she  was  sustained  as 
general  reporter  for  these  associations  at  the  first  public 
meeting  in  1870.  From  the  view-point  of  the  greatest  good 
to  the  greatest  number,  the  establishment  of  the  Journal  is 
one  of  the  biggest  factors  in  the  progress  of  Mutual  Improve- 
ment. What  Mrs.  Gates  sacrificed  to  make  this  periodical 
successful  cannot  be  realized;  for  the  magazine  was  pub- 
lished in  Salt  Lake  City  and  her  home  was  in  Provo;  and 
she  had  a  family  of  little  children.  Eleven  years  she  jour- 
neyed to  and  fro,  meeting  the  public  as  well  as  private  de- 
mands of  each  weary  day.  Small  wonder  that  the  anxiety 
and  criticism  took  from  the  literary  work  all  its  joy,  though  it 
expanded  her  heart  and  her  mind.  After  eight  years  of  life, 
financial  difficulties  beset  the  Journal,  and  discontinuing  its 
publication  was  seriously  considered.  President  Elmina  S. 

124  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Taylor  and  nearly  all  the  Board  were  convinced  that  that  was 
the  wisest  course;  but  Mrs.  Gates  was  filled  with  the  idea  that 
it  must  go  on.  Finally  her  courage  and  indomitable  faith 
turned  the  tide  of  sentiment  in  favor  of  a  new  trial  which  re- 
sulted in  success. 

Mrs.  Gates  is  well  known  as  a  public  speaker  and 
as  an  author.  To  uplift  the  youth  of  her  people  with 
her  pen  was  a  mission  given  her  by  President  Young. 
Much  of  her  writing-  is  therefore  of  a  doctrinal  nature, 
and  all  of  it  is  imbued  with  the  spirit  of  religion.  In 
her  editorial  days  the  spirit,  no  less  than  the  matter,  de- 
termined whether  or  not  a  manuscript  was  accepted.  She 
herself  has  a  natural  power  of  giving  herself  to  humanity 
through  her  writings;  they  glow  with  life  and  on  that  ac- 
count kindle  fires  in  other  minds  and  other  hearts. 

Early  writings  were  printed  in  the  Deseret  News,  the 
Juvenile  Instructor,  the  Exponent  and  the  Young  Roman's 
Journal  under  the  nom  de  plume  Homespun.  In  these  first 
efforts  she  was  much  encouraged  by  Sisters  Eliza  R.  Snow 
and  Emmeline  B.  Wells.  Two  books  have  been  published, 
"Lydia  Knight's  History,"  in  early  days,  and  recently  her 
finest  piece  of  fiction,  "John  Stevens 's  Courtship,"  a  his- 
torical romance  portraying  pioneer  life  in  Utah;  and  now 
this  History  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Mrs.  Gates 's  creative  faculty  makes  all  her  work  origi- 
nal. The  interest  element  is  sustained  throughout  by  force- 
fulness.  Simplicity  of  style,  correctness  and  vivid  illustra- 
tion adapt  her  writings  to  popular  audiences.  The  Journal 
editorials  covering  a  period  of  eleven  years  are  in  many  re- 
spects her  ablest  work.  They  show  the  sympathetic  insight 
into  human  nature,  and  the  keen  perception  of  human  needs, 
which  distinguish  the  world's  great  writings. 

Mrs.  Gates  became  associated  with  the  General  Board 
of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  in  1889.  She  is  in  her  element  when  pro- 
jecting new  ideas  in  the  direction  of  reform.  Mutual  Im- 
provement work  in  the  General  Board  and  in  local  associ- 
ations has  provided  endless  opportunities  for  the  exercise  of 
her  initiative  powers.  With  characteristic  foresight  she  ad- 
vocated the  adoption  of  a  uniform  course  of  study  in  the  Y. 
L.  M.  I.  A.;  and  it  was  she  who  wrote  the  first  two  Guides. 


Since  this  work  has  been  published  in  the  Journal,  she  has 
prepared  several  excellent  study  courses. 

Naturally  interested  in  all  forms  of  woman's  work,  she 
has  been  a  forceful  figure  in  the  affairs  of  the  National  Coun- 
cil of  Women  of  the  U.  S.  Seven  times  she  represented  the 
Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  at  the  National  Council  of  Women  of 
the  U.  S.  The  national  leaders  honored  her  by  an 
appointment  to  the  chairmanship  of  the  Press  com- 
mittee of  the  National  Council  of  the  U.  S.  for  three 
years.  They  also  chose  her  as  one  of  the  speakers  at  the 
International  Quinquennial  held  in  London  in  1899;  and  in 
1901  she  filled  the  responsible  position  of  sole  delegate  from 
the  National  Council  of  the  United  States  to  the  International 
Council  of  Women  held  in  Copenhagen.  This  was  perhaps 
the  highest  honor  that  was  ever  shown  by  the  women  of  the 
world  to  a  Mormon  woman.  Her  clever  character  sketches 
of  the  leaders  of  these  big  movements,  with  the  lucid  ac- 
counts of  the  work  accomplished,  evoked  favorable  comment 
wherever  they  were  read. 

Extensive  travel  and  intimate  association  with  famous 
people  of  the  world  have  not  lessened  her  activity  in  Church 
circles.  Through  the  spiritual  gifts  she  exercises  her  sister 
associates  receive  comfort  and  blessings.  Thousands  of 
school  and  M.  I.  A.  girls  who  have  been  benefited  by  her  re- 
ligious instructions  hold  "Aunt  Susa"  in  loving  remem- 
brance. A  few  years  ago  she  passed  through  a  long  illness, 
which  she  is  convinced  must  have  ended  fatally  had  she  not 
been  healed  by  faith. 

Keenly  alive  to  the  importance  of  temple  work  she  was 
appointed  a  worker  and  a  recorder  in  the  St.  George  Temple 
at  its  completion.  She  has  labored  in  the  Logan  Temple, 
and  for  the  past  three  years  has  been  a  regular  worker  in  the 
Salt  Lake  Temple.  At  present,  genealogical  research,  an 
important  branch  of  temple  work,  absorbs  a  large  share  of 
her  attention.  She  is  an  active  worker  in  the  Genealogical 
Society  of  Utah,  and  has  been  president  of  the  Daughters  of 
the  Pioneers,  thereby  gaining  and  disseminating  much  infor- 
mation on  this  subject.  Her  ability  to  grasp  things  in  the 
large  and  to  arouse  enthusiasm  in  others  have  given  a  great 
impetus  to  this  line  of  Church  work. 

Mrs.  Gates  has  long  been  a  leader  in  educational   mat- 

126  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

ters  and  she  is  referred  to  as  the  mother  of  physical  education 
in  Utah.  Besides  being-  a  teacher  of  theology, domestic  science, 
and  music  in  the  B.  Y.  A.  at  Provo,  she  has  been  a  member 
of  its  board  of  directors  for  nineteen  years;  and  was  appointed 
by  the  governor  of  Utah  five  years  ago  as  a  director  of  the 
Agricultural  College  of  Utah,  which  position  she  still  holds. 
She  is  recognized  today  as  a  public- spirited  woman,  and  one 
having  extraordinary  initiative  power,  traits  inherited  from 
her  father.  A  vivid  personality  is  combined  in  her  with  an 
energetic  and  somewhat  complex  character.  She  is  engag- 
ing- and  brilliant  in  conversation,  and  possesses  the  repletion 
of  sentiment  which  naturally  accompanies  an  artistic  tempera- 
ment, this  emotional  nature  being  held  in  check  by  the  saving 
grace  of  humor.  Her  mind  is  the  versatile,  imaginative 
type,  keenly  perceptive  and  philosophical.  These  qualities 
have  enabled  her  to  attain  to  the  unique  position  which  she 
occupies  in  the  affairs  of  Church  and  State.  All  that  is 
written  of  Mrs.  Gates  in  her  lifetime  will  be  necessarily  inade- 
quate, it  is  only  through  the  perspective  of  years  that  her 
achievements  and  dynamic  power  will  be  fully  discernible . 



Duties  devolving  upon  General  Board.  —  The  first  Aids  appointed.  — 
First  General  Conference.  —  General  Conferences  appointed  to  be 
held  annually.  —  Regular  sessions  of  the  General  Board  established. 
—  Second  and  third  General  Conferences.  —  General  officers'  meet- 
ings. —  Local  and  Stake  work.  —  General  Conjoint  Conferences. 

constant  labor  and  traveling-  entailed  in  visit- 
A  ing-  the  various  conferences,  now  scattered  throughout 
the  whole  extent  of  Utah,  and  already  beginning-  to  creep 
over  into  surrounding-  states  and  territories,  lay  all  too 
heavy  upon  the  shoulders  of  the  president  with  the  occa- 
sional help  of  her  two  counselors,  or  that  of  the  Salt  Lake 
stake  board.  At  that  time  the  stakes  held  two  conferences 
yearly,  in  connection  with  the  Relief  Society  and  Primary 
Association.  But  the  territory  to  be  covered,  with  much  of 
the  traveling  to  be  done  by  team,  began  to  assume  impossi- 
ble proportions  for  one  or  even  three  women. 

An  invitation  for  Sister  Taylor  to  attend  these  confer- 
ences in  the  early  years  would  be  accompanied  usually  by 
sufficient  money  to  cover  railroad  fares.  There  was  only  one 
Sister  Taylor,  however,  and  the  call  for  visits  came  thicker 
and  faster.  Her  counselors  were  both  willing  and  capable, 
but  their  duties,  as  young-  mothers,  together  with  the  fact 
that  neither  possessed  the  best  of  health,  prevented  them 
from  doing  much  traveling.  Added  to  these  difficulties  were 
the  pressing-  needs  of  the  new  magazine,  much  of  the  matter 
for  which  came  under  Sister  Taylor's  eye.  Then  the  associa- 
tions were  growing  so  rapidly  that  the  necessity  of  help  in 
several  directions  became  more  and  more  imperative. 

With  these  thoughts  weighing  heavily  upon  her,  Sister 
Taylor  decided  upon  calling  to  her  aid  some  young  women 

128  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

who  were  experienced  in  the  work,  and  who  could  assist  in 
the  visiting-  of  conferences.  She  herself  could  not  foresee  the 
breadth  and  scope  of  this  new  movement  which  she  was 
inaugurating.  At  first  the  girls  were  called  in  simply  as 
traveling  missionaries.  But  their  importance  grew  with 
their  service,  and  they  g'radually  made  a  fixed  and  important 
place  for  themselves  as  they  helped  to  make  history  for  the 
Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  movement. 

Like  any  vigorous  people,  when  there  is  no  word  exactly 
fitted  to  represent  a  departure  in  custom,  the  Latter-day 
Saints  make  a  new  word,  or  twist  an  old  one  to  do  the  service 
they  require.  In  this  case  Sister  Taylor  could  not  well  name 
her  young  assistants  an  executive  committee,  for  they  were 
not  that;  neither  were  they  counselors  nor  vice-presidents; 
so  she  called  them  exactly  what  she  meant  them  to  be — aids 
to  her  and  to  the  work.  And  aids  they  are  to  this  day. 

In  June,  1889,  the  Young  Men's  Mutual  Improvement 
Association  held  a  conference  which  they  termed  "A  Young 
People's  Conference."  President  E.  S.  Taylor  and  her 
counselors  were  invited  to  sit  on  the  stand.  Sisters  Taylor 
and  Dougall  addressed  the  congregation,  while  Sister  Susa 
Young  Gates  gave  a  talk  on  "Women  in  Foreign  Missions." 
Though  this  was  not  planned  conjointly,  it  was  the  forerun- 
ner of  the  present  general  con  joint  conferences. 

The  winter  of  1889-90  was  an  exceeding  busy  one  for 
Sister  Taylor  and  her  counselors.  The  new  magazine  de- 
manded many  consultations,  and  conferences  showed  unu- 
sual activity.  The  minutes  of  these  meetings  are  not  with  us, 
however,  as  the  secretary,  Miss  Mary  E.  Cook,  lived  in 
Logan  and  was  too  busy  with  her  school  duties  to  attend 

In  February,  1890,  it  was  decided  to  call  a  general  con- 
ference of  all  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  workers  to  convene  at  the  regu- 
lar April  Conference.  Accordingly  notices  were  published 


in    the    papers,    and    letters   were    sent    out    to  the    stake 

The  first  general  conference  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  opened 
April  4,  1890,  with  a  public  session  held  in  the  Assembly  Hall. 
It  was  followed  with  an  officers'  meeting,  April  5,  at  the  home 
of  Counselor  Dougall,  opposite  the  west  gate  of  the  Temple 
Block.  The  minutes  of  both  these  meetings  were  published 
in  the  [ounial  and  we  give  them  place  in  this  record.  The 
reports  of  the  associations  give  a  fairly  clear  idea  of  the  con- 
ditions then  existing.  Note  the  quaint  wording  of  the  whole 

Y.   L.   M.  I.   A.  GENERAL  CONFERENCE. 

The  first  general  conference  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  com- 
menced at  7:  30  p.  m.  Friday,  April  4th,  1890,  in  the  Assem- 
bly Hall,  Salt  Lake  City,  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor  pre- 

There  were  upon  the  stand:  of  the  general  presidency, 
Mrs.  E.  S.  Taylor,  Mrs.  M.  Y.  Dougall,  and  Mrs.  Mattie  H. 
Tingey;  of  the  presidents  of  stakes,  Miss  Elizabeth  W.  Smith 
of  Davis,  Mrs.  Susannah  Heiner  of  Morgan,  Mrs.  Mary  A. 
Freeze  of  Salt  Lake,  Mrs.  Mary  C.  Freeman  of  St.  Johns 
who  also  represented  St.  Joseph  as  delegate,  Mrs.  Ann  Tate 
of  Tooele  and  Mrs.  Zina  Lyons  of  Utah.  Bear  Lake,  Cache, 
Emery  and  Juab  were  represented  by  counselors.  There 
were  also  present  Mrs.  Zina  D.  H.  Young  and  Mrs.  M.  I. 
Home . 

The  choir  sang,  ''Scatter  the  gems."  The  opening  prayer 
was  offered  by  Professor  Karl  G.  Maeser.  Singing,  "Mem- 
ories of  Galilee."  The  condensed  report  of  the  associations 
was  read  by  Secretary  Mary  E.  Cook. 

President  E.  S.  Taylor  then  addressed  as  quiet  and  ap- 
preciative an  audience  as  ever  convened  in  the  hall  at  con- 
siderable length  upon  a  variety  of  subjects;  prominent  among 
which  were:  the  anxiety  manifested  by  the  people  of  the  world 
to  obtain  their  genealogies,  unconsciously  thereby  fulfilling  a 
prophecy  uttered  by  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  who  said 
that  they  would  prepare  them  for  our  use  while  unconscious 
of  the  propelling  power.  The  Word  of  Wisdom  was  happily 

130  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

presented  with  the  earnestness  so  characteristic  of  the  speak- 
er, the  practical  operations  of  which  will  reach  the  homes  of 
those  most  remote  through  the  delegates  assembled.  A  strong 
testimony  was  borne  that  Joseph  Smith  was  a  prophet  of  God; 
spoke  of  wealth,  its  uses  and  abuses;  concluding  with,  "the 
path  of  duty  is  the  path  of  safety." 

First  Counselor  Maria  Y.  Dougall,  in  a  practical,  com- 
mon-sense address,  enforced  by  a  strong  individuality,  good 
judgment,  and  a  consciousness  of  the  direction  of  the  Holy 
Spirit,  upon  which  she  relied,  begged  that  the  youth  should 
be  encouraged  in  seeking  a  testimony  for  themselves;  and  for 
revelation,  likewise,  for  we  had  a  right  to  it,  as  stated  by  our 
worthy  president  in  today's  discourse.  Also  stated  that  by 
studying  well  the  writings  of  the  Prophet  of  the  latter  days, 
we  would  find  that  the  principles  there  advanced  were  the 
ones  that  scientists,  romance -writers  and  poets  were  now  ad- 
vancing and  trying  to  render  practical. 

Second  Counselor  Mattie  H.  Tingey  was  the  next  speak- 
er, and  in  a  clear,  concise,  and  suggestive  address,  touched 
upon  disease,  the  blessing  of  healing  being  contingent  and 
dependent  upon  our  faithfulness  to  our  covenants;  behavior, 
especially  in  public,  and  in  places  consecrated  to  worship;  re- 
spect for  the  aged;  and  the  self-perfection  that  will  render  us 
fit  for  the  society  of  the  redeemed. 

At  this  point,  a  well  rendered  duet  was  highly  enjoyed 
by  the  music  loving  of  the  assembly. 

President  Mary  A.  Freeze  of  Salt  Lake  stake  gave  a 
brief  report  of  this  stake  which  represents  thirty-four  ward 
organizations  with  a  membership  of  seven  hundred  and 
thirty-four  for  the  seventeen  wards  reported.  She  is  thor- 
oughly alive  to  the  spiritual  interests  of  the  associations  of 
this  stake  and  said  that  a  prediction  made  by  Sister  E.  R. 
Snow  was  having  its  fulfilment  in  our  thus  assembling  in 
conference  capacity,  this  evening;  recommended  a  study  of 
the  truth  of  the  Gospel  and  felt  that  to  defend  the  young, 
giddy,  and  inexperienced  of  our  community  from  the  tempta- 
tions, vexations  and  ungodliness  that  prevail  among  us  to 
such  an  extent  today,  she  would  willingly  become  one  of  the 
advance  guards  in  shielding  them  from  every  form  of  evil. 

Mrs.  'Lizzie  Townsend,  first  counselor  of  the  board  of  the 


Cache  stake,  in  a  short  but  instructive  address,  following  her 
report,  insisted  upon  our  being-  alive  to  the  calls  of  duty. 

First  Counselor  M.  Y.  Dougall  then  presented  the  fol- 
lowing: officers  for  the  Central  Board: 

Mrs.  Elmina  S.  Taylor,  president;  Mrs.  Maria  Y.  Dou- 
gall, first  counselor;  Mrs.  Mattie  H.  Tingey,  second  counse- 
lor; Miss  M.  E.  Cook,  secretary;  Mrs.  Fannie  Y.  Thatcher, 
treasurer.  Also  four  aids,  Mrs.  Adella  W.  Eardley,  Mrs. 
Lillie  T.  Freeze,  Miss  Aggie  Campbell,  and  Miss  Sarah  Ed- 
dington,  who  were  unanimously  sustained. 

The  choir,  composed  of  young:  ladies  of  the  Fourteenth 
and  Fifteenth  wards, sang-,  "Come,  Spirit  Come."  Adjourned. 
Benediction  by  Mrs.  Zina  D.  H.  Young-. 


Number  of  members,  8,304,  exclusive  of  162  who  meet 
conjointly;  average  attendance,  4,237;  number  of  chapters 
read,  29,418;  miscellaneous  readings,  28,611;  manuscript  pa- 
pers, 240;  testimonies  borne,  9,209;  essays,  960;  recitations, 
1,585;  lectures,  863;  sketches,  388;  questions,  234;  corre- 
spondence, 146;  synopses,  2;  songs,  1,937;  music,  330; 
books  in  library,  3,141:  cash  on  hand  at  last  report,  $1,300.47; 
cash  received,  $1,904,62;  cash  total,  $3,205,09;  cash  dis- 
bursed, $1,496.89;  cash  on  hand,  $1,708,20;  property  last 
report,  $2,634,51;  property  received;  $393.80;  property  total, 
$3,028.34;  property  disbursed,  $34.79;  property  on  hand, 


Agreeable  to  instructions,  the  officers  of  the  Central 
Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  together  with  the  stake  presi- 
dents and  delegates  met  at  half  past  four  p.  m.,  Saturday, 
April  5th,  1890,  at  the  residence  of  Mrs.  Maria  Y.  Doug-all, 
in  Salt  Lake  City,  and  held  a  most  enjoyable  meeting,  which 
was  opened  by  prayer  by  Mrs.  Maria  Y.  Dougall. 

At  roll  call,  Davis,  Morgan,  Salt  Lake,  St.  Johns,  Too- 
ele  and  Utah  stakes  were  represented  by  presidents;  Bear 
Lake,  Cache  and  Juab  by  counselors;  Emery  and  St.  Joseph 
by  delegates. 

132  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

The  reports  were  models  of  conciseness  and  accuracy,  em- 
body ing  the  number  of  ward  associations  in  each  stake,  the 
number  of  members  enrolled,  the  extent  of  the  territory  em- 
braced in  the  stake  associations,  a  brief  summary  of  which 
.shows  that  in  the  eleven  stakes  represented,  there  were  115 
ward  associations,  (31  of  which  were  not  reported, )  with  a 
membership  of  4,163,  with  a  desire  to  encourage  the  timid,  re- 
strain the  thoughtless,  and  secure  a  creditable  amount  of 
work  from  all  the  interested.  While  some  of  the  work  was 
diffusive,  much  was  centered  judiciously  upon  themes  that 
will  have  a  life-long  hold  upon  the  memories  of  those  reaping 
the  benefit  thereof.  The  visiting  of  the  stake  officers  shows 
that  harmony  exists  in  these  various  wards,  and  that  in  dis- 
tricts remote  from  large  centers  conjoint  associations  are  held, 
162  young  ladies  participating  in  the  exercises  of  such  con- 
joint associations;  the  territory  traversed  varying  from  a  few 
blocks  to  a  distance  of  from  seventy-five  to  one  hundred  and 
fifty  miles.  Some  of  the  more  distant  have  been  visited  but 
once  a  year  by  stake  officials,  and  then  through  the  courtesy 
of  the  stake  presidents  and  bishops;  but  the  aim  is  to  visit 
twice  yearly;  and  some  reported  quarterly  visits.  The  in- 
struction imparted  by  the  president  and  her  counselors  if 
acted  upon  cannot  fail  to  enhance  the  value  of  these  working 
centers  by  fifty  per  cent.  We  should  have  centers  where 
politeness,  culture,  refinement,  purity,  and  sanctification 
would  invite  the  guardianship  of  angels ;  and  this  can  easily 
be  accomplished  by  each  and  every  one  training  herself 
through  perfect  self-government  to  be  all  they  desire  in  the 

Benediction  by  Counselor  Lizzie  Townsend. 

M.  E.  COOK,  Secretary. 

At  this  meeting  in  April,  1890,  it  will  be  noticed  that 
the  General  Board  was  first  placed  before  the  representatives 
of  the  associations,  in  conference  assembled,  for  their  suffrag- 
es; also,  at  this  conference,  the  names  of  the  four  aids 
were  added  to  the  General  Board.  These  aids  were  well  worthy 
of  the  honor  thus  placed  upon  them.  From  that  day  they 
we.  e  active  and  useful  workers  in  the  General  Board.  All 


are  still  in  this  position  except  Lillie  T.  Freeze,  who,  at  her 
request,  was  released  in  October,  1904,  on  account  of  her 
pressing-  duties  in  the  General  Board  of  the  Primary  Associ- 
ation, to  which  she  owed  her  first  duty.  It  was  at  this  meet- 
ing: that  Miss  Mary  E.  Cook  was  publicly  voted  in  as  secre- 
tary, she  having-  performed  the  work  of  that  office  since  the 
death  of  Louie  Wells,  in  May,  1887. 

At  the  meeting  of  g-eneral  and  stake  officers  held  April 
5th,  1891,  announcement  was  made  that  thereafter  it  was  de- 
signed to  hold  one  annual  conference  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  in 
October.  On  September  6th,  1891,  a  meeting:  of  the  Gener- 
al Board  was  called  to  make  arrang-ements  for  this  first  reg-- 
ular  annual  conference,  being  the  second  g-eneral  conference 
held.  This  meeting  was  held  at  the  home  of  Sister  Doug-all, 
and  much  important  business  was  accomplished.  Those 
present  at  this  private  session  were,  President  E.  S.  Taylor, 
Counselors  Maria  Y.  Doug-all  and  Martha  H.  Ting-ey,  Aids 
Adella  W.  Eardley,  Lillie  T.  Freeze,  Sarah  Edding:ton,  and 
Assistant  Secretary  Ann  M.  Cannon.  Arrangements  were 
there  made  to  entertain  all  visiting-  delegates.  This  was  a 
step  in  the  right  direction,  and  the  beautiful  and  hospitable 
custom  has  been  maintained  in  all  subsequent  conferences. 
There  was  also  another  innovation — the  selecting*  of  formal 
subjects  to  be  treated  by  various  speakers.  The  subject 
of  "Social  Purity"  was  chosen  and  was  afterward  assigned 
to  Mrs.  Emily  Cluff,  of  Provo;  "Development  of  Woman — 
Physical,  Mental  and  Spiritual,"  was  assigned  to  Mrs.  Min- 
nie J.  Snow,  then  the  president  of  Box  Elder  stake  Y.  L.  M. 
I.  A.;  "Be  Ye  Not  Unequally  Yoked"  was  the  subject  chosen 
for  Mrs.  Lillie  T.  Freeze.  There  were  several  musical  se- 
lections to  be  interspersed  throughout  the  program,  and  mu- 
sic for  the  entire  conference  was  put  in  charge  of  Miss  Ag- 
gie  Campbell.  Another  interesting:  decision  made  at  this 
preliminary  meeting-  was  that  there  were  to  be  regular  ses- 

134  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

sions  of  the  General  Board  held  four  times  a  year.  How 
far-away  that  time  seems  now,  and  how  small  the  compass  of 
the  labors  it  provided  for!  Now  there  are  weekly  meetings 
of  the  Board  and  special  committee  meeting's  held  several 
times  a  week.  But  the  innovation  of  a  regular  time  and 
place  for  formal  discussions  proved  successful. 

The  program  for  this  conference  was  carried  out  prac- 
tically as  planned.  It  consisted  of  an  officers'  meeting,  held 
October  6th,  1891,  at  the  residence  of  Counselor  Maria  Y. 
Dougall,  and  public  sessions  October  7th  at  1  p.  m.  and  7:30 
p.  m.  in  the  Salt  Lake  Assembly  Hall.  In  addition  to  the 
addresses  already  mentioned,  there  were  others  by  Sisters 
Zina  D.  H.  Young,  Bathsheba  W.  Smith,  M.  Isabella  Home, 
Maria  Y.  Dougall,  and  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor;  solos  by 
Sarah  Olsen  Langford  and  Agnes  Olsen  Thomas,  and  a  duet 
by  Louise  Poulton  and  Ella  Derr. 

At  the  evening  session,  President  Joseph  F.  Smith  was 
present  and  gave  some  invaluable  counsel: 

He  urged  all  young  ladies  to  form  early  some  purpose  in 
life,  and  let  that  purpose  be  a  good  and  noble  one.  Aim  high 
to  do  good,  to  become  amiable  and  useful;  be  self-reliant. 
No  creature  is  absolutely  independent,  but  some  are  more  so 
than  others.  Our  world  and  our  lives  would  be  exceedingly 
barren  if  we  were  utterly  independent,  but  we  can  be  self- 
reliant.  Practical  learning  is  the  most  essential.  He  urged 
the  mothers  to  see  that  their  daughters  have  an  opportunity 
of  learning  some  trade  which  would  enable  them  to  provide 
a  living  in  case  of  necessity.  Spoke  at  some  length  on  the 
influence  of  women,  claiming  that  the  character  of  the  com- 
munity depends  largely  upon  its  girls, — they  have  the  power 
to  make  good,  bad,  or  indifferent  society,  while  the  influence 
of  a  mother  is  more  potent  for  good  or  evil  than  any  other 
influence  in  the  world.  He  said  the  object  of  our  associations 
is  partly  that  the  young  ladies  who  have  few  advantages  at 
home  may  have  extended  opportunities  to  learn  and  improve. 
He  advised  the  girls  to  be  kind  to  mother  and  to  all  their 
associates;  making  home  pleasant  for  all,  and  all  sharing 



its  burdens.  He  exhorted  all  when  tried,  to  go  to  the  Lord. 
''All  who  are  tried  and  stand  true  will  receive  a  glorious  re- 
ward. 'Be  ye  wise  as  serpents  and  harmless  as  doves.'  We 
must  conform  to  the  conditions  our  Father  suffers  to  be 
brought  to  bear  upon  us,  and  He  will  sustain  us  and  bring 
us  off  triumphant  in  the  end."  In  conclusion  he  urged  all 
to  maintain  honor  even  at  the  cost  of  life  itself. 

The  resignation  of  Miss  Mary  E.  Cook  as  secretary  of 
the  General  Board  was  offered  at  this  conference  and  accept- 
ed, as  the  lady  was  leaving  for  the  East.  Sister  Taylor 


spoke  highly  of  her  brief  labors,  and  then  placed  Miss  Ann 
M.  Cannon,  who  had  been  sustained  as  assistant  secretary 
the  preceding  April,  before  the  conference  as  secretary. 

The  death  of  Mrs.  Fanny  Y.  Thatcher,  the  general  treas- 
urer, occurred  in  February,  1892.  Her  loss  was  felt  keenly 
by  Sister  Taylor  and  associates.  The  place  made  vacant  by 
her  death  was  filled,  the  following  April,  by  the  appointment 


HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

of  Miss  Ann  M.  Cannon,  who  now  became  both  secretary 
and  treasurer. 

At  the  first  meeting  of  the  third  conference,  we  find  re- 
corded the  manner  in  which  funds  were  raised.  Sister 
Taylor  reported  that  in  order  to  send  a  representative  to  the 
Woman's  National  Council  at  Washington,  money  had  to  be 
raised  quickly,  and,  there  not  having  been  time  to  send  to 
all  the  stakes  for  contributions,  a  call  had  been  made  upon 
those  near  by,  and  these  central  stakes  had  responded  with 
such  liberality  that  there  was  enough  to  pay  expenses  and 
place  a  small  balance  with  the  treasurer. 

For  many  years,  the  business  and  spiritual  meetings  at 
the  General  Conference  time  in  April  and  October  were  held 
in  the  hospitable  home  of  Brother  and  Sister  W.  B.  Dougall. 
Many  "spiritual  feasts"  have  marked  the  yearly  sessions  in 
these  capacious  parlors,  while  chocolate  and  buns  were  al- 
ways had  in  abundance  for  the  tired  girls  who  gladly  set 



aside  amusement,  work  or  sleep  to  engage  in  those  restful 
and  faith-promoting  "testimony  meetings." 

We  have  the  minutes  of  one  of  the  business  sessions 
held  in  that  long-ago  time,  in  which  occur  some  character- 
istic instructions  of  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor.  We  append 
them  here,  both  because  of  their  value  and  because  they 
give  a  glimpse  of  her  own  character  and  teachings: 

Sister  Taylor  bore  a  strong  testimony  to  the  fact  that 
she  was  always  strengthened  and  aided  in  performing  her 
duty  by  a  higher  source  of  power  than  existed  in  herself. 
She  urged  the  presidents  to  be  energetic  and  full  of  zeal. 
She  said  that  some  presidents  had  mapped  out  plans  of  study 
in  their  associations  instead  of  working  in  a  desultory  fash- 
ion; when  such  plans  had  been  adhered  to,  great  success  had 
attended  them.  She  said:  "However,  all  do  not  have  the 
same  material  to  work  with,  and  the  exercises  must  be  varied 
according  to  the  capacity  of  the  members.  The  aim  should 
be  not  to  develop  the  talent  of  one  or  two,  but  to  draw  out 
and  encourage  each  member,  thus  benefiting  the  whole." 
She  urged  the  officers  not  to  drive  the  girls  away  by  requir- 
ing too  difficult  work  of  them;  but  to  come  down  to  the 
capacity  and  youth  of  the  girls  and  be  in  sympathy  with 
them,  thus  teaching  them  that  which  will  do  them  good, 
here  and  hereafter.  "Devise  the  best  work  you  can,"  she 
said,  "and  pray  for  each  other,  and  then  the  Lord  will  help 
you  all.  As  teachers,  cultivate  all  those  virtues  which  you 
would  like  to  be  reproduced  in  those  under  you." 

Now, what  are  the  conditions  of  today?  What  of  local, stake 
and  general  conferences?  Have  the  Mutuals  grown  apace 
with  the  advancement  and  progress  of  the  people?  Let  us 

The  evolution  of  the  ward  associations  has  centered 
chiefly  around  the  machinery  of  their  work.  Yet  it  was  a 
great  advantage  when  the  two  General  Boards  set  Tuesday 
as  M.  I.  A.  night  throughout  the  Church.  This  gave 
order  and  regularity  to  the  cause  and  enabled  every  inter- 
ested person  to  govern  all  engagements  in  accordance  with 

138  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

this  ruling:.  In  later  years,  some  of  the  country  wards 
found  it  practicable  to  give  up  the  Sabbath  evening's  entire- 
ly to  the  Mutuals,  as  the  Sacrament  meeting's  are  there  held 
in  the  afternoon.  This  has  been  more  imperative  since  the 
district  and  high  schools  have  beg-un  to  fill  every  evening-  of 
the  week  with  study  and  books,  so  that  it  has  been  almost 
impossible  to  keep  Tuesday  nig-ht  free  for  Mutual  purposes; 
yet  in  the  cities  where  Sacrament  meetings  are  held  Sunday 
evening1,  no  other  recourse  is  at  hand.  Another  recent  fea- 
ture of  the  ward  meeting's  is  the  preliminary  programs.  In 
the  first  years  the  associations  met  separately,  the  girls  usu- 
ally choosing  to  assemble  in  the  afternoon.  But  bishops  and 
young"  men  pleaded  in  earlier  years  for  the  assistance  and  pres- 
ence of  the  girls  to  help  their  own  associations,  and  to  draw  out 
the  boys.  As  ever,  the  girls  consented, though  not  always  con- 
vinced that  they  were  gainers  in  the  new  arrangement;  and  thus 
grew  up  the  so-called  "conjoint  opening  exercises."  The  two 
associations  meet  in  the  large  hall  of  the  ward,  programs  and 
minutes  of  both  societies  are  read  and  kept,  but  the  exercises 
are  presided  over  by  the  Y.  M.  M.  1.  officers,  with  the  occa- 
sional courtesy  of  the  Young  Ladies'  officers  calling  out  their 
own  numbers;  in  some  instances  the  girls  are  graciously 
invited  to  "conduct"  the  whole  evening  exercises. 
In  these  preliminary  programs,  after  singing  and  prayer, 
there  are  short  talks  given,  or  a  story  told,  then,  at  the  sound 
of  the  bell,  the  young  men  withdraw,  and  the  girls  carry  on 
their  own  work.  Usually  the  whole  company  reassembles 
for  closing"  exercises,  yet  not  always.  Once  a  month  the  two 
associations  hold  a  "conjoint  meeting."  Here  the  programs 
are  divided  equally, — being  planned  by  a  "conjoint  commit- 
tee,"—  and  this  open  meeting  is  always  held  in  the  ward  hall 
on  fast  day,  the  first  Sunday  in  each  month,  and  the  general 
public  is  invited  to  attend.  Lectures  by  the  members  or 
by  some  visiting  stake  or  other  officer  are  given  on  subjects 


of  general  interest.  These  may  be  taken  from  the  Guides  or 
Manuals;  or  perchance  physicians  are  invited  to  speak  on 
hygiene,  or  musicians  are  asked  to  give  an  evening  with 
some  great  composer,  or  lecturers  and  professionals  may  read 
"The  Vision  of  Sir  Launfal"  or  "Hanele,"  while  Ibsen  and 
Shakespeare,  with  Isaiah  and  David,  form  subjects  of  peren- 
nial interest.  At  the  yearly  ward  conference,  the  Y.  L.  M. 
I.  A.  officers  are  placed  before  the  people  for  their  suffrage, 
in  common  with  other  ward  officers.  Thus  the  detail  work 
of  the  associations  is  moving  forward  in  direct  and  powerful 

The  stake  officers  hold  monthly  meetings,  and  plan  for 
regular  visits  to  wards,  with  other  minute  details  of  their 
calling.  Each  stake  is  instructed  to  hold  one  annual 
conjoint  conference,  one  yearly  convention  in  the  early 
fall,  and  one  conference,  if  possible,  alone.  The  Gener- 
al Board  visit  only  the  annual  conferences  and  the  yearly 
conventions.  The  time  in  the  yearly  conjoint  conference  is 
given  up  largely  to  the  visiting  members  of  the  two  General 
Boards.  In  the  morning  occur  the  business  sessions,  where 
ward  officers  report  conditions,  ask  advice,  and  partic- 
ipate in  discussions.  Questions  of  local  and  general  in- 
terest to  Mutual  Improvement  workers  are  brought 
freely  forward — sometimes  in  the  form  of  brief  papers 
or  topics  and  sometimes  informally.  Generally  at  such 
conferences,  the  stake  boards  or  the  officers  of  the  ward 
where  the  conference  is  held  bring  to  the  hall  sufficient  re- 
freshments for  the  noon  meal,  so  that  the  girls  are  not  kept 
at  home  preparing  hot  dinners.  The  afternoon  and  evening 
sessions  are  open  to  the  public,  and  formal  or  impromptu 
talks  and  sermons  are  delivered,  as  the  stake  officers  may 
plan  or  desire.  If  the  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  president  holds  a 
mid- winter  conference,  in  addition  to  her  yearly  conjoint  con- 
ference and  the  convention, she  usually  moves  that  conference 

140  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

from  town  to  town, calling  it  a  district  conference, thus  bringing 
to  each  section  of  her  stake  the  inspiration  engendered  by 
such  a  gathering.  The  work  of  the  annual  fall  conventions 
will  be  treated  in  another  chapter. 

From  the  initial  effort  of  1890,  there  soon  grew  up  a 
settled  policy  in  regard  to  the  holding  of  general  conferences 
by  the  two  wings  of  Mutual  work.  The  first  day  of  June 
was  chosen  by  Elder  Junius  F.  Wells  for  these  general  annual 
conferences  in  honor  of  President  Brigham  Young's  birthday, 
which  occurs  June  1st,  as  it  was  this  great  organizer  who  had 
set  in  motion  both  associations.  June  has  proved  to  be  a 
good  month  and  some  date  near  the  first  is  still  chosen  for 
the  conferences .  From  the  small  beginnings  of  twenty  years 
ago,  we  have  come  to  the  mammoth  gatherings  of  today, 
which  rival  the  General  Conferences  of  April  and  October, 
and  which  bring  into  Salt  Lake  City  from  five  to  ten  thou- 
sand young  people,  coming  all  the  way  from  Canada  on  the 
north  to  Mexico  on  the  south.  The  work  has  been  regulated 
and  formalized,  perhaps  to  a  startling  degree;  but  the  vast 
multitude  of  eager  youths  who  gather  in  the  Tabernacle  in 
these  June  conferences  is  sufficient  evidence  of  the  value  of 
Mutual  Improvement  work.  Perhaps  a  brief  glimpse  at  the 
last  conference  held  on  June  3rd  to  5th,  1910,  will  give  as 
good  an  evidence  of  the  strides  made  by  the  young  people  as 
any  explanation  might  portray. 

The  fifteenth  general  annual  conference  of  the  M.  I.  A. 
opened  informally  the  night  of  June  3,  1910,  with  a  beautiful 
reception,  in  the  Bishop's  building  on  East  Temple  street, 
tendered  to  the  visiting  officers  by  the  two  general  Boards. 
The  three  upper  floors  were  thrown  open,  the  second  and 
third  floors  being  used  as  reception  rooms,  and  the  spacious 
hall  on  the  fourth  floor  was  used  for  dancing.  Never  have 
those  elegant  rooms  and  halls  held  a  happier  or  finer  audience. 
Young  men  from  valley,  forge  and  farm,  from  shop,  office  or 


college  hall;  united  in  one  common  bond  of  fellowship  and 
good  will;  while  the  pure  faces  of  Zion's  daughters  shone 
with  the  light  of  truth  and  virtue  which  radiates  joy  as 
flowers  exhale  perfume.  The  general  authorities  of  the 
Church  were  nearly  all  present,  the  young  people  gathering 
around  President  Joseph  F.  Smith  to  grasp  his  hand  like  lov- 
ing children  around  a  father.  A  trio  of  girls  from  near 
Mexico's  line  went  about  asking  prettily  to  be  introduced  to 
one  after  another  of  the  men  and  women  of  whom  they  had 
read  so  much,  checking  off  each  name  from  some  mental  list, 
and  asking  cheerily  for  the  "next."  There  was  an  excellent 
program  of  music  given  on  both  the  second  and  third  floors, in. 
the  halls  of  the  Relief  Society  and  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  $usic 
for  reception  and  dancing  was  furnished  by  an  orchestra  of 
stringed  instruments  under  the  direction  of  Prof.  William  C. 

The  general  meetings  of  the  conference  in   which   the 
young  ladies  participated  were  programmed  as  follows: 


Y.    M.    AND   Y.    L.     M.    I.    A.    OF    THE    CHURCH    OF 


Friday  Evening,  June  3,  1910,  7:30  p.  m.,  Bishop's 
Building,  No.  40  North  Main  Street:  Reception,  Program 
and  Dance,  Complimentary  to  Delegates  holding  tickets, 
tendered  by  the  General  Boards  of  M.  I.  A. 

Y.  L.  M.  /.  A.  Officers'  Program: — Saturday,  June  4, 
10  a.  m.,  Assembly  Hall:  Singing,  "All  Hail  the  Glorious 
Day,"  Congregation;  Prayer,  Counselor  Ruth  M.  Fox;  Solo, 
''I  Know  that  my  Redeemer  Lives,"  Sylvia  Ball;  Greeting, 
President  Martha  H.  Tingey;  ^Lecture,  "The  Apostasy," 
May  Booth  Talmage;  Lecture,  "The  Restoration  of  the  Gos- 
pel," Osborne  J.  Widtsoe;  Discussion;  Singing  "True  to 
the  Faith,"  Congregation;  Benediction,  President  Sazie 
Heath  of  Pioneer  Stake. 

142  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Saturday,  June  4,  2  p.  m.— Singing-,  "O  Thou  Rock  of 
our  Salvation,"  Congregation;  Prayer,  Mary  A.  Freeze; 
Singing:,  "Let  the  Holy  Spirit  Guide  You,"  Congregation; 
Talks,  "What  can  be  done  to  stem  the  tide  of  evil  sweep- 
ing- through  the  land,"  Dr.  J.  Lloyd  Woodruff,  Julia  M. 
Brixen;  Solo,  "The  Seer,"  Chorister  Annie  Hood  of  Star 
Valley;  Address,  President  Joseph  F.  Smith;  Singing-,  "Ere 
the  Sun  Goes  Down,"  Congregation;  Benediction,  President 
Zina  B.  Cannon  of  Granite  Stake. 

Conjoint  Y.  L.  and  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.  Officers'  Meeting: — 
Sunday,  June  5,  10  a.  m.,  Tabernacle:  Singing,  "High  on 
the  Mountain  Top,"  Congregation;  Prayer,  George  H.  Brim- 
hall;  Singing,  Ladies'  Double  Trio;  Addresses  on  Conjoint 
Work:  a.  Debates,  Dr.  John  A.  Widtsoe;  b.  Music,  Oscar 
A.  Kirkham.  Solo,  "The  Valley  of  the  Shadow,"  John  Rob- 
inson; c.  Drama,  Alice  C.  Tuddenham;  d.  Reading  and 
Story  Telling,  Emma  Goddard.  Speeches  limited  to  from 
five  to  ten  minutes  with  discussion  after  each  subject.  Sing- 
ing, "O  Thou  Rock  of  Our  Salvation,"  Congregation;  Ben- 
ediction, Agnes  S.  Campbell. 

Conjoint  General  Meetings  of  M.  L  A.  and  Primary  Asso- 
ciations:— Sunday,  June  5,  2  p.  m.,  Tabernacle.  Singing, 
"Glorious  Things  of  Thee  are  Spoken,"  Tabernacle  Choir; 
Prayer,  Joseph  W.  McMurrin;  Singing,  "The  Morning  Breaks, 
the  Shadows  Flee,"  Tabernacle  Choir;  Presentation  of  Gen- 
eral M.  I.  A.  and  Primary  Officers;  Opening  Address,  Pres- 
ident Martha  H.  Tingey;  Anthem,  "Grant  us  Peace,  O 
Lord!"  Tabernacle  Choir;  Address,  President  Joseph  F. 
Smith;  Eulogy  on  Life  and  Character  of  John  Hafen,  Presi- 
dent Heber  J.  Grant;  Singing,  Children  of  Ensign  Stake; 
Remarks,  Emma  Ramsey  Morris  of  the  Primary  Associa- 
tion; Singing,  "God  is  our  Refuge  and  Strength,"  Taber- 
nacle Choir;  Benediction,  President  Louie  B.  Felt  of  Primary 

Sunday  Evening,  June  5,  7  p.  m., Tabernacle: — Singing, 
Come,  Come  ye  Saints,"  Congregation;  Prayer,  President 
John  Henry  Smith;  Solo,  Melvin  Peterson;  Lecture,  "Be  Ye 
Clean,"  George  H.  Brimhall;  Singing,  "Mother's  Lullaby," 
Ladies'  Chorus  of  Pioneer  Stake,  under  direction  of  Mabel 
Cooper;  Remarks,  President  Joseph  F.  Smith  in  behalf  of 


the  Primary  Association;  Singing-,  Young-  Ladies  of  Pioneer 
Stake;  Benediction,  President  Anthon  H.  Lund. 

The  alert  interest  displayed  by  every  member  present  at 
these  great  gathering's,  the  frequent  note-book,  the  lively 
discussion,  even  in  the  awe-inspiring:  spaces  of  the  big  Tab- 
ernacle, the  choice  music,  the  earnest  speakers,  with  the  de- 
corum and  precision  of  every  detail,  proved  the  high  stand- 
ard now  struck  for  " Mutual"  work.  Our  young  people  are 
described  by  outside  observers  as  grave,  serious,  lacking  in 
humor  and  full  of  purpose.  They  may  be  so — yet  are  they 
also  progressive  and  enthusiastic.  Never  have  they  shown 
themselves  truer  descendants  of  the  serious  Puritans,  Hugue- 
nots, Lutherans  and  Dissenters  than  in  the  splendid  activities 
of  M.  I.  work. 

Such  then  is  the  condition  and  the  labor  of  the  army  of 
young  people,  seventy  thousand  of  them,  gathered  in  local, 
stake  and  general  capacities  in  annual  conferences  as- 



Sister  Eardley  has  the  honor  of  being  the  first  aid  ever 
placed  in  a  board.  In  June,  1889,  she  was  sustained  as  an 
aid  to  the  General  Board  of  the  Y. L.M.I. A.,  and  has  labored 
most  faithfully  in  that  capacit}^  ever  since.  Agnes  Camp- 
bell was  the  first  one  spoken  to  by  Sister  Taylor,  but  when 
they  were  really  voted  for,  Sister  Eardley  was  placed  first  on 
account  of  being  older. 

She  was  born  July  31,  1857,  in  Salt  Lake  City.  Her  father 
was  the  well-known  bishop  of  the  Ninth  ward,  Samuel  Wool- 
ley.  Her  parents  were  both  pioneers, and  were  of  the  strong, 
splendid  stuff  out  of  which  the  foundations  of  the  Church 
were  laid.  Adella  joined  the  Ninth  ward  Retrenchment 


HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Association  in  1873,  and  she  has  worked  in  the  associations 
ever  since.  She  attended  the  dedication  of  the  St.  George 
Temple  in  1877,  and  was  married  the  following-  year.  She 
was  president  of  the  Third  ward  Primary  Association  for  ten 
years,  and  secretary  of  the  Mutual  for  twelve  years  in  the 
same  ward.  She  visited  the  New  Orleans  Exposition  in 

company  with  the 
president  of  the 
Southern  States 
Mission,  Elder 
John  Morgan.and  a 
number  of  friends. 
In  1889  she  took  a 
trip  to  Pennsylva- 
nia, and  visited 
the  birth  place  of 
her  mother  in  or- 
der to  collect  gen- 
ealogy. She  was 
one  of  Utah's  dele- 
gates to  theWorld's 
Congress  of  Wom- 
en in  Chicago  in 
1893.  When  the 
standing  commit- 
tees were  organ- 
ized in  the  General 
Board,  Sister  Eard- 
ley  was  at  once 
chosen  to  act  on 
the  Joiirnal  com- 
mittee. She  served 
also  for  years  on 
the  Guide  commit- 
ADELLA  w.  EARDLEY.  tee  and  Traveling 

Library     commit- 
tee and   is   now  chairman  of  the  Journal  committee. 

She  is  a  true  daughter  of  her  father,  gifted  with  keen 
business  ability,  shrewd  and  far-sighted,  yet  generous  where 
generosity  is  required.  She  is  open-hearted  and  frank,  is  a 
wise  counselor  and  one  of  the  best  business  helps  on  the 


Board.  Sister  Eardley  is  a  prudent  mother  and  her  children 
do  her  honor.  She  has  been  an  active  and  faithful  member 
of  the  Board  in  all  weather  and  under  all  conditions,  ever 
since  she  became  associated  with  it.  The  trials  and  strug- 
gles which  life  has  brought  to  her  have  developed  the 
pure  gold  of  her  sterling  nature.  She  is  a  woman  of  strong  and 
enlightened  opinions,  and  once  convinced,  it  is  not  an  easy 
matter  to  persuade  her  otherwise.  With  such  strong  convic- 
tions, she  may  sometimes  form  incorrect  conclusions;  but 
once  prove  to  her  that  she  is  in  the  wrong,  and  her  noble 
nature  quickly  responds  to  the  truth  you  present.  To  know 
Sister  Eardley  is  to  respect  and  honor  her  as  a  Saint  and  as 
a  broad-minded  woman.  She  stands  for  the  elevation  of  the 
spiritual  in  practical  matters  in  the  studies  and  pleasures  of 
the  girls,  as  she  does  for  the  exaltation  of  the  practical  in  all 
spiritual  matters.  Perhaps  the  most  attractive  side  of  her 
character  is  her  manifest  power  to  grow.  Some  good  people 
there  are,  and  some  clever — who  attain  a  certain  degree  of 
intelligence  .and  then  stop.  But  Sister  Eardley  has  kept  her 
brain  bright  through  choice  reading.her  heart  big  through  con- 
stant contact  and  sympathy  with  the  young,  and  her  spirit 
keenly  attuned  to  the  harmony  of  the  Gospel  plan. 


The  parents  of  Sarah  Eddington  came  to  Utah  in  1853. 
Her  father  is  one  of  the  historical  figures  of  the  general  tith- 
ing office  in  Salt  Lake  City.  While  strong  and  firm,  as  a 
man  should  be,  he  is  also  very  tender  in  his  association  with 
his  family.  The  mother  was  of  the  same  gentle  and  refined 
type  from  which  mould  her  daughter  was  fashioned. 

Sarah  was  born  and  reared  in  the  Fourteenth  ward,  Salt 
Lake  City.  She  is  a  student,  and  loves  books  as  some  girls 
love  play.  She  attended  the  public  schools  in  her  youth, 
and  graduated  into  the  State  University.  Owing  to  a  severe 
accident  in  falling  from  a  swing,  her  spine  was  injured,  and 
her  university  work  ended  in  the  beginning  of  the  second 
year's  course.  But  her  delicate  health  did  not  prevent  her 
from  attending  to  her  spiritual  duties.  She  was  a  teacher  in 
the  Seventh  ward  Sunday  School  for  years,  and  was  pres- 
ident of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  for  eight  years  in  the  same  ward. 
During  her  presidency,  some  of  the  most  profitable  features 

146  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

of  M.  I.  work  were  originated  and  carried  to  a  successful 
issue.  Some  of  these  ideas  have  since  been  incorporated  into 
the  general  work  of  the  associations.  She  is  a  quiet  but 
ardent  and  successful  political  worker,  doing-  in  her  modest 
way  many  things  that  a  more  aggressive  girl  would  fail  in. 


She  worked  as  chief  clerk  in  the  auditor's  office  for  four  years, 
was  deputy  in  the  same  office  for  two  years,  and  now  is  em- 
ployed in  the  county  recorder's  office.  She  is  an  impressive 
and  poetic  speaker  and  has  exerted  a  wonderful  influence 
among  the  girls.  She  is  sweet  and  gentle  in  all  her  ministra- 
tions, and  yet  beneath  the  womanly  softness  lingers  a 


strength  and  a  determination  of  purpose  which  one  would 
scarcely  expect  from  a  personality  so  tender  and  gentle.  She 
is  beloved,  not  only  by  all  members  of  her  Board,  but  by 
every  young-  woman  in  Zion  who  has  been  fortunate  enough 
to  partake  of  her  friendship  and  loving-  ministrations. 

Miss  Eddington  has  also  served  on  many  committees 
with  dilig-ence  and  wide  capacity.  Perhaps  her  most  valu- 
able contribution  has  been  while  chairman  of  the  Traveling: 
Library  committee.  She  has  brought  her  committee  in  di- 
rect contact  with  every  ward  librarian.  The  books  have 
been  rigidly  scrutinized,  all  undesirable  ones  eliminated, 
and  carefully  selected  ones  put  into  all  libraries.  She  is  of 
such  delicate  mental  fiber  herself  that  she  feels  the  evil  at- 
mosphere of  a  book  as  men  sense  frauds  in  business  life. 

Such  in  brief  is  the  labor  of  one  of  the  most  valued  and 
valuable  members  of  the  General  Board. 


The  daughter  of  one  of  the  famous  Scotch  Campbells, 
whose  line  runs  back  on  the  maternal  side  to  William  Wal- 
lace, Agnes  Campbell  inherits  the  best  qualities  of  her  shrewd 
and  brave  ancestors.  She  is  the  soul  of  honor  and  probity, 
and  never  a  suspicion  of  double-dealing  or  duplicity  could 
assail  her  upright  character.  She  possesses  a  cheery,  sweet 
nature  with  a  deep  stream  of  pure  charity  rolling  far  below 
the  surface,  carrying  her  soul  away  with  its  sweep  into  the 
regions  of  a  secret  but  divine  joy — that  bliss  which  the 
angels  know  when  some  secret,  self-sacrificing  deed  has  lift- 
ed their  pure  spirits  into  the  joy  of  a  sanctified  heaven . 

Agnes  early  began  her  public  work.  She  was  first 
called  to  the  presidency  of  the  Fourteenth  ward  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A., 
Salt  Lake  City.  She  chose  Miss  Lizzie  Green  and  Mrs.  Rida 
C.  Taylor  as  her  counselors,  and  Miss  Maggie  Taylor  as  sec- 
retary. She  also  had  Miss  Ann  M.  Cannon  as  treasurer,  Miss 
Mae  Taylor  as  assistant  secretary,  and  Belle  Morris  as  or- 
ganist. This  was  rather  a  remarkable  group  of  young  wom- 
en, as  their  subsequent  history  proves.  They  were  installed 
in  office  September  24th,  1888.  It  was  while  she  was  in  that 
position  that  Sister  Elmina  S.  Taylor  decided  to  call  her  to 
act  as  an  aid  on  the  General  Board.  Agnes  also  kept  up  her 
work  in  her  own  ward .  At  this  time  she  was  engaged  in  the 


HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

office  of  Z.  C.  M.  I.  at  a  good  salary,  and  was  already  plan- 
ning- to  save  money,  so  that  she  might  help  to  build  a  home 
for  her  mother.  The  family  had  been  deprived  of  the  father 
in  1874,  and  the  girls  at  once  set  about  making  themselves 
independent.  Agnes  had  inherited  her  father's  business 
qualities  so  that  she  carried  along  her  private  and  public 

duties  with  little 
difficulty.  In 
1895  she  re- 
moved to  the 
Twentieth  ward, 
and  re  signed  her 
position  as  presi- 
dent in  the  Four- 
teenth ward  aft- 
er ten  years  of 
active  service. 
On  February 
26th,  1898,  she 
was  elected  pres- 
ident  of  the 
Twentieth  ward 
Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 
Here  again  she 
did  conscien- 
tious work,  for 
she  could  do 
nothing  else. 
She  was  now 
very  busy  buy- 
ing a  small  spot 
of  ground  at  the 
head  of  State 
street,  where 
her  longing  eyes 
had  rested  for 
many  years.  It  was  purchased,  and  the  modest,  pretty  home 
was  begun.  In  one  year  the  house  was  built,  and  the  girls 
with  their  mother  were  cosily  settled  under  their  own  roof- 
tree.  She  resigned  her  position  in  the  Twentieth  ward  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.  in  1901,  on  account  of  her  removal  to  the  Eighteenth 



ward  where  her  new  home  was.  She  left  her  work  in  the  big 
"Co-op"  store  in  1899,  and  accepted  the  position  of  assistant 
secretary  in  the  Board,  receiving-  a  small  salary  for  attending 
to  the  growing-  volume  of  clerical  work  attached  to  this  posi- 
tion. When  Miss  Neff  needed  some  assistance  in  the  Journal 
office,  Miss  Campbell  was  engaged  for  that  position,  and 
here  she  has  labored  ever  since;  ready  in  season  and  out  of 
season  for  every  call  made  upon  her. 

Those  who  see  Agnes  Campbell  in  her  bustling-  busi- 
ness career  have  little  conception  of  the  other  life  devoted  to 
the  poor,  the  needy,  the  emigrant,  the  struggling-  artist,  the 
widowed  mother,  and  orphaned  children.  She  has  converted 
more  people  to  the  glory  of  Temple  labor  than  any  one  the 
writer  knows.  She  has  constituted  herself  a  minister  pleni- 
potentiary between  the  living  spirits  of  the  dead  and  the  dead 
spirits  of  the  living,  until  her  name  is  a  synonym  of  Temple 
achievements.  The  beauty  of  her  life  lies,  like  her  charity, 
far  below  the  surface,  and  her  shrinking:  refusal  to  allow 
mention  of  her  good  works  but  signifies  the  true  simplicity  of 
her  genuine,  loving  heart. 

In  recent  years,  Miss  Campbell  has  devoted  herself  en- 
tirely to  the  M.  I.  A.  work.  As  assistant  secretary,  and  now 
as  business  manager  of  the  fournal^  she  is  always  found  at 
the  office,  cheery,  helpful,  willing  and  industrious. 


Lillie  Tuckett  Freeze  was  born  in  Salt  Lake  City,  March 
26th,  1855,  in  the  First  ward.  When  she  was  six  years  old, 
she  went  with  her  grandmother  to  help  pioneer  the  country 
of  Dixie,  settling  in  St.  George.  Here  she  assisted,  although 
such  a  tiny  girl,  in  the  erection  of  their  first  willow  house. 
She  possessed  an  indomitable  energy  and  ambition,  which 
was  often  gratified  at  the  expense  of  her  best  health.  Indeed, 
while  still  a  very  young  girl,  she  permanently  injured  her- 
self with  the  heavy  work  she  would  undertake.  But  few 
know  the  arduous  nature  of  the  work  done  by  the  only  girl 
in  a  family  left  orphans  by  the  death  of  the  mother.  She  was 
of  an  independent  nature,  and  found  work  for  herself  outside 
the  home  to  help  with  her  own  expenses.  She  labored  in 
Wallace  &  Evans'  candy  factory  after  her  father  married  the 

150  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

second  time.  When  sixteen  she  earned  money  enough  to 
send  herself  to  Morgan's  high,  school.  She  was  ambitious, 
artistic,  intense,  and  full  of  personal  magnetism.  Parties, 
picnics  and  private  theatricals  had  a  charm  for  her  sparkling 
nature  which  she  could  not  resist,  having  inherited  from  her 
mother,  Mercy  West  wood  Tuckett,  a  gifted  pioneer  actress, 
a  love  for  the  stage,  though  she  never  ventured  beyond  ward 


entertainments — for  church  benefits.  With  it  all,  she  had 
purity  and  a  deep  foundation  of  spirituality,  which  saved  her 
from  undue  temptation  or  excess. 

When  the  Junior  Retrenchment  Association  was  organ- 
ized in  the  Eleventh  ward,  in  1870,   Lillie  joined  almost  at 


first.  Here  she  found  scope  for  the  spiritual  powers  with 
which  her  nature  is  so  richly  gifted,  and  here,  also,  she  could 
exercise  her  varied  talents  in  many  directions.  She  was 
soon  chosen  to  assist  in  the  work,  and  later  acted  as  secre- 
tary. It  was  here  she  became  intimately  acquainted  with 
Mary  A.  Freeze,  the  first  wife  of  James  P.  Freeze,  and  that 
perfect  friendship  was  begun  which  neither  death  nor  mis- 
fortune can  lessen  or  cut  asunder.  She  was  married  to  James 
P.  Freeze  June  14th,  1875,  and  went  into  the  order  of  plural 
marriage  with  as  chaste  and  holy  principles  as  ever  actuated 
a  Hebrew  woman  of  old.  She  has  endeavored  to  live  in  that 
order  as  reverently  and  as  consistently  as  a  mortal  woman 
might  do;  and  her  reward  is  in  the  three  fine  children 
who  are  devoted  to  their  mother.  Her  strong  domestic  quali- 
ties make  a  peaceful,  happy  home  where  affection  rules  with 
powerful  yet  gentle  sway. 

Lillie  was  chosen  by  Sister  Taylor  as  an  aid-at-large  for 
the  General  Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  in  the  spring  of 
1890.  She  was  already  on  the  General  Board  of  the  Primary 
Association,  having  been  chosen  by  President  Louie  B.  Felt 
as  general  secretary  of  that  board  in  1880;  and  in  1888, 
President  Felt  took  her  as  first  counselor  in  the  place  of  Sister 
Matilda  Barratt  whose  resignation  had  become  necessary  .It 
was  the  thought  of  President  E.  S.  Taylor  that  it  would  be 
an  advantage  to  both  associations  to  have  Lillie  act  in  a 
double  capacity,  as  she  traveled  a  good  deal,  and  could  thus 
represent  both  organizations  when  it  was  impossible  to  send 
two.  However,  no  more  successful  candidate  could  be  found 
to  fill  two  such  responsible  offices.  Afterwards  the  title  "aid- 
at-large"  was  made  simply  "aid,"  like  that  of  the  other  sis- 
ters, as  she  did  practically  the  same  work. 

Sister  Freeze's  spirit,  always  loving,  intensely  sympa- 
thetic and  tender,  was  deepened  and  broadened  by  her  mel- 
lowing experiences,  as  crushed  flowers  often  yield  more  fra- 
grance, until  she  is  like  a  vision  of  love  and  faith  made  in- 
carnate; for  every  moment  of  her  life  for  these  many  years 
has  been  marred  by  physical  pain,  sometimes  almost  too 
great  for  human  endurance.  Yet  she  has  borne  all  with 
cheerful  and  hopeful  fortitude,  bravely  resisting  discourage- 
ment and  gloom  and  willingly  working  for  the  comfort  of 
home,  friends  and  the  public  good,  persistently  undertaking 

152  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

labor  from  which  strong  women  shrank.  During-  the  '  'raid, ' ' 
Sister  Freeze  suffered  in  common  with  those  in  similar  posi- 
tions, accentuated,  in  her  case,  with  bodily  weakness  and 
distress.  Within  the  last  seven  years  she  has  been  the  vic- 
tim of  two  serious  accidents,  both  of  which  nearly  ended  her 
life.  She  felt  compelled  to  resign  from  her  position  in  the 
Young  Ladies'  Board  in  the  autumn  of  1904,  because  of  de- 
clining health  and  other  pressing  cares.  It  was  a  great  trial 
for  Sister  Taylor  to  lose  her,  for  there  had  always  been  the 
closest  ties  of  friendship  between  them.  However,  Sister 
Freeze  was  released.  Then  came  her  second  severe  accident, 
making  her  an  invalid  for  over  a  year.  She  insisted  that  she 
be  also  released  from  her  office  on  the  Primary  General 
Board,  for  her  condition  made  it  impossible  for  her  to  travel 
to  attend  meetings  and  other  duties.  She  was  released  as  a 
counselor  but  retained  as  a  member  of  the  Board,  so  that  now 
she  is  quietly  living  her  life  of  lovely  seclusion,  never  for- 
gotten nor  less  loved  by  the  many  women  with  whom  she  has 

Lillie  has  written  much  for  the  women's  magazines  and 
has  shown  rich  tones  of  undeveloped  poesy  and  touching 
prose.  She  has  several  of  the  gifts  of  the  spirit  in  rich  abun- 
dance; and  her  presence  in  a  meeting  is  an  assurance  of  a 
rich  spiritual  feast.  She  has  faith  and  the  charity  which 
vaunts  not  itself,  but  is  kind;  she  has  the  gifts  of  speaking 
in  tongues  and  of  interpreting  tongues,  the  gift  of  prophecy, 
and  above  all  she  abounds  in  wisdom — that  wisdom  which 
exalts  not  riches  nor  reviles  against  sorrow.  She  has  garnered 
up  the  treasures  while  the  day  lasted,  but  hopes  to  labor  much 
longer  for  the  women  and  children  of  Zion. 



The  first  reports. — Annual  dues. — Traveling  expenses. — Permanent 
Fund — Dime  Fund. — Comparative  statements  of  General  Board 
expenses. — Labors  of  the  different  secretaries  and  treasurers. — 
Later  reports. 

THE  story  of  figures  is  interesting1,  for  they  speak  in  no 
uncertain   tones.      Therefore,  it   is  hoped   the   reader 
will  be  repaid  in  the  perusal  of  the  results   of  a   long  search 
through  the  earlier  statistics  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  As- 

The  General,  or  Central  Board,  as  it  was  first  called, 
was  organized  June  19,  1880,  with  Mrs.  Elmina  S.  Taylor  as 
president,  and  Miss  Louie  Wells  as  secretary.  There  were 
no  conferences  of  a  general  nature  held  until  ten  years  later. 
Each  ward  and  each  stake  was  a  law  unto  itself  in  a  large 
way,  with  the  helpful  assistance  given  by  the  General  Board. 
The  work  was  entirely  tentative,  and  the  various  officers 
were  feeling  their  way  upward  through  slow  and  difficult 
stages.  In  this  day  it  is  difficult  to  imagine  how  heavy  the 
burden  of  organization  and  management  fell  upon  the  unac- 
customed shoulders  of  those  women.  Today  things  have  be- 
come so  perfectly  adjusted  that  everything  runs  with  clock- 
like  precision.  In  those  early  times,  there  were  no  Church 
schools,  no  clubs  and  no  Women's  Councils  from  which  to 
glean  ideas;  these  Mormon  girls  were  finding  their  way  alone 
and  unaided  up  the  thorny  path  of  progress.  They  asked 
for  no  assistance  from  their  male  companions  and  relatives, 
for  all  alike  felt  the  necessity  of  individual  development  for 

Credit  must  be  given  where  it  is  due;  and  it  is  to  be  re- 

154  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

membered  that  the  Young-  Ladies'  Association  had  before 
them  the  examples  and  labors  of  the  Relief  Society,  the  pio- 
neer society  among-  all  women,  from  which  to  draw  help  and 
inspiration.  It  is  also  true,  however,  that  the  two  societies 
are  very  dissimilar  in  methods  and  purposes,  so  only  a  gen- 
eral assistance  could  be  drawn  from  this  source. 

The  first  general  reports  were  collected  by  Miss  Louie 
Wells  in  1885,  in  response  to  an  invitation  from  the  president 
of  the  Church  to  have  the  statistics  of  the  women's  organiza- 
tions read  before  the  General  Conference  in  Salt  Lake  City. 
The  reports  and  records  of  those  early  days  partook  of  the 
pioneer  conditions  still  maintaining.  Minutes  of  the  loca] 
associations  were  taken  faithfully  enough,  but  they  were  not, 
alas,  always  preserved.  Taken  in  lead  pencil  and  kept  by 
the  youthful  secretary  herself,  they  were  subject  to  all  the 
ills  that  attend  house-cleaning  and  hurricanes  raised  by  small 
brothers;  and  even  when  duly  recorded  in  various  stiff-backed 
account  books  (which  were  usually  employed  in  those  prim- 
itive times)  the  secretary  had  a  most  disconcerting  way  of 
getting  herself  married  off.  Who  was  to  remember  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.  minutes  in  all  that  excitement?  However,  consid- 
ering all  things,  there  was  a  very  good  account  made  of  the 
ward  affairs  to  the  stake  president  twice  a  year,  and  these 
were  gathered  into  a  stake  report  semi-annually  and  sent  off 
to  headquarters.  This  most  bewildering  array  of  statistics, 
which  obstinately  refused  to  balance,  threatened  to  drive  the 
secretary  of  the  General  Board  into  nervous  prostration  dur- 
ing the  few  days  remaining  after  their  receipt,  in  which  she 
endeavored  to  balance  things  up  and  bring  in  a  report  to  the 
General  Conference. 

It  is  most  interesting  to  scan  the  first  documents  made 
and  from  them  to  learn  something  of  the  inner  workings  of 
the  various  stake  and  ward  affairs.  The  headings  of  the 
items  reported  share  in  the  old  fashioned  atmosphere.  In 


the  first  report  we  find  only  ten  stakes  reported,  out  of  the 
twenty-five  stakes  then  in  existence.  The  items  noted  are: 
"Number  of  meetings  held;"  ''number  of  members;"  "aver- 
age attendance;"  "number  of  chapters"  (read  in  the  Scrip- 
tures) and  "miscellaneous  reading's."  The  manuscript  pa- 
pers were  a  strong  feature  of  most  of  the  associations,  and 
we  have  a  total  of  one  hundred  and  fifty- seven  manuscript 
papers  read  as  representing  the  ten  stakes  in  1885.  The 
"testimonies  borne,"  or,  as  such  a  feature  might  be  called 
in  the  parlance  of  the  world,  "extemporaneous  speeches," 
are  carefully  noted,  as  this  has  always  been  the  most 
important  element  of  the  detail  work:  namely,  that  the  mem- 
bers shall  become  acquainted  with  the  art  of  giving  public 
expression  to  the  hope  of  eternal  life  that  is  within  them. 
Essays  were  also  a  prominent  part  of  their  evening  pro- 
grams, and  they  were  duly  reported.  Even  in  the  beginning 
good  books  formed  a  portion  of  the  property  of  every  associ- 
ation. These  books  were  a  few  of  the  novels,  some  histories 
and  books  of  travel.  The  poets  and  "The  Speaker's  Gar- 
land" were  among  their  most  prized  books  of  reference. 
There  were  also  the  Bible  and  the  Book  of  Mormon,  and,  all 
too  seldom  even  then,  the  poems  of  our  own  Eliza  R.  Snow. 
There  were  one  thousand  and  fourteen  books  reported  as  be- 
longing to  these  ten  stakes  which  sent  in  a  report  in  1885. 
This  was  not  a  bad  showing  for  the  young  and  scattered  as- 

The  stakes  had  not  yet  accumulated  any  funds,  so  that 
the  money  reported  to  be  on  hand  or  disbursed  was  contained 
in  the  treasuries  of  the  local  wards,  and  represented  various 
activities.  We  find  the  wards  comprised  in  those  ten  stakes 
in  1885  to  be  possessed  of  $1,724.84.  Of  this  sum  $791.42 
was  in  properties,  and  $280.06  in  cash;  there  was  received 
during  the  year,  $653.36  in  cash;  $643.93  cash  was  disbursed ; 
and  there  remained  in  the  treasury,  $693.53  in  property,  with 

156  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

$486.09  in  cash.       Of  course  the  balances  were  wrong-;  but  it 
was  primitive  book-keeping1. 

The  blanks  upon  which  these  reports  were  made  were 
first  arranged  by  Miss  Wells  in  1885.  The  forms  remained 
the  same  until  after  Miss  Cannon  came  into  the  work  in  1891. 
The  gradual  change  in  the  methods  and  the  studies  required 
constant  changes  in  the  forms  of  reports.  In  1892  there  were 
thirty-two  stakes  and  this  number  was  continually  increasing. 
There  are  now  sixty-two  stake  organizations  with  several 
outside  mission  associations,  both  in  this  country  and  in 
Europe,  Australia,  and  the  islands  of  the  sea.  At  the  con- 
ference of  the  stake  and  general  officers  in  1892,  the  name  of 
the  board  was  changed  from  Central  to  General  Board.  The 
annual  stake  dues  were  also  increased  to  $2.00.  It  was  de- 
cided by  the  visiting  officers  at  the  conference,  in  October, 
1893,  to  ask  each  ward  to  give  an  entertainment  within  the 
next  six  months,  the  proceeds  of  which  were  to  be  formed 
into  a  "permanent  fund  '  for  the  use  of  the  General  Board. 
Expenses  were  increasing  with  the  development  of  the  work. 
Letters  poured  in  with  increasing  volume.  There  were  dues 
and  partial  expenses  of  delegates  to  the  great  eastern  con- 
ventions. The  stakes  were  clamoring  for  more  and  more 
visits  from  members  of  the  General  Board;  and  while  these 
expenses  were  then  met  by  the  stakes  themselves,  yet  the  far- 
off  stakes  were  the  poorest  and  least  able  to  send  for  visitors, 
and  they  most  needed  them.  Whenever  possible,  Mrs.  Tay- 
lor would  raise  means  and  send  visitors  to  these  distant 
towns  and  villages.  It  cost  only  a  small  amount  to  send  a 
representative  to  Provo  or  Ogden,  yet  these  two  places  were 
able  to  pay  twenty  times  as  much  as  were  most  of  the  dis- 
tant and  newly  organized  stakes  in  Colorado  and  New  Mexico. 
There  was  something  needing  adjustment  here,  and  the  first 
plan  adopted  was  to  secure  a  large  sum  by  voluntary  contri- 
butions from  the  various  stakes,  and  then  use  the  interest  of 


the  permanent  fund  for  traveling:  and  other  expenses.  There 
were  some  sanguine  members  and  officers  who  thought  this 
plan  woiild  solve  the  whole  difficulty.  But  how  little  they 
understood  with  what  rapidity  the  work  was  destined  to 
grow!  However,  the  wards  responded  to  the  suggestion  of 
forming  the  permanent  fund  with  a  hearty  generosity  which 
surprised  and  touched  all  concerned.  There  was  collected 
seven  hundred  sixty- three  dollars  in  this  manner,  and  that 
sum  now  lies  in  the  bank;  the  interest  of  it  is  used  as  it  was 
first  intended.  The  nice  sense  of  honor  in  our  beloved  Presi- 
dent Elmina  S.  Taylor  was  never  more  admirably  shown 
than  in  her  accurate  and  keenly  honest  actions  in  all  financial 
matters.  If  money  were  donated  for  a  certain  purpose,  it 
nrnst  be  used  for  that  purpose  and  no  other.  There  has 
never  been  the  least  infringement  on  the  central  fund  for 
any  purpose  but  that  set  down  in  the  implied  agreement. 
She  was  careful  to  a  cent  in  the  spending  of  other  people's 
money,  but  liberality  itself  when  it  came  to  her  own  means. 

The  matter  of  securing  more  funds  and  in  a  regular  way 
had  been  discussed  many  times  in  the  Board,  but  no  better 
plan  decided  upon.  In  1894  President  Taylor  and  Aid  Sarah 
Eddington  were  traveling  to  Star  Valley  in  company  with 
Brothers  George  Goddard  and  George  Reynolds  of  the  Sun- 
day School  Board.  Something  was  said  by  Brother  Reynolds 
to  Sister  Taylor  about  the  cost  of  her  journey  and  who  pro- 
vided the  means  as  well  as  the  many  other  heavy  expenses 
incident  to  her  labor. 

1  'Does  not  the  Church  help  you  at  times,  Sister  Taylor,  in 
these  financial  matters?" 

"Never,"  she  answered,  "not  to  the  extent  of  five  cents! 
We've  never  asked  the  Church  for  anything  except  sympathy 
and  counsel." 

"Well,  I  am  surprised,"  answered  Brother  Reynolds, 
"for  I  know  that  organizations  of  men  must  be  helped  occa- 

158  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

sionally  with  their  finances.  I  don't  see  how  you  women  can 
get  along,  when  as  a  rule  you  do  not  have  the  resources  that 
men  do." 

"Ah!  but  women  are  always  independent  if  they  have 
half  a  chance!"  she  said. 

"Well,  how  do  you  do  to  raise  money?  Do  you  tax  each 
of  your  members  fifty  cents  a  year,  as  the  Young-  Men's  As- 
sociation do?" 

"No;  the  associations  help  us  out  whenever  we  ask 
them,  and  we  do  a  great  deal  ourselves  towards  bearing  our 
own  expenses." 

"It  seems  to  me  you  should  have  a  fund,  Sister  Taylor; 
and  you  could  easily  raise  sufficient  if  a  small  sum  were  paid 
annually  by  each  member.' ' 

"The  Sunday  Schools  have  an  annual  fee  of  five  cents 
each,  do  they  not?"  asked  Sister  Taylor. 

Brother  Reynolds  answered,  "Yes;  the  children  each 
give  five  cents,  biit  that  is  too  small  a  sum  for  young-  ladies 
to  pay,"  he  added.  "Theyoug-ht  to  be  able  to  pay  ten  cents 
each  at  least.  By  doing-  without  chewing:  g-um  for  a  month 
that  could  be  managed  easily." 

Sister  Taylor  laugfhed  and  thanked  Brother  Reynolds  for 
this  kind  interest  and  good  advice. 

The  conversation  was  reported  by  Sister  Taylor  to  the 
Board,  and  action  was  taken  at  the  very  next  meeting,  Sep- 
tember 4th,  1894. 

A  suggestion  was  made  at  a  subsequent  meeting  of  stake 
and  general  officers  that  there  should  be  established  a  dime 
fund,  each  member  of  the  associations  paying  ten  cents  a 
year  as  her  contribution  towards  the  carrying  forward  of  the 
Mutual  Improvement  work.  As  the  season's  work  began  in 
the  early  fall,  it  would  be  convenient  to  select  a  day  in  Sep- 
tember for  Annual  Day.  What  day  so  appropriate  and  so 
choice  as  the  12th  of  September,  which  was  the  birthday  of  our 


revered  and  never-to-be-forgotten  president,  Elmina  S.  Tay- 
lor? Every  member  of  the  Board  caught  up  the  idea  with 
enthusiasm,  and  in  spite  of  the  protests  of  the  president  her- 
self, the  matter  was  carried  through,  and  the  12th  of  Septem- 
ber became  the  Annual  Day.  On  this  day  the  girls  were  in- 
structed to  arrange  some  festivities,  to  invite  the  parents  and 
authorities  of  the  ward,  and  to  make  the  occasion  one  of 
good  cheer.  The  dime  was  to  be  brought  as  an  individual 

At  first,  the  stakes  retained  one-fourth  of  the  sum  col- 
lected, but  it  was  found  that  the  whole  sum  was  needed  for 
general  expenses.  So,  on  motion  of  Zina  Y.  Card,  president 
of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  Alberta  stake,  at  an  officers'  meet- 
ing held  April  5th,  1897,  it  was  decided  to  turn  the  entire 
sum  over  to  the  general  fund.  The  stakes  have  various  ways 
of  raising  funds  for  their  own  expenses,  as  before  noted. 
Whatever  is  the  way  adopted,  one  thing  may  be  confidently 
stated,  none  of  them  are  ever  in  debt.  That  bugbear  of  civil 
and  religious  life,  when  administered  by  men,  has  never  yet 
troubled  these  women's  organizations. 

It  will  be  interesting  to  give  a  few  statistics  of  the  dime 
fund,  both  in  expenditure  and  income.  It  will  be  understood 
that  the  term  general  expense  covers  such  items  as  postage, 
stationery,  office  rent,  roll  books  and  the  printing  of  circulars, 
etc.  The  National  Council  dues  are  the  same  each  year. 

FOR  THE  YEAR  1895. 

Receipts  : 

Dime  Fund  from  36  stakes $465.95 

Disbursements  : 

General  expense 47.65 

Traveling  expense    429.70 

Clerical  expense     1.00 

Guide  work 110.00 

Dues  National  Council  of  Women  of  U.  S. . .  33.35 

Total $621.70 

160  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

FOR  THE  YEAR  1905.  . 


Dime  Fund  from  56  stakes $1,888.30 

Disbursements  : 

General  expense $  101.80 

Guide  expense 350.00 

Traveling-  expense. 888.90 

Clerical  expense. 480.00 

Dues  National  Council  of  Women  of  U.  S.  -       33.32 

Total $1,844.02 

The  expenses  of  the  year  1895,  it  will  be  observed,  run 
far  ahead  of  the  income  of  the  association.  But  there  was 
the  permanent  fund  to  draw  from  at  that  time,  and  it  was 
the  first  year  of  the  collection  of  the  new  fund,  so  it  was  not 
expected  that  there  would  be  sufficient  then  to  cover  the 
year's  expenditures.  This  was  also  one  of  the  years  in  which 
delegates  were  sent  to  the  Triennial  Council  at  Washington, 
and  therefore  an  unusual  amount  of  money  was  spent.  The 
Triennials  are  held,  as  the  name  implies,  once  in  three  years. 
Only  the  bare  traveling  expenses  of'  the  two  delegates  are 
ever  paid,  all  personal  expenditures  being  at  the  individual's 
own  responsibility.  There  was  no  office  hire  at  this  time. 
Later,  in  July,  1897,  when  the  Journal  office  was  opened  in 
the  Constitution  building,  it  was  decided  that  the  General 
Board  should  pay  half  the  office  rent  of  these  rooms,  and  the 
Journal the  other  half.  Then  came  the  necessity  of  hiring 
clerical  work.  Conferences  increased;  this  portion  of  the 
work  grew  rapidly.  As  travel  increased  it  required  hours 
and  days  of  the  secretaries'  time  to  buy  tickets,  look  up 
routes,  arrange  details  and  keep  the  whole  machinery  of  the 
constant  traveling  in  motion;  and  the  labor  involved  can 
never  be  understood  nor  appreciated  by  those  who  are  not 
familiar  with  the  details.  The  opening  of  an  office  also  meant 



the  services  of  some  one  to  answer  calls  and  inquiries.  For 
a  few  years,  Miss  Estelle  Neff,  who  was  the  business  agent 
of  the  [ournal,  attended  to  this  work,  as  she  was  in  the  office 
necessarily  but  it  at  last  became  impracticable. 

As  the  membership  of  the  association  increased,  the  cor- 
respondence multiplied.     The  meetings  of  the  General  Board 

GENERAL   BOARD  UOOM,    1905. 

were  held  monthly  at  first,  then  bi-monthly,  and  later  weekly. 
The  correspondence  and  the  taking-  and  recording-  of  the 
weekly  Board  minutes,  tog-ether  with  the  conference  minutes 
and  the  making  of  the  yearly  reports  were  too  engrossing 
and  heavy  for  one  person  to  carry  forward  without  taking  all 
of  her  time.  Accordingly,  on  October  9th,  1892,  Miss  Mae 

162  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Taylor  was  appointed  corresponding  secretary  for  the  Gen- 
eral Board.  She  was  of  great  assistance  in  that  position,  be- 
ing under  the  same  roof  as  her  mother.  But  the  work  still 
grew  and  even  the  two  secretaries  were  unable  to  attend  to 
the  duties,  in  the  intervals  of  their  own  work;  for  Miss  Can- 
non was  at  that  time  a  clerk  in  an  office,  and  Miss  Taylor 
was  engaged  as  a  teacher  of  physical  culture.  On  the 
llth  of  September,  1894,  Miss  Joan  M.  Campbell  was  ap- 
pointed recording  secretary,  and  she  worked  faithfully 
and  well.  Miss  Mae  Taylor  married  in  1900  and  moved 
away;  after  which  Miss  Agnes  Campbell  was  made  assistant 
secretary.  After  the  return  of  Mae  Taylor  Nystrom  she  was 
re-appointed  corresponding  secretary,  but  in  1904  that  office 
was  done  away  with  and  she  became  treasurer,  continuing  as 
such  until  the  reorganization  of  the  General  Board  in  1905, 
when  Mrs.  Alice  K.  Smith  was  appointed  treasurer.  Neither 
Sister  Nystrom  nor  Sister  Smith  had  had  experience  in  book- 
keeping, accordingly  each,  at  the  time  of  her  appointment, 
took  a  thorough  course  in  that  study,  the  consequence  being 
that  their  books  are  kept  in  the  most  up-to-date  manner. 

The  stakes  soon  began  to  find  the  necessity  of  having 
funds  to  pay  postage,  traveling  and  other  incidental  expenses. 
For  a  while  these  needs  were  met  by  the  one-fourth  of  the 
dime  fund  which  was  kept  by  the  stake;  but  when  this  was 
all  given  to  the  General  Board,  it  became  necessary  to  pro- 
vide for  their  own  wants.  Therefore,  the  stakes  met  the 
need  first  by  holding  fairs,  bazaars  or  other  public  entertain- 
ments; later  some  of  them  decided  to  call  upon  the  ward  as- 
sociations* for  a  small  yearly  sum,  to  be  devoted  solely  to  the 
stake  uses.  So  that  the  stakes  began  to  make  financial  re- 
ports, which  were  also  included  in  the  big  general  report. 

In  no  other  feature  of  the  M.  I.  work  has  there  been 
greater  advancement  made  than  in  the  financial  and  statisti- 
cal labors  performed  by  the  secretary  of  the  organization. 


Comparative  statistics  offer  a  simple  and  clear  method  of  un- 
derstanding: the  strides  of  progress  made  along  financial  lines . 
Let  us  glance  then  at  the  totals  given  in  1895,  in  1905  and  in 
1909,  staying  at  various  points  to  particularize  on  special 


In  1895,  14,884  members  in  406  wards. 
In  1905,  25,770  members  in  581  wards. 
In  1909,  26,364  members  in  673  wards. 


In  1895,  stake  and  ward 5,970 

In  1905,  in  ward  libraries,  12,646;  in  stake 

traveling  libraries,  2,776. Total,  15,422 

In  1909,  in  ward  libraries,  20,620;  in  stake 

traveling  libraries,  4,001 Total,   24,621 


Cash  Disbursements: 

In  1895,,  by  wards  and  stakes   (no  sep- 
arate report  made). $6,216.81 

In  1905,  by  wards,  $10,274.56;  by  stakes,  $4,572.57 
In  1909,  by  wards,  $16,948.93;  by  stakes,  $4,574.45 

Balance  Cash  on  Hand: 

At  close  of  1895,  in  wards  and  stakes $  3,669.71 

At  close  of  1905,  in  wards,  $5,492.84,  in 

stakes,$10,795.07 Total,  $16,287.91 

At  close  of  1909,  in  wards,  $5,800.71,  in 

stakes,  $2,003.73 Total,  $  7,804.44 

The  last  printed  reports  (1909)  are  models  of  concise- 
ness and  compressed  information .  They  do  not  ignore  the 
quaint  and  invaluable  statistics  of  the  number  of  "testimo- 
nies borne"  nor  the  bewildering  figures  representing  the 
number  of  "home  readings;"  yet  the  labors  of  the  various 

164  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

ward,  stake  and  general  officers  have  been  so  systematized  and 
tabulated  that  one  sees  at  a  glance  how  vast  is  the  work  ac- 
complished by  this  army  of  eager,  unpaid  and  loving  "band 
of  sisters."  Briefly,  there  were  in  the  year  1909,  673  ward 
associations,  of  which  654  reported.  There  were  26,364  reg- 
ular members  enrolled  in  these  associations,  with  1,454  tran- 
sient members.  There  were  700  stake  officers,  and  there 
was  an  average  attendance  at  regular  meetings  of  13,423 
members.  The  Mutuals  were  represented  in  the  mission 
fields  by  35  girls  preaching  the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ.  The 
temporary  absence  of  members  at  colleges,  visiting  or  at 
work  at  other  places, totaled  1,731.  These  usually  joined,  as 
transient  members,  the  ward  associations  where  they  found 
themselves.  The  statistics  of  ward  officers'  meetings  held 
during  the  year  totaled  5,716;  conjoint  meetings  of  officers, 
3,155;  of  regular  ward  meetings  there  were  20,182,  with 
5,248  conjoint  meetings,  and  1,854  ward  socials. 

The  visits  made  by  all  officers  are  carefully  tabulated- 
The  wards  were  visited  3,688  times  by  stake  officers,  and  as 
a  rule  there  were  two  officers  on  each  visit.  The  wards  re- 
porting visits  by  members  of  the  General  Board  were  108 1 
but  in  reality  there  were  many  more,  as  some  members  of  the 
General  Board  attend  regularly  in  their  own  wards;  while  the 
stakes  received  117  visits  from  members  of  the  General 

Perhaps  the  most  interesting  statistics  are  those  pertain" 
ing  to  the  exercises  performed  in  the  associations — and  at 
home.  The  theological  study  for  1909  took  up  the  teachings 
of  our  Savior;  and  of  these  there  were  4,659  lessons  prepared 
and  given  by  the  senior  members,  and  3,619  by  the  junior 
girls.  In  the  literary  studies  there  were  3,976  exercises 
given  in  the  senior  department  and  1,465  recitals  by  the 
junior,  girls.  The  literary  department  included  "Walden," 
by  Thoreau;  "The  Rivals,"  by  Sheridan,  etc. 


Some  extremely  valuable  lessons  were  given  in  the 
Home  studies,  and  of  these  the  senior  girls  prepared  1,604 
lessons,  with  1,522  exercises  given  on  the  same  topics  by  the 
junior  girls.  There  were  383  talks  on  ''Human  Culture" 
given  by  various  speakers, and  38,841  "Testimonies  Borne," 
and  12,305  musical  selections  were  rendered  in  addition  to 
the  opening  and  closing  congregational  singing. 

Some  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  have  followed  the  custom  of 
the  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.  and  adjourned  for  the  summer  months. 
This  custom  has  been  deprecated  by  our  General  Board  and 
the  girls  are  encouraged  to  hold  summer  sessions  wherever 
possible.  No  lessons  are  prepared  by  the  General  Board  for 
these  summer  meetings,  and  the  stake  and  ward  officers 
choose  whatever  topics  seem  best  suited  to  their  local  con- 
ditions. It  is  reported  that  370  associations  continue  during 
the  summer,  and  in  some  of  these  the  young  men  work  con- 
jointly with  the  young  ladies. 

The  reading  done  by  the  Mutual  girls  at  home  is  duly 
reported  and  chronicled.  They  read  714,489  chapters  in  fic- 
tion; 166,107  poems;  35,298  essays;  125,745  chapters  of  his- 
tory; 2,037,847  chapters  in  the  ancient  and  modern  Scrip- 
tures; then  there  were  764,258  readings  not  classified  but  re- 
ported as  miscellaneous.  (This  is  a  partial  report  only,  as 
many  acknowledge  that  they  kept  no  record  of  this  kind.) 
The  details  of  local  and  stake  financial  conditions  are  also 
important:  In  1909  the  ward  totals  showed  cash  on  hand  at 
last  report,  January  1st,  1909,  $6,242.54;  cash  received,  $16,- 
507.10,  which  makes  a  total  of  $22,749.64;  cash  disbursed, 
$16,948.93;  balance  on  hand,  December  31st,  1909,  $5,800.71, 
making  the  same  total .  The  stake  treasuries  reported  cash  on 
hand,  January  1st,  1909,  $2,357.85;  cash  received,  $4,220.34; 
total,  $6,578.19;  cash  disbursed,  $4,574.46;  balance  on  hand, 
December  31st,  1909,  $2,003.73;  same  total.  When  we 
come  to  the  stake  statistics,  we  find  there  were  960  stake 

166  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

board  meeting's  held  during-  the  year  1909,  with  446  con- 
joint stake  board  meetings  held.  Of  conjoint  M.  I.  A.  con- 
ferences there  were  held  49,  and  61  conventions.  Then  the 
youngf  ladies  held  34  separate,  usually  district,  conferences. 
It  has  become  an  established  custom  to  give  the  Sunday 
evening-  of  the  quarterly  stake  conferences  into  the  hands  of 
the  M.  I.  A.;  of  these  there  were  209  meeting's  held  during 
the  past  year. 

The  g-eneral  expenses  of  the  association  furnish  a  clear 
picture  of  the  careful  manipulation  of  all  funds  committed  in 
trust  to  the  general  officers.  It  should  be  stated  that  every 
detail  of  office  expense,  of  traveling  expenditures  and  of  gen- 
eral disbursements  is  faithfully  reported  and  as  carefully  re- 
corded. We  have  space  only  for  the  totals,  but  invite  in- 
spection as  to  every  item: 


Receipts:  1909. 

Interest  $    186.78 

Dime  Fund  from  61  stakes 2,199.38 

Total $2,386.16 

Disbursemen  ts  : 

Traveling  expense $1,028.48 

Guide  expense 212.10 

Clerical  expense 720.00 . 

General  expense 357.00 

Dues  National  Council  of  Women  of  U.  S.        33.33 

Total $2,350.91 

In  these  reports  the  names  and  addresses  of  the  entire 
stake  boards  are  given,  as  well  as  of  the  executive  officers  and 
the  Journal  agent  of  each  ward,  thus  furnishing  a  general 
roster  of  the  stakes.  The  blanks  on  which  these  reports  are 


made  were  purchased  for  the  first  five  years;  after  the  Dime 
fund  was  well  established,  the  general  secretary  suggested 
they  be  furnished  to  the  wards  free  of  charge.  This  was 
done.  Then  came  the  question  of  roll  books.  Each  associ" 
ation  was  required  to  keep  a  roll  of  its  members  and  to  in- 
clude in  the  general  statistics  the  various  points  called  for  in 
the  reports.  At  first  these  roll  books  were  bought  by  each 
association  at  the  book  store  at  quite  a  high  figure.  The 
first  reform  was  made  when  General  Secretary  Cannon  was 
instructed  to  undertake  the  printing  of  these  blanks  and  roll 
books,  to  furnish  them  to  the  associations  at  actual  cost;  but 
even  that  did  not  satisfy  her.  She  next  proposed,  and  the 
proposition  carried,  that  they  should  be  furnished  free  of 
cost,  so  that  while  the  wards  were  assisting  in  the  general 
expenses,  the  general  fund  was  being  returned  to  them  in 
various  ways.  Another  improvement  made  by  Miss  Cannon 
must  be  noted.  Ward  and  stake  boards  were  instructed  to 
make  duplicate  reports ,  one  to  send  to  headquarters  and  one 
to  file  in  their  own  archives.  This  they  had  rarely  done.  It 
was  felt  to  be  a  disaster;  for  at  times  the  stake  and  General 
boards  were  appealed  to  to  fill  up  duplicate  blanks,  or  to 
furnish  items  from  various  reports  which  had  been  sent  to 
headquarters  without  retaining  proper  copies.  With  this  in 
mind,  in  1903  the  general  secretary  prepared  new  roll  books 
with  pages  in  the  back  of  the  book,  suitably  ruled  and  let- 
tered for  the  duplicate  yearly  reports.  This  addition  has 
been  found  of  great  value  and  convenience.  It  will  be  nec- 
essary to  state  that  the  wards  make  annual  reports  to  the  stake 
secretary,  who  compiles  them  and  sends  her  stake  report  once 
a  year  to  the  general  secretary  in  Salt  Lake  City,  in  time  to  be 
compiled  in  the  mammoth  general  report  which  is  read  in 
conjoint  M.  I.  A.  conference  in  June  of  each  year. 

The  roll  books  and  the  treasurers'    books   of  the   local, 
stake  and  also  the  General  Board  are  open  for  inspection  to 

168  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I..  A. 

any  members.  The  future  historian  and  student  will  find 
much  food  for  sociological  study,  in  the  various  carefully 
compiled  statistics  of  a  woman's  social  corporation.  In  all 
the  years  until  September  1907,  the  secretary  general  labored 
without  pay.  There  was  considerable  clerical  work  hired, 
but  the  actual  labors  of  the  secretary  were  as  freely  and  as 
generously  given  as  those  of  the  other  general  officers.  For 
five  years  the  secretary,  Miss  Cannon,  was  editor  of  the 
Journal,  and  this  heavy  labor  interfered  seriously  with  her 
duties  as  secretary.  After  much  deliberation,  it  was  decided 
to  release  her  from  the  editorship,  and  confine  her  labors  to 
the  secretaryship,  which  had  come  to  assume  such  great  pro- 
portions. Accordingly  a  modest  salary  was  appropriated  in 
1907,  and  Miss  Cannon  devoted  all  her  time  to  the  splendid 
work  she  was  now  accomplishing  as  the  secretary  of  the  Gen- 
eral Board. 

The  secretary  and  her  assistants  had  always  kept  records 
of  the  regular  board  meetings,  and  the  annual  conference 
sessions.  These  records  were  now  carefully  copied  on  the 
typewriter  on  thin  linen  paper,  neatly  tabulated  with  the  sub- 
jects considered  in  marginal  references  and  bound  in  yearly 
books  in  fine  leather,  containing  lettered  inscriptions  on  the 
outside .  She  now  perfected  a  unique  and  valuable  contribu- 
tion to  the  history  of  the  society  in  the  form  of  a  record  of 
current  historical  data.  This  consists  of  a  series  of  scrap 
books  into  which  are  incorporated  every  conference  program 
including  programs  of  eastern  conventions  and  councils,  with 
which  this  association  is  affiliated;  all  newspaper  clippings 
pertaining  to  the  work  of  M.  I.  A.  and  also  to  the  members 
of  the  General  Board  when  associated  with  M.  I.  A.  labors 
are  here  found  tabulated  and  indexed. 

Another  most  important  financial  labor  of  the  Y.  L.  M. 
I.  A.  was  the  securing  of  means  to  erect  a  building  of  their 



own,  to  be  associated  with  the  Relief  Society  and  the  Pri- 
mary Association.  A  succinct  recital  of  this  collection  and  its 
final  distribution,  written  by  Miss  Ann  M.  Cannon,  was  giv- 
en in  the  April  number  of  the  Journal,  1910.  We  copy  the 
article,  in  part,  as  it  covers  the  history  of  the  matter  well 
and  briefly: 

In  October,  1900,  when  President  Lorenzo  Snow  prom- 
ised the  three  women's  organizations  of  the  Church  a  build- 
ing- site  opposite  the  east  gate  of  the  Salt  Lake  Temple,  none 
were  sanguine  enough  to  even  dream  of  such  an  edifice  as 
the  one  which  now  graces  the  spot.  President  Snow  stipu- 
lated that  it  must  be  a  building  worthy  of  the  location,  and 
some  one  added  that  it  must  cost  at  least  twenty  thousand 


170  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

dollars .  The  women  who  were  so  bold  as  to  think  of  raising  that 
sum  were  looked  at  in  open-eyed  astonishment.  Neverthe- 
less, they  went  to  work  to  draw  plans  and  collect  funds. 
The  committee  appointed  by  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor  of 
the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Association  con- 
sisted of  Counselor  Maria  Young  Dougall,  Adella  W.  Eard- 
ley  and  Minnie  J.  Snow. 

It  was  decided  to  call  upon  each  local  organization  to 
contribute  to  the  fund.  In  addition,  a  committee,  consisting 
of  Sisters  Elizabeth  C.  McCune,  Minnie  J.  Snow,  Augusta 
W.  Grant,  and  Agnes  S.  Campbell,  was  appointed  to  make  a 
canvass  of  the  well-to-do  women  of  Salt  Lake  City  and  vi- 
cinity, asking  for  their  assistance  to  erect  this  "Woman's 
Building."  The  feeling  with  which  they  undertook  the  task 
can  be  understood  from  Sister  McCune' s  answer,  when  put 
on  the  committee: 

"Well,  I'll  go.  But  I'd  rather  carry  mortar  in  a  hod 
to  build  it." 

Through  the  efforts  of  this  committee,  about  two  thou- 
sand dollars  was  collected .  The  contributions  from  the  asso- 
ciations aggregated  a  little  over  five  thousand. 

After  President  Snow's  death,  on  October  10th,  1901, 
came  a  period  of  inactivity  in  regard  to  the  building,  though 
his  successor  still  held  the  promise  in  mind.  The  delay  was 
due  to  the  fact  that  the  Church  was  then  engaged  in  the  erec- 
tion of  the  Deseret  News  Building,  and  Deseret  News  Annex, 
which  was  an  enormous  undertaking  in  view  of  the  then  ex- 
isting" financial  condition  of  the  Church.  As  soon  as  possible 
the  Presidency  turned  their  attention  toward  the  erection  of 
this  building.  Early  in  1907,  the  General  Boards  of  Relief 
Society,  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Association 
and  Primary  Association  were  consulted  by  the  First  Presi- 
dency, Presidents  Joseph  F.  Smith,  John  R.  Winder  an*d 
Anthon  H.  Lund,  in  regard  to  erecting  a  building  which 
should  be  a  home  for  the  Presiding  Bishopric  and  for  other 
Church  officers  as  well.  The  advantage  of  this  plan  can 
readily  be  seen  when  one  stops  to  think  of  the  cost  of  main- 
taining such  a  place  -  heating,  lighting,  janitor  and  elevator 
service.  The  sisters  consented  and  plans  for  the  present 


beaxitiful  building  were  soon  under  way.  It  has  proved  very 
advantageous  to  be  thus  located. 

The  entire  building-  is  simple,  yet  elegant.  It  is  as  near 
fire-proof  as  a  building  of  the  kind  can  be  made.  The  walls 
are  not  decorated,  as  yet,  except  for  the  wainscoting  in 
light  yellow  tile  effect.  The  wood- work  is  a  dull  golden-oak, 
and  the  floors  are  of  maple,  highly  polished.  The  lower  floor 
or  basement  consists  of  a  series  of  vaults,  entirely  fire-proof, 
each  organization  located  in  the  building  having  one  or  more 
according  to  its  needs.  The  first  or  main  floor  has  its  en- 
trance from  Main  street  (No.  40  North).  This  is  occupied 
by  the  Presiding  Bishopric  and  Quorum  of  the  Twelve.  To 
the  second,  third,  and  fourth  floors,  access  is  gained  from 
Temple  avenue.  The  second  is  occupied — the  north  side  by 
the  General  Board  of  Relief  Society;  the  south  by  the  First 
Council  of  Seventy,  and  Young  Men's  Mutual  Improvement 
Association;  the  third — the  north  side,  by  the  General  Board 
of  Primary  Association;  the  south,  by  the  Young  Ladies' 
Mutual  Improvement  Association,  and  the  Superintendencies 
of  Religion  Classes  and  Church  Schools.  The  fourth  floor 
consists  of  one  large  assembly  or  banquet  room,  and  two 
small  rooms,  where  refreshments  may  be  served. 

Never  before  have  the  general  offices  been  sufficiently 
large  for  conveniently  attending  to  the  work.  Heretofore 
the  desk  of  the  general  secretary  has  been  in  the  room  where 
all  Board  and  committee  meetings  were  held.  They  being 
frequent,  it  was  often  necessary  for  her  to  suspend  work  or 
seek  other  quarters.  Never  before  in  the  twenty  years  of 
the  Journal 's  existence  has  the  editor  had  a  room  of  her  own, 
where  she  could  be  free  from  interruption.  For  all  of  these 
conveniences  the  general  officers  are  very  thankful,  and  they 
appreciate  highly  the  pleasure  expressed  by  their  girl  mem- 
bers on  finding  the  head  offices  so  commodious  and  comfort- 
able. As  President  Tingey  says:  ''They  belong  to  the  girls. 
We  are  here  today  but  someone  else  may  be  here  tomorrow." 

The  reception  room  belongs  conjointly  to  the  Primary  and 
Young  Ladies.  It  is  adjoined  on  the  north  by  the  Primary  and 
on  the  south  by  the  Young  Ladies'  General  Board  rooms,  the 
three  being  connected  by  large  doors,  which  may  be  thrown 
open  to  make  one  apartment.  In  our  own  room  will  be  noticed 


a  life-size  portrait  of  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor.  This  is  the 
work  of  Artist  Lee  Greene  Richards,  and  is  considered  one 
of  his  best  works.  It  is  presented  by  the  Young  Woman? 's 
fournal,  for  which  President  Taylor  expended  so  much  of  her 
slender  supply  of  strength,  and  to  which  she  gave  so  much 
of  loving  thought  as  well  as  encouragement  to  its  struggling 

The  pictures  of  the  Journal  departments  are  shown  else- 
where . 

Very  recently,  Miss  Cannon  has  felt  obliged  to  ask  for 
a  release  as  general  secretary.  The  Board  were  exceed- 
ingly loath  to  lose  her  services, but  were  finally  obliged  to  ac- 
cede to  her  request.  She  was  retained  as  an  aid,  however, 
Sister  Tingey  and  her  associates  feeling  it  impossible  to  lose 
altogether  the  wise  services  of  this  young  lady.  Miss  Joan 
M.  Campbell,  who  has  acted  in  an  assisting  capacity  from 
time  to  time,  was  chosen  in  April,  1910,  to  fill  the  vacant 
place.  She  has  proven  herself  in  the  past  and  today  a  care- 
ful, painstaking  and  faithful  worker;  therefore  we  may  be- 
lieve the  good  work  so  thoroughly  and  judiciously  established 
by  Miss  Cannon  will  be  carried  forward  with  like  success  in 
the  coming  years. 

The  general  summary  of  the  finances  of  this  prosperous 
organization  permits  the  remark  that  much  wisdom  and  a  su- 
preme degree  of  Divine  Providence  have  enabled  the  general 
officers  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Association  to  meet  every  re- 
quirement made  of  them.  During  the  first  years  the  expen- 
ses were  small  and  met  by  private  individuals;  then  a  yearly 
due  of  one  dollar  was  required  of  the  stakes,  and  was  after- 
wards raised  to  two;  this  soon  proved  inadequate,  and  a  call 
was  made  for  a  considerable  donation  from  each  of  the  stakes 
to  make  a  permanent  fund.  This  was  done,  and  put  out  at 
interest.  Even  this  plan  could  not  long  be  feasible,  for  the 
expenses  of  traveling,  printing  roll  books,  blanks,  and  circu- 

174  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

lars,  as  well  as  the  rent  of  an  office,  postage  and  stationery, 
demanded  yearly  and  g rowing-  expenditure;  accordingly,  the 
Dime  fund  was  established.  The  treasurer's  account  has 
been  strictly  kept,  all  moneys  spent  have  been  duly  author- 
ized, reports  have  been  rendered  yearly,  and  the  whole  busi- 
ness is  in  splendid  condition.  The  financial  status  of  the 
stakes  can  easily  be  said  to  be  a  repetition  of  the  history  of 
the  General  Board  in  such  matters,  and  while  each  stake  has 
different  financial  conditions  and  problems,  yet  the  wise  ex- 
ample and  influence  of  Presidents  Elmina  S.  Taylor  and 
Martha  H,  Tingey  have  permeated  to  every  remote  corner  of 
Mutual  Improvement  work  and  have  made  the  Young  Ladies' 
Associations  a  credit  and  an  honor  to  themselves  and  to  the 
womanhood  of  the  world. 


ANN    M.    CANNON. 

Born  in  the  true  and  everlasting  covenant,  she  is  a  type 
of  the  broad  womanhood  which  the  Gospel  has  made.  The 
many-sided  interests  afforded  a  girl  reared  in  a  large  Mor- 
mon tamily  gave  her  the  best  chance  to  develop  nobly.  Love 
for  a  delicate  mother,  a  father,  and  many  brothers  and  sis- 
ters called  forth  in  her  youth  the  tender  helpfulness  to  loved 
ones  which  is  now  the  dominant  note  of  her  character.  A 
ready  power  to  feel  the  heart-ache  of  another  and  ease  its 
pain  has  added  to  her  own  cares  the  burdens  of  many  others, 
as  well. as  their  pleasures. 

Sister  Ann  M.  Cannon,  daughter  of  Angus  M.  Cannon 
and  Sarah  Maria  Mousley  Cannon,  was  born  in  the  Fifteenth 
ward,  Salt  Lake  City,  and  began  school  work  when  but 
a  child  of  four  years.  At  thirteen,  her  brother,  George 
M.,  commenced  to  give  her  a  business  training.  It  was  ex- 
ceedingly thorough  and  has  been  invaluable  to  her.  She 
worked  in  his  office  Saturdays  and  holidays  during  her  school 



period,  which  ended  at  the  early  age  of  seventeen.  Before 
this  time  she  had  attended  the  University  of  Utah  four  years, 
completing-  the  normal  course  at  sixteen,  and  taking  addi- 
tional studies  in  English,  Latin,  German,  history,  science 
and  mathematics. 

Sister  Cannon  has  long  been  a  worker  in  the  Y.  L.  M.  I. 
A.  The  first  office  she  held  was  that  of  treasurer  in  a  local 
association  in  the  Fourteenth  ward,  Salt  Lake  City.  Then 
she  was  made  second  counselor,  and  afterwards  first  counselor 
to  President  Agnes  S.  Campbell.  She  became  the  assistant 
secretary  of  the  General  Board  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  in  April,  1891, 
and  secretary  in  October  of  the  same  year,  and  from  April 
1892  to  1902,  she  performed  the  additional  duties  of  the  office 
of  general  treasurer.  Her  labors  as  general  secretary  con- 
tinued till  April  1,  1910,  when,  at  her  own  request,  as  she 
wished  to  devote  herself  to  the  care  of  her  parents  in  their 
declining  years,  she  was  released.  At  different  times  she  has 
acted  on  various  committees:  Guide,  Conference, Convention, 
and  is  at  present  on  the  History  publishing  committee.  She 
has  met  the  very  exacting  demands  of  these  responsible  po- 
sitions with  rare  skill  and  intelligence.  Other  public  positions 
she  has  held  with  honor.  She  acted  on  the  board  of  direct- 
ors of  the  Mutual  Improvement  Association  League  until  it 
was  placed  under  the  direction  of  the  Salt  Lake  stake,  and 
is  now  a  member  of  the  board  of  control  of  the  Deseret  Gym- 
nasium. She  was  deputy  county  recorder  of  Salt  Lake  coun- 
ty for  five  and  a  half  years,  resigning  that  position  in  July, 
1902,  to  become  chairman  of  the  literary  committee  (editor) 
of  the  Young  Woman  s  journal.  Her  editorial  work  gives 
proof  of  a  logical  mind  endowed  with  superior  power  of 
analysis.  The  literary  style  developed  in  this  connection  is 
one  of  sweetness  and  simplicity.  Twice  she  has  been  a  dele- 
gate to  the  triennial  sessions  of  the  National  Council  oi;  Wom- 
en at  Washington,  D.  C.  She  will  long  be  remembered  in 
the  Council  for  her  work  on  the  resolution  committee  when  a 
question  of  vital  importance  to  our  people  was  won  in  the  face 
of  overwhelming  opposition . 

Travel,  literary  work  and  a  successful  public  life  have 
not  weaned  Miss  Cannon  from  simple  home  pleasures.  She 
showers  her  love  on  children,  particularly  on  the  dear  little 
ones  near  of  kin  who  are  often  with  her.  Her  home  is  made 

176  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

beautiful  by  many  favorite  flowers  and  a  choice  collection 
of  books  and  pictures. 

Years  of  executive  work  and  heavy  responsibility  have 
developed  her  naturally  clear  intellect  and  sound  judgment  to 
a  degree  rarely  found  in  one  of  her  years.  Though  admired 
for  her  qualities  of  mind,  it  is  her  self-control,  her  sweet 
sympathy  and  womanliness  which  win  the  love  and  devotion 
of  numerous  friends.  There  is  a  quiet  humor  about  her,  too, 
which  is  to  the  nature  of  a  winsome  woman  what  the  last 
touch  is  to  the  picture  of  a  great  artist. 



Early  programs  in  the  wards;  in  the  various  stakes. — A  Guide  out- 
lining studies  for  all  associations  issued  1893. — Second  Year's 
Guide. — The  associations  graded. — Theological  studies;  Ethical; 
Literary. — Classes  for  study  of  the  Guide. 

WITH  the  solid  groundwork  of  faith  and  confidence  un- 
der their  feet,  with  all  the  possibilities  of  growth  and 
progress,  the  officers  and  members  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 
looked  out  upon  the  world  twenty  years  ago  with  glowing 
eyes  of  hope  and  coming  triumph.  The  history  of  what  was 
done  by  the  general  officers  for  all  the  associations  is  true  in 
many  particulars  of  the  officers  of  every  stake  board,  and 
measurably  true  of  the  officers  of  every  association.  One 
might  almost  substitute  other  names  and  vary  the  circum- 
stances, and  there  would  be  an  account  of  each  stake  board's 
history  in  this  narrative  of  the  general  work.  The  world 
looks  upon  our  organization  with  wondering  eyes;  the  hasty 
observer  ascribes  our  solidarity  to  fear,  ignorance,  or  co- 
ercion. The  earnest  student  detects  two  important  princi- 
ples at  the  root  of  our  social  and  religious  life.  The  first  is 
the  foundation  principle  of  true  democracy;  that  of  perfect 
liberty  and  equality  in  membership  and  office-holding.  The 
maid-servant  is  as  likely  to  achieve  promotion  in  the  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.  as  is  the  mistress.  It  may  be  argued  that  such  a 
condition  is  peculiar  only  to  primitive  surroundings  and 
society,  and  will  be  swept  away  with  the  march  of  the  higher 
civilization.  The  force  of  education  and  refinement,  even 
though  accompanied  as  it  so  often  is  with  wealth  and  civil 
corruption,  has  had  almost  as  much  leavening  power  in  Utah 
as  in  any  other  part  of  the  United  States;  but  there  is  one 
other  principle  of  unity  and  power  which  even  the  skeptics 


178  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

must  admit  has  an  unequaled  force — that  of  deep  religious 
faith.  The  scoffer  may  sneer,  or  the  bigot  may  anathema- 
tize, but  the  uplifting-  and  unifying  influence  of  sincere  re- 
ligious conviction  is  the  most  potent  factor  in  human  life . 

It  is  these  two  principles,  social  equality  and  a  strong 
religious  sense  which  have  imparted  and  will  continue  to  im- 
part a  vital  strength  to  the  "club"  or  organized  movement 
among  the  Mormon  women.  Clubs  or  societies  of  women  or 
men  founded  on  one  or  the  other  of  these  principles,  or  upon 
the  more  ephemeral  principles  of  reform  or  social  amusement 
and  culture,  are  too  weak  to  long  stand  alone.  They  must 
have  the  principle  of  living  growth  within  themselves,  or 
time  and  changing  circumstances  will  disintegrate  and  finally 
disrupt  them.  Duty  is  a  hard  master,  an  unwelcome  one, 
but  it  is  the  judge  that  sits  in  the  final  court  of  appeals.  One 
can  do  as  one  likes  in  social  or  civil  life;  but  if  religion  says 
duty  leads  along  a  certain  path,  the  conscientious  soul  will 
keep  that  path,  no  matter  how  dreary  the  prospect,  nor 
how  often  one's  companions  may  drop  into  the  by-paths  of 

This  is  the  reason  why  there  has  been  a  constant  stream 
of  progress  in  every  one  of  the  women's  organizations  in  the 
Church.  The  three-fold  nature  of  woman,  as  of  all  human 
kind,  has  been  recognized.  What  at  first  thought  might  ap- 
pear to  the  Mormon  women  in  the  nature  of  a  duty  soon 
comes  to  be  recognized  as  a  pleasure;  and  the  child,  the  girl 
and  the  woman  find  fruits  meet  for  their  plucking  on  every 
tree  within  the  garden  of  truth. 

Let  us  now  take  up  the  history  and  development  of  the 
detailed  and  programed  work  as  it  was  introduced. 

The  associations,  both  local  and  stake,  were  in  good 
working  order  in  1891.  There  were  local  associations  in 
nearly  every  ward  in  the  Church.  A  few  of  these  were 
joined  with  the  young  men  in  conjoint  associations;  usually 

GUIDE   WORK.  179 

for  the  benefit  of  the  young:  men,  as  bishops  and  members 
were  willing  to  concede.  It  was  difficult  at  times  to  hold  the 
young  men  together  where  the  people  were  in  scattered 
localities.  The  strength  of  numbers,  as  well  as  the  attrac- 
tion afforded  by  the  presence  of  the  girls,  induced  the  pre- 
siding ward  authorities  to  advise  that  the  M.  I.  A.  meetings 
be  held  conjointly,  although  the  young  women  would  rather 
have  met  alone.  Not  because  of  any  antagonism  felt  for 
brothers  or  friends,  but  because  of  the  difficulty  officers  met 
in  drawing  girls  to  the  front  to  stand  before  the  public  eye 
when  there  were  young  men  to  do  the  work.  This  whole 
matter  was  a  subject  of  serious  concern  to  Sister  Taylor. 
She  felt  deeply  the  force  of  the  original  instruction  given  by 
President  Young;  that  the  girls  must  be  left  to  themselves, 
most  of  the  time,  for  only  when  alone  and  unhampered  by 
sex  questions  could  either  sex  do  its  best  work.  This  especi- 
ally is  true  of  girls,  as  all  women  know.  This  feeling  may 
at  times  have  made  Sister  Taylor  seem  somewhat  narrow, 
but  so  wise  was  she  in  handling  this  delicate  matter  that  none 
were  antagonized  or  long  offended. 

For  the  first  twenty  years  each  association  was  more  or 
less  a  law  unto  itself.  The  meeting  was  held  at  any  hour  in 
the  afternoon  or  early  evening  that  best  suited  the  local  con- 
venience. The  associations  in  the  large  towns  usually  met 
in  the  evening,  to  accommodate  the  girls  going  to  school;  or 
in  the  afternoon  in  the  summer  and  in  the  evening  in  the 
winter.  In  the  country  they  held  sessions  almost  as  a  rule  in 
the  afternoon,  unless  they  joined  with  the  young  men.  Any 
day  in  the  week  was  chosen  except  the  Sabbath.  The  con- 
joint meetings  were  held  in  nearly  every  ward  once  a  month 
but  rarely  then  on  the  evening  of  the  Sabbath. 

The  programs  were  still  entirely  individual  affairs.  In 
some  wards,  good  program  committees  were  chosen  from 
year  to  year,  and  in  nearly  every  ward  there  were  excellent 

180  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  1.  A. 

manuscript  papers  prepared  for  the  open  monthly  meeting. 
Readings,  recitations  and  music,  both  instrumental  and  vocal, 
were  a  necessary  part  of  the  meeting's  program.  Lectures 
were  not  infrequent,  but  they  were  unrelated  and  often  too 
general  in  scope  and  treatment  to  be  of  direct  service.  In 
some  stakes  an  effort  was  made  to  unify  the  work  done  in  the 
wards  of  the  stake ;  for  this  purpose,  bulletins  were  printed 
in  which  instructions  were  issued  to  the  local  associations. 

It  is  right  to  mention  in  this  connection  the  earnest 
labors  of  the  Salt  Lake  stake  board,  and  their  ward  officers. 
It  would  be  natural  that  the  central  stake  should  be  a  pattern 
in  all  matters,  and  it  really  did  lead  the  rest  in  energy  and 
the  sweet  spirit  of  the  Gospel.  The  Salt  Lake  stake  board 
were  fortunate  in  having  at  their  head  a  woman  who  was  so 
filled  with  the  spirit  of  Mary  of  Bethany,  that  beloved  friend 
of  our  Master,  that  her  influence  radiated  into  every  corner 
of  her  district.  Among  the  other  stakes  which  were  pre- 
eminent for  good  and  original  work  should  be  mentioned 
Cache  stake  which  was  the  first  to  outline  a  definite  plan  of 
work  for  its  .associations.  It  may  also  be  stated  that  no 
stake  surpassed  Boxelder  in  the  variety  and  scope  of  the 
labors  performed;  work  was  systematized,  and  plans  were 
made  and  carried  out  with  a  swinging  success  that  made  Box- 
elder  a  model  for  all  other  stakes  to  follow.  Here  was  pub- 
lished the  first  circular  of  instructions  in  the  interest  of  the 
M.  I.  A.  work.  The  Bear  Lake  stake  was  and  is  a  strong 
financial  organization.  It  is  also  remarkable  for  the  union 
which  exists  among  the  stake  officers.  The  Sanpete  stake 
was  likewise  full  of  devoted  zeal  and  interesting  good  works. 
The  sweet  spirit  and  earnest  labors  of  Christine  Willardson 
will  ever  be  remembered  in  that  stake.  Indeed,  each  stake 
had  some  special  feature  to  recommend  it;  and  through  them 
all  ran  the  thread  of  spiritual  unity  and  love  which  emanated 
from  the  Divine  mother  spirit  operating  through  the  grea 

GUIDE   WORK.  181 

woman  at  the  head  of  them  all.  Some  details  of  the  work 
done  by  the  stakes  will  appear  in  our  final  chapters. 

Music  has  always  been  a  prominent  feature  of  the  pro- 
grams. Glee  clubs  were  numerous.  But  up  to  1900  no  con- 
certed effort  was  made  to  unify  or  systematize  the  musical 
material  in  the  Young1  Ladies'  Associations.  Now  there  are 
musical  directors  and  organists  in  most  of  the  stakes  and 
wards  as  well  as  in  the  General  Board;  while  the  associations 
are  rich  in  rare  musical  material.  Some  day  this  fallow 
waiting  field  will  be  entered  and  great  results  may  be  ex- 
pected from  such  a  work.  Such  an  effort  was  once  made  by 
Elder  Junius  F.  Wells  among  the  youngf  men  in  the  form  of 
a  musical  contest  in  Salt  Lake  City. 

In  1892  there  was  projected  a  definite  plan  of  work  for 
the  local  associations  which  deserves  special  mention.  It  was 
suggested  to  the  Board  by  Mrs.  Susa  Young  Gates  that  a 
Guide  should  be  prepared  containing  lessons  for  the  use  of 
these  associations.  This  was  in  order  to  simplify  and  unify 
the  work  done.  Many  and  prolonged  were  the  meetings  held 
by  the  Board  in  discussing  this  subject.  Plans  were  sub" 
mitted,  subjects  were  presented  and  discussed,  with  fasting 
and  prayer.  At  las"t,  in  June,  1892,  at  the  meeting  of  the 
Board,  it  was  decided  that  such  a  Guide  should  be  presented, 
and  the  work  was  put  in  the  hands  of  Sister  Gates,  who 
wrote  most  of  the  first  two  years'  Guides,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  the  Board.  Three  courses  of  study  were  presented.  The 
great  object  of  the  Guide,  so  we  are  told  in  the  minutes,  was 
to  set  the  young  ladies  to  thinking  on  definite  topics.  It  did 
not  assume  to  teach  them  very  much  about  the  subject  in 
hand,  but  sought  merely  to  awaken  interest,  and  thus  per- 
suade the  girls  to  love  study  for  its  own  sake.  The  studies 
in  each  course  were  twelve  for  the  year. 

The  first  Guide  was  published  in  1893  and  was  an  instant 
and  unqualified  success;  two  years  later  a  second  one  fol- 

182  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

lowed,  with  more  difficult  lessons.  The  second  one  proved, 
indeed,  beyond  the  scope  of  most  of  the  associations,  and  ex- 
perience proved  the  necessity  for  simple  lessons  on  simple 
subjects.  The  Guide  lessons  have  always  carried  forward 
one  course  in  theology  as  the  ground  work.  History,  litera- 
ture, physical  culture,  domestic  science,  physiology  and 
ethics  have  up  to  the  present  time  formed  the  other  branches 
of  study .  Three  subjects  were  usually  presented  for  the  yearly 
course.  In  all  this  formal  lesson  work,  the  officers  of  the  as- 
sociations have  ever  been  urged  not  to  neglect  the  more  vital 
necessity  of  assisting  the  members  to  obtain  for  themselves 
a  testimony  of  the  Gospel.  The  unvarying  policy  of  the 
Board  is  that  the  monthly  testimony  meeting  should  never  be 
abolished  nor  interfered  with  for  any  reason  whatsoever. 

The  FIRST  YEAR'S  COURSE  of  study  contained  four  parts. 

THE  FIRST  PART  was  as  follows :  A  Roster  of  the  Stake 
and  General  Officers;  Greeting  from  the  General  Board;  In- 
structions to  vStake  Officers;  Care  of  Libraries;  Books  for 
Assistance  in  Study;  Suggestions  Regarding  the  Use  of  the 

SECOND  PART:  Theological  Department.  Lesson  1 — Faith 
and  Repentance;  2 — Baptism  and  the  Holy  Ghost;  3 — Testi- 
mony of  the  Truth;  4  Healing  of  the  Sick;  5 — Church  Or- 
ganization; 6 — Divine  Authority  in  the  Church;  7 — The 
Atonement;  8 — Second  Coming  of  Christ — Millennium;  9 — 
The  Resurrection;  10— Salvation  for  the  Dead— Temple 
Work;  11— Prayer;  12— The  Articles  of  Faith. 

THIRD  PART:  Historical  Department.  The  History  of 
Joseph  Smith,  the  Prophet.  1 — The  Boyhood  of  the  Prophet; 
2 — The  Book  of  Mormon;  3 — Organization  of  the  Church; 
4— The  Land  of  Zion;  5 — Mobs — Z ion's  Camp;  6 — Kirtland 
— The  British  Mission;  7 — Prosecutions  and  Persecutions; 
8 — Mobs  and  Murders;  9 — Nauvoo,  the  Beautiful;  10 — Clouds 
and  Sunshine;  11— The  Shadow  of  Death ;  12— TheMartyrdom. 

GUIDE    WORK.  183 

FOURTH  PART:  Human  Physiology  and  Hygiene.  1 — 
The  Study  of  the  Human  Body;  2— The  Bony  System;  3— 
Muscles  and  Muscular  Exercises;  4 — The  Skin;  5 — Append- 
ages to  the  Skin — Hair,  Nails  and  Teeth;  6 — Digestion;  7— 
Food;  8 — Blood  and  Circulation;  9 — Respiration;  10 — Venti- 
lation; 11 — The  Nervous  System  and  the  Special  Senses;  12 — 
The  Stimulant  Appetite. 

THE  SECOND  YEAR'S  GUIDE  was  published  in  pamphlet 
form  in  May,  1896,  and  contained  the  same  general  instruc- 
tion as  did  the  first  Guide.  The  Theological  lessons  were 
twelve  in  number  and  considered  the  genuineness  of  the 
New  Testament  from  internal  and  external  evidences,  with 
an  inquiry  into  the  topography  of  the  country  and  the  ethnol- 
ogy of  the  Jews  and  their  neighbors  at  the  time  of  the  Savior's 
advent,  with  other  external  features  of  such  a  study,  pre- 
paratory to  the  historical  sacred  narratives  which  were  to  fol- 
low in  due  course.  The  studies  in  the  Second  Part  of  the 
Guide  carried  on  the  historical  story  of  the  settlement  of 
Utah,  reaching  up  to  the  death  of  President  Brigham  Young, 
with  Whitney's  History  of  Utah  as  the  basis  of  study. 
Part  Third  of  the  Guide  was  devoted  to  a  series  of  Home 
lessons.  These  were  neither  strictly  ethical  nor  did  they 
follow  domestic  science  lines — although  both  of  these  fields 
were  entered  as  may  be  seen  by  the  following  titles:  System 
in  the  Home;  Cleanliness;  Clothing  the  Family;  Flowers  in 
the  Home;  Amusements  in  the  Home;  Social  Duties;  Sick- 
ness in  the  Home;  Nursing;  Food  for  Invalids;  Emergen- 
cies. There  was  a  Part  Four  in  the  Guide  which  contained 
twelve  excellent  lessons  in  Physical  Exercises,  prepared  and 
specially  illustrated  by  Prof.  Maud  May  Babcock,  who  had 
at  that  time  come  to  the  West  to  take  charge  of  physical  edu- 
cation in  the  State  University. 

In  1903,  in  addition  to  the  regular  Guide,  a  Guide  was 
issued  for  junior  members  with  instructions  to  grade  the 

184  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

associations,  thus  promoting  order  and  more  rapid  progress. 
The  junior  work  was  in  part  founded  on  previous  lessons 
made  very  simple  for  young  girls.  Both  religious  and  ethi- 
cal subjects  were  considered.  The  grading  of  the  Mutuals 
has  since  become  general,  though  as  a  rule  the  same  subjects 
are  studied  in  each  department. 

The  Book  of  Mormon  was  studied  for  two  years,  followed 
by  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants  for  the  same  length  of  time; 
in  turn  followed,  in  1904,  by  the  Life  of  Christ,  two  years 
being  devoted  to  the  study  of  His  history  and  two  to  His 
teachings,  followed  again  by  one  year  on  the  Acts  of  the 

The  original  plan  for  the  development  of  the  Theological 
work  as  conceived  years  ago  was  to  begin  the  study  with  the 
history  of  God's  dealings  with  His  children  as  recorded  in 
the  Old  Testament,  next  in  the  Book  of  Mormon,  and  then  in 
the  New  Testament;  following  this  would  come  the  consider- 
ation of  the  Apostasy  from  the  primitive  Church,  and  then 
the  Restoration  of  the  Gospel.  This  has  been  practically 
followed  this  year,  1909, completing  the  study  of  the  Apostasy, 
while  for  the  year  1910  the  Guide  lessons  will  be  devoted  to 
the  Restoration  of  the  Gospel.  Thus  the  study  of  theology 
follows  a  natural  historical  course,  and  the  mind  is  aided  to 
grasp  its  significance  by  the  threads  of  history  along  which 
it  is  strung.  The  ancient  records  deal  with  the  preparation 
for  the  advent  of  the  Savior,  the  modern  ones  have  to  do  with 
His  message  to  the  boy  Prophet  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

The  studies  in  Ethics  covered  such  subjects  as  pertain 
to  the  social  and  domestic  life  of  girls,  for  instance,  the  fol- 
lowing: Rights  of  Family  Members;  Honesty  in  Small 
Things;  Truth- telling;  Self-control;  Loving  and  Serving; 
Visitors  in  the  Home;  Social  Observances;  Street  Deport- 
ment; Conduct  in  Places  of  Worship;  Selfishness;  Happi- 
ness; Modesty;  Wickedness. 

GUIDE    WORK.  185 

It  must  be  remembered  that  the  membership  changes 
often,  the  junior  ranks  being-  filled  by  girls  of  fourteen  who 
come  from  the  Primary  Association  each  year.  A  repetition 
of  subjects  on  foundation  principles  is  therefore  necessary 
about  every  four  years. 

The  course  in  Literature  began  in  the  autumn  of  1903. 
It  commenced  with  literature  3000  years  B.  C.,  and  has  con- 
tinued to  the  present  day,  covering  the  most  important  of  the 
world's  classics.  While  dealing  with  ancient  literature  the 
aim  was  to  publish  sufficient  information  in  the  Journal  so 
that  it  would  not  be  necessary  for  the  girls  to  purchase  all 
the  books  considered.  The  beginning"  was  somewhat  diffi- 
cult on  account  of  the  peculiar  names  and  their  unfamiliarity; 
but  before  long  the  girls  were  thoroughly  interested  and  have 
so  continued.  The  influence  this  course  has  had  upon  the 
reading  of  the  members  is  wonderful,  the  call  for  high  class 
literature  being  so  great  that  many  book  dealers  have  been 
led  to  comment  upon  it. 

Looking  backward  twenty  years  to  the  beginning  of  our 
Guide  work,  it.  is  appalling  in  the  light  of  more  modern  peda- 
gogical studies  to  see  the  number  and  prodigious  variety  of 
subjects  attacked  by  these  primary  Guides.  Such  however 
is  the  history  of  education  and  progress  everywhere  and 
every  time.  To  begin  with  the  study  of  the  earth  and  nar- 
row down  to  a  prolonged  consideration  of  one  flower  growing 
upon  its  broad  face  is  the  method  pursued  in  all  nations  and 
at  all  times.  What  brain-racking  work  those  first  Guides 
must  have  proved  for  author,  teacher  and  girl  student!  It  is 
said  we  do  better  now-a-days.  The  first  two  Guides  were 
prepared  as  separate  pamphlets,  and  sold  for  ten  cents  each. 
When  in  1897  it  was  decided  to  publish  the  Guide  lessons  in 
the  Journal,  it  proved  so  successful  and  desirable  that  the 
plan  has  ever  since  been  followed. 

The  systematic  work  provided  foi   the  local  associations 

186  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

by  the  Guide  was  heartily  appreciated  by  those  most  con- 
cerned. To  be  sure,  everybody  was  set  to  work,  the  officers 
most  of  all.  While  the  new  method  took  some  of  the  heavy  re- 
sponsibility off  the  over- worked  shoulders  of  the  officers,  it 
made  great  demands  of  them  in  another  direction.  These 
girls  were  made  of  the  wrong  kind  of  stuff,  however,  to  quail 
or  give  up  at  the  sight  of  obstacles.  With  a  determined 
grasp,  the  lessons  in  history,  in  theology  and  in  physiology 
were  attacked  with  vigor.  What  had  heretofore  existed  in 
the  minds  of  most  of  our  girls  as  a  few  unrelated  facts  in 
history,  and  as  a  vague  understanding  of  the  principles  of 
the  Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ,  now  began  to  assume  definite 
proportions,  and  to  fall  into  proper  relation  and  harmony. 
When  the  girls  undertook  to  teach  the  lessons  in  the  Guide 
to  each  other,  whether  in  the  form  of  lecturing,  giving  the 
lessons,  or  simply  in  imparting  bits  of  information  in  the 
shape  of  answers  to  questions,  their  work  became  as  play, 
and  they  were  at  once  aroused  and  interested.  What  the 
literary  club  did  for  the  woman  of  the  world,  was  accom- 
plished through  the  M.  I.  A.  for  the  simple-hearted  Mormon 

There  was  one  consequence  of  this  new  movement,  in 
some  instances  to  be  deplored:  those  sisters,  standing  at  the 
head  of  local  or  stake  organizations,  whose  lives  had  been 
spent  mostly  in  a  hand-to-hand  struggle  with  pioneer  con- 
ditions, and  whose  education  was  circumscribed  principally 
by  the  three  R's,  felt  a  lack  of  qualification  for  this  sudden 
educational  change.  In  some  instances,  the  disposition  and 
character  of  the  presiding  officer  was  sufficiently  pliable  to 
adapt  itself  to  these  new  conditions,  or  the  mind  was  of  that 
keen  caliber  that  grasped  eagerly  the  opportunity  for  self- 
education,  and  the  student-officer  managed  thus  to  keep  just 
one  step  in  advance  of  her  student-members.  But  in  every 
instance,  the  General  Board  was  loath  to  see  the  older  girls 

GUIDE   WORK.  187 

and  young-  women  who  were  so  full  of  spiritual  qualifications 
step  aside  because  of  lack  of  the  higher  education.  However, 
we  may  congratulate  ourselves  that  the  resignations  were  not 
frequent,  and  in  any  case  the  good  work  went  steadily  on- 

With  a  commendable  desire  to  give  practical  assistance 
to  the  women  concerned,  the  principal  of  the  Brigham  Young 
University  in  Provo,  Benjamin  duff,  offered,  in  1893,  to  es- 
tablish in  that  school  a  course  in  the  study  of  the  Guide. 
Other  studies  were  recommended  and  provided  in  this  brief 
six  weeks'  winter  course,  and  it  was  suggested  that  the  Gen- 
eral Board  should  use  their  influence  in  arranging-  for  the 
presence  of  at  least  one  representative  from  every  ward  in 
the  Church.  This  generous  offer  was  gladly  accepted,  as  it 
involved  no  expense  to  the  general  society  and  exacted  but  a 
very  moderate  fee  from  the  intended  beneficiaries.  A  great 
many  young- women  took  advantage  of  the  opportunity,  and 
even  those  who  had  received  no  hig-her  education  found  their 
work  so  simplified  for  them  by  the  devoted  teachers  of  this 
first  and  best  of  all  Church  schools,  that  they  soon  became 
qualified  to  return  to  their  homes,  prepared  to  begin  life  from 
a  new  starting-  point. 

The  work  begun  in  this  school  spread  rapidly,  and,  in  a 
short  time,  the  three  principal  Church  schools,  the  Brigham 
Young  Academy  at  Provo.  the  Brigham  Young:  College  at 
Logan,  and  the  Latter-day  Saints  University  in  Salt  Lake 
City,  had  excellent  brief  courses  in  the  Young  Women's 
Guide  and  the  Young  Men's  Manual.  Moreover,  the  same 
labor  was  projected  and  carried  forward  in  a  private  way  in 
Salt  Lake  City.  Mrs.  Minnie  J.  Sn:>w  and  Mrs.  May  Booth 
Talmage  were  the  directors  and  Mrs.  Emma  Goddard  was 
secretary  of  a  M.  I.  model  Guide  class.  There  were  also  vari- 
ous classes  formed  in  different  stakes,  and  for  a  number  of 
years  this  work  was  thus  promoted.  Finally,  the  workers 

188  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

and  the  work  became  adjusted  to  each  other,  and  the  plan 
was  adopted  of  using-  part  of  the  time  of  the  monthly  stake 
board  meetings,  when  the  officers  all  came  together,  in  pre- 
paratory work  in  the  Guide  lessons.  This  system  is  in  oper- 
ation today,  in  most  of  the  stakes.  The  lesson  is  put  into 
the  hands  of  a  class  leader,  and,  either  by  general  assignment 
or  by  individual  preparation,  the  lesson  is  given  to  the  as- 
sembled officers.  By  keeping  ahead  of  the  local  ward  work 
one  month,  each  officer  is  able  to  assist  in  the  lesson  when  it 
is  given  in  her  own  ward,  and  all  the  officers  are  thus  prop- 
erly prepared,  not  leaving  the  work  to  rest  wholly  upon  the 
class  leader,  with  the  assistance,  perhaps,  of  the  president  of 
the  ward  association.  It  will  be  understood  that  this  increase 
in  work  demanded  more  systematic  method  in  the  carrying 
on  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  labor  in  stake  and  ward 
boards.  Heretofore,  the  stake  boards  had  met  merely  to 
listen  to  the  giving  of  reports  and  to  give  encouragement  to 
officers  with  some  general  consideration  of  conditions. 

The  monthly  stake  board  meeting  became  a  fixed  insti- 
tution with  the  introduction  of  class  work,  and  nothing  ex- 
cept a  death  or  marriage  in  the  family  kept  the  girl  officer 
away  from  her  monthly  duties.  It  might  be  that  she  lived 
twenty  miles  from  the  town  where  the  meeting  was  held,  but 
twenty  blocks  or  twenty  miles,  it  made  little  difference.  There 
was  the  team  in  the  barn,  the  carriage  or  buggy  in  the  same 
place;  while  the  other  officers  in  her  town,  or  along  the  route, 
would  be  glad  to  fill  up  the  capacious  seats;  and  she  herself 
knew  how  to  throw  a  harness  on  to  a  willing  horse.  So  away 
she  went  for  the  board  meeting  to  get  her  particular  taste  of 
the  culture  of  the  ages.  Is  it  any  wonder  that  one  finds  so 
many  capable,  self-reliant  girls  in  our  Church? 

It  is  possible  to  picture  to  the  mind  through  the  headings 
of  the  various  studies  given  during  that  decade  of  rapid 
growth,  something  of  the  tremendous  force  for  good  exercised 

GUIDE    WORK.  189 

by  the  M.  I.  Associations.  When  one  considers  the  value 
and  importance  of  the  study  of  true  religion,  of  ethics,  music, 
and  the  best  in  literature,  treated  simply  and  vividly,  taught 
by  loving-  and  eager  hearts,  to  other  loving  and  receptive 
hearts,  the  picture  is  most  inspiring.  Forty  thousand  girls  in 
these  western  states  and  territories,  studying  about  Loving 
and  Serving,  Gratitude,  Reverence,  with  the  studious  yet  in- 
timate lessons  on  the  life  and  character  of  the  Savior,  to- 
gether with  brief  but  fascinating  glimpses  at  the  literary 
giants  of  old  and  modern  times,  Shakespeare,  Goethe, 
Dante,  Milton,  Longfellow,  Emerson,  Carlyle — these  sub- 
jects all  are  goodly  company  for  a  girl's  mind  and  dreams. 
No  one  may  measure,  in  words  at  least,  the  value  of  such 
labors.  It  is  only  when  the  mind  is  lighted  by  a  flash  of  in- 
spiration that  the  immensity  of  the  vision  is  comprehended; 
the  girls,  the  future  mothers,  weaving  week  by  week  strands 
of  ethical  uprightness  with  the  beauties  of  literature  or  some 
practical  knowledge  into  a  web  of  pure  religion — the  garment 
of  the  soul  to  be  folded  about  their  lives  for  here  and  here- 



The  parents  of  Mrs.  Minnie  Jensen  Snow  were  among 
the  first  converts  to  the  Mormon  faith  in  the  beautiful  land 
of  Denmark.  They  were  well  acquainted  with  Apostle  Eras- 
tus  Snow,  and  their  spacious  home  was  ever  open  for  the  new 
missionaries  of  a  strange  religion.  They  were  well-to-do 
people,  and  of  strong  personalities,  both  of  them,  with  that 
indomitable  will  and  that  firm  integrity  which  insure  results 
after  conviction.  So,  when  in  1853  they  could  not  dispose  of 
their  property  on  leaving  for  Utah,  they  both  simply  stepped 
out  of  the  house  and  closed  the  doors  forever  behind  them. 

190  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Of  such  mold  was  their  daughter  Minnie.  There  was 
about  Sister  Snow  an  exquisite  refinement  of  speech  and 
manner  that  convinced  those  who  knew  her  that  she  had  gen- 
erations  of  cultured  ancestors  behind  her.  She  was  as  firm 
as  the  everlasting-  hills,  but  as  gentle  and  serene  in  manner 
as  are  the  velvet-clad  valleys  between  those  hills.  She  re- 


minded  one  of  the  old  simile:  ''the  iron  hand  in  the  velvet 
glove."  She  was  born  on  the  10th  of  October,  1854,  in  Brig- 
ham  City,  five  days  after  the  arrival  of  her  parents  from 
their  home  in  the  old  country.  She  was  a  student  from  child- 
hood. She  loved  books,  music,  languages,  and. was  a  born 


leader  among"  her  sex.  She  might  lack  some  of  the  tender 
qualities  of  perfect  sympathy,  if  she  had  a  certain  point  to 
gain — but  she  secured  her  point  by  skilful  maneuvering, 
never  by  tactless  noise  or  loud  assertiveness.  She  was  the 
slow-moving  river  that  gently,  but  firmly,  makes  its  channel 
through  all  movable  soils;  but  when  it  encounters  a  boulder, 
runs  peacefully  around  it,  with  scarcely  a  ripple  of  protest, 
and  comes  out  on  the  other  side,  still  relentless  and  powerful 
in  its  onward  progress. 

Sister  Minnie  was  early  at  work  among  her  fellows. 
When  only  fourteen  years  of  age  she  came  to  Salt  Lake  City, 
and  studied  music  while  living  under  the  roof  of  President 
Daniel  H.  Wells.  Here,  too,  she  took  up  some  work  in  Eng- 
lish and  history.  In  1875,  on  the  organization  of  the  Re- 
trenchment Society  in  Brigham  City,  she  was  chosen  to  act 
as  president  of  the  ward  association.  She  filled  her  office 
with  such  signal  success  that  when  the  stake  was  organized 
in  its  entirety  on  the  31st  of  July,  1879,  and  the  Retrench- 
ment Society  was  merged  into  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  she  was 
chosen  to  act  as  the  president  of  the  stake  in  that  association. 
This  position  was  retained  till  September,  1894,  nearly  twen- 
ty years,  or  until  after  her  removal  to  Salt  Lake  City.  It 
must  be  said  that  the  Boxelder  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was 
the  peer  of  any  stake  in  Zion.  It  led  in  many  particulars: 
programs,  bulletins,  regular  work,  systematic  visiting  among 
the  associations,  with  rousing  conferences — these  were  a 
few  of  the  superior  points  manifested  under  the  administra- 
tion of  Sister  Minnie  J.  Snow.  She  had  also  a  very  keen 
appreciation  of  the  value  of  spiritual  conversion,  and  of  the 
need  of  feeding  the  spirit  after  conversion  witfr  food  suitable 
for  its  development,  as  distinguished  from  that  mental  stim- 
ulus which  comes  from  the  study  of  normal  facts  and  historic 
data.  The  spiritual  feasts  which  were  enjoyed  in  her  home 
at  the  Young  Ladies'  conferences  will  never  fade  from  the 
memory  of  those  who  were  privileged  to  attend  them.  Nor 
was  she  behind  in  the  mental  preparation  of  herself  or  her 
officers  for  the  exactions  of  their  offices.  She  had  the  happy 
gift  of  rousing  all  with  whom  she  came  in  contact  to  do  their 
best;  and  she  certainly  led  them  all  in  that  particular.  Upon 
her  release  she  was  showered  with  the  gifts  and  blessings  of 
her  associates. 

192  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

While  only  a  child  in  years,  but  seventeen,  she  was 
united  in  the  celestial  order  of  marriage  to  one  of  the  noblest 
and  greatest  men  of  this  generation — President  Lorenzo 
Snow.  She  was  forty  years  his  junior,  but  so  quick  was  her 
mental  caliber,  so  acute  her  adaptation,  and  so  perfect  was 
the  manhood,  so  youthful  the  innocent  purity  of  President 
Snow,  that  these  two  became  close  and  sympathetic  com- 
panions. Five  children  were  the  result  of  this  union,  four 
of  whom  have  survived  their  parents.  Mrs.  Mabelle  Snow 
Cole,  a  young  matron  of  Logan,  Le  Roi  C.  Snow,  a  member 
of  the  General  Board  of  the  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.,  and  Lorenzo 
Snow,  with  a  charming  young  daughter,  Lucile,  make  up  a 
family  of  exceptional  members.  The  home  life  of  Sister 
Snow  was  exemplary  in  the  extreme.  She  was  the  soul  of 
neatness  and  order;  no  unclean  thing  could  dwell  long  in  her 
presence.  She  had  also  the  gift  of  so  imparting  of  her  best 
self  LO  her  children,  when  she  was  with  them,  that  they  nev- 
er felt  defrauded  through  her  necessarily  frequent  absences. 

When  the  Salt  Lake  Temple  was  opened,  and  President 
Lorenzo  Snow  was  called  to  preside  there,  Sister  Snow  came 
to  make  a  home  for  her  husband  in  Salt  Lake  City.  She  had 
been  chosen  in  October,  1892,  to  act  on  the  General  Board  of 
the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  and  it  was  there  that  she  proved  her  fit- 
ness for  any  position.  She  measured  up  well  with  all  her  as- 
sociates. She  was  also  made  second  counselor  to  Sister  Zina  D. 
Young  in  the  onerous  duties  of  presiding  over  women's  work  in 
the  Salt  Lake  Temple  in  1893,  and  for  some  years  acted  as 
organist  in  that  sacred  edifice.  With  it  all  *he  carried  on 
with  vigor  her  duties  in  the  General  Board,  acting  upon  va- 
rious committees, and  always  giving  satisfaction  in  her  labors. 
She  was  for  a  long  time  chairman  of  the  Guide  committee,  and 
assisted  to  prepare  a  Junior  Guide  during  that  time.  Three 
times  she  was  sent  as  delegate  to  the  National  Council  of 
Women,  twice  in  Washington  and  once  in  Toledo.  She 
made  an  excellent  impression  wherever  she  went;  Mrs.  May 
Wright  Sewell  once  compared  her  to  a  clear-cut  cameo  for 
beauty  of  spirit  and  clarity  of  speech.  She  was  a  life-patron 
of  the  Council ,  and  was  active  on  several  of  the  local  Coun- 
cil committees,  especially  that  of  Peace  and  Arbitration. 

In  1901  President  Lorenzo  Snow  was  suddenly  stricken 
with  death;  and  what  his  loss    meant   to   her   in   every   way 


none  may  ever  measure.  She  was  too  proud  to  show,  too 
reserved  to  tell,  all  that  lay  like  lead  in  her  bosom.  If  she 
had  failed  in  any  part,  it  was  not  due  to  lack  of  vision,  but 
from  anxiety  to  accomplish  what  she  esteemed  would  be  of 
utmost  good  to  her  nearest  and  dearest;  and  with  that  gentle 
pride  which  could  smile  when  death  stood  over  her,  she  took 
up  the  shattered  remains  of  her  life.  Very  soon  after,  she 
too,  looked  into  the  face  of  the  Avenger,  and  still  she  smiled 
and  wept  not.  "Try  me,  O  Lord,"  she  had  exclaimed  in  a 
spiritual  meeting  just  before  her  husband's  death — ''and  see 
if  there  is  any  fault  within  me."  Ah,  weak  humanity,  how 
little  we  realize  the  force  of  mere  words!  At  that  moment, 
she  was  hiding  her  death  warrant  beneath  her  heart,  yet  even 
she  was  not  yet  aware.  In  life  she  had  not  been  separated 
from  her  companion,  and  in  death  they  were  soon  to  be 

No  martyr  ever  fought  a  more  valiant,  brave  and  smil- 
ing warfare  than  was  waged  by  this  meek  soldier  of  Christ 
for  seven  long  years.  She  was  afflicted  with  a  cancerous 
growth  in  her  eye;  and  she  saw  her  life  close  slowly  round 
her  with  its  winding  sheet  of  relentless  doom;  but  she  cast  over 
that  pallid  surface  the  flowers  of  her  courage  and  her  infinite 
patience,  until  they  who  saw  her  wept  at  her  fortitude  and 
wondered  as  they  gazed  on  her  placid  features.  If  there  were 
spots  of  human  weakness,  strains  of  human  frailty,  in  the 
complex  character  of  Sister  Minnie  J.  Snow,  the  slow  fires  of 
death  burned  out  that  stain  and  left  her  soul  renewed 
and  purified  as  the  spirit  took  its  flight.  So  may  she  rest! 
She  died  January  2nd,  1908,  surrounded  by  her  adoring  fam- 
ily and  mourned  by  all  who  knew  her. 


Alpine,  nestling  in  the  encircling  arm  of  the  mighty 
Wasatch,  is  the  birthplace  of  our  sister  Mrs.  May  Booth  Tal- 
mage.  There  she  was  born  September  29,  1868. 

Her  infancy  and  youth  were  spent  amid  scenes  of  inspir- 
ing grandeur  and  ennobling  peace — devoted  to  wholesome 
work  and  helpful  play  incident  to  a  country  life,  her  environ- 
ment beautified  by  the  towering  peaks  and  granite  crags  of 
the  everlasting  hills.  The  quiet  of  home  retirement  and  the 



HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

music  of  mountain  solitude  were  potent  factors  of  her  child- 
hood, and  their  influence  has  helped  to  make  lovable  and 
useful  the  succeeding  period  of  womanhood.  She  has  had 
the  advantage  of  close  association  with  the  leaders  of  reli- 
gious, educational  and  social  life  in  Utah.  These  varied  ex- 
periences have  prepared  her  to  appreciate  the  diversity  of 

needs  among  our 
Mutual  Improve- 
ment girls.  While 
she  was  yet  a 
child,  a  patriarch 
in  the  Church 
foretold  her  work 
as  a  leader  among 
women,  though 
at  that  time  her 
quiet  girlhood  na- 
ture gave  small 
promise  of  fulfill- 
ment. When  she 
received  her  in- 
fant blessing  the 
bishop  declared 
that  she  belonged 
to  the  Church  as 
a  tithe,  she  being 
the  tenth  child  of 
the  family.  She 
has  carried  out 
this  thought  in 
spirit  for  she  has 
ever  been  ear- 
nestly devoted  to 
Church  work. 

At  sixteen  Miss 
Booth  entered  the 

Brigham  Young  Academy,  now  the  Biigham  Young  Univer- 
sity. Subsequently  she  assumed  the  responsibility  of  school 
teaching.  After  a  short  period  she  bade  adieu  to  the  schoolroom 
to  become  the  honored  wife  of  one  of  her  former  professors. 
Her  husband,  Dr.  James  E.  Talmage,  is  recognized  as  one  of 



the  leading  writers  and  educators  of  Utah.  Seven  bright  chil- 
dren have  brought  joy  to  this  united  household,  though  one 
of  them  returned  to  the  Father  in  infancy.  These  children 
are  being  reared  in  a  home  atmosphere  which  the  parents 
have  made  beautiful  by  deep,  unselfish  love,  superior  learn- 
ing and  daily  worship  of  God. 

Mrs.  Talmage 's  public  work  has  been  wide  and  varied. 
She  rendered  efficient  service  on  the  executive  board  of  the 
Territorial  Woman's  Suffrage  Association  in  the  successful 
effort  to  secure  the  boon  of  equal  suffrage.  She  was  also 
vice-president  of  the  first  Free  Kindergarten  Association  es- 
tablished in  Utah.  For  five  years  Mrs.  Talmage  worked 
with  the  children  as  president  of  a  local  Primary  Association. 
Her  talents  were  given  wider  scope  for  development  when 
she  was  chosen  by  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor,  October, 
1892,  to  act  as  aid  on  the  General  Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I. 
A.  She  is  an  efficient  worker  in  many  directions,  having 
for  years  been  chairman  of  such  important  standing  com- 
mittees as  the  Journal  committee  and  the  Guide  committee. 
Her  marked  literary,  ability  was  given  splendid  opportunities 
for  exercise  while  she  edited  the  Young  Woman  s  Journal 
during  a  period  of  nineteen  months. 

Mrs.  Talmage  has  had  practical  experience  in  the  na- 
tional affairs  of  women.  In  Chicago  in  1893  she  prepared 
and  read  a  paper  at  the  World's  Congress 'of  Women,  and  in 
1906  she  was  sent  to  Toledo,  Ohio,  to  attend  the  Triennial  of 
the  National  Council  of  Women. 

A  leading  trait  of  Mrs.  Talmage 's  character  is  an  ear- 
nest desire  to  do  all  that  she  can  to  benefit  and  bless  her 
friends,  and  to  uplift  her  fellows.  A  sweet  refinement  and  a 
love  for  the  beautiful  in  art  and  nature  are  characteristics 
ever  prominent,  and  in  her  every  day  life  she  expresses  the 
high  ideals  that  belong  to  one  who  is  earnest  and  conscien- 


The  father  of  the  Campbell  girls,  Robert  L.  Campbell,  was 
one  of  Utah's  pioneers,  in  more  ways  than  one.  He  came 
here  in  1847  and  endured  all  the  privations  and  hardships  in- 

196  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

cident  to  the  early  days;  but  he  brought  with  him  his  fine 
clerical  training"  and  acute  intellect.  Elder  Campbell  was  given 
various  positions  of  trust,  especially  where  scholarship  and 
clerical  skill  were  required.  He  became  one  of  the  superin- 
tendents of  public  instruction,  and  was  in  the  Historian's  office 


for  twenty  years.  While  his  eldest  daughter,  Joan,  the  subject 
of  this  sketch,  was  still  very  young,  he  took  her  into  that 
office,  and  initiated  her  into  his  own  profession.  He  died 
when  Joan  was  but  sixteen  years  of  agfe,  and  she  must  then 
needs  turn  her  attention  to  helping:  in  the  support  of  the  six- 
teen children  left  behind.  She  kept  her  post  in  the  Histori- 


an's  office  for  ten  years,  earning-  a  good  wage,  which  went 
to  pay  home  expenses.  She  labored  while  in  that  office  un- 
der the  direction  of  President  George  A.  Smith,  Apostle  Or- 
son Pratt,  and  Elder  John  Jaques.  From  here  she  went  to 
Z.  C.  M.  I.  as  cashier,  and  remained  in  this  institution  for 
a  number  of  years. 

In  1894,  she  was  called  by  Sister  Taylor  to  act  as  re- 
cording secretary  and  aid  in  the  General  Board.  The  former 
position  she  held  for  five  years,  in  which  time  she  never 
missed  a  meeting  of  the  Board.  It  was  then  decided  to  do 
away  with  that  office,  but  she  still  held  the  position  of  aid, 
till  April,  1910,  when  she  became  general  secretary.  She 
was  placed  in  the  position  of  secretary  in  the  Fourteenth  ward 
Relief  Society,  to  hold  the  office  made  vacant  by  the  resigna- 
tion of  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor,  who  had  kept  up  those 
local  duties  for  so  many  years.  Sister  Campbell-  held  that 
office  and  filled  it  with  signal  ability  until  her  removal  from 
the  ward  in  1908.  She  acted  as  counselor  in  the  Fourteenth 
ward  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  for  a  number  of  years,  and  has  long  la- 
bored in  the  Sunday  Schools  and  Primary  Association  as  a 

The  life  of  Joan  Campbell  has  been  singularly  clean  and 
pure,  while  the  sweet  simplicity  of  her  soul  has  carried  her 
into  many  homes  and  many  hearts,  where  a  more  aggressive 
spirit  would  be  shut  out.  If  one  were  asked  to  name  the 
most  striking  trait  of  her  well-balanced  character,  he  would 
at  once  say,  integrity, — honor,  faithfulness,  purity,  these 
are  the  elements  which  make  up  that  word,  integrity.  She 
has  commanded  respect  wherever  she  has  been  placed.  While 
a  mere  girl,  she  was  made  engrossing  clerk  in  the  legislature; 
and  while  holding  that  position,  she  was  nominated  as  a 
notary  public,  the  first  woman  in  the  Territory  to  be  so  hon- 
ored. Her  appointment  did  not  receive  the  governor's  sanc- 
tion, as  she  was  under  age;  but  he  hastened  to  explain  that 
this  was  the  only  bar  to  her  appointment,  for  she  had  gained 
his,  as  well  as  every  legislator's,  respect  and  admiration. 
Joan  is  a  quiet-spoken  girl,  and  her  reserved  manner  might 
not  always  be  understood;  but  when  she  rises  to  speak  to  the 
girls  in  the  Mutuals,  she  has  such  a  fund  of  good  counsel  and 
sensible  advice  that  she  wins  her  audience  to  her  in  no  time. 
She  travels  extensively  in  the  interests  of  the  association. 



Inception  of  the  National  and  International  Councils. — The  Y.  L.  M. 
I.  A.  affiliated. — World's  Congress  of  Representative  Women. — 
Triennial  and  Executive  Sessions. — A  memorable  triennial. — In- 
ternational Council  Sessions. — Distinguished  visitors  entertained. 

THE  movement  for  a  larger  life  and  for  a  wider  develop- 
ment began  with  the  women  of  the  Latter-day  Saints 
in  1842,  when  the  Relief  Society  was  organized  in  Nauvoo. 
Six  years  later  the  same  spirit  began  to  manifest  itself  among 
the  women  of  the  world.  In  July,  1848,  the  first  Women's 
Rights  convention  was  held  at  Seneca  Falls,  only  a  few  miles 
from  where  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints 
was  organized  in  1830.  Elizabeth  Cady  Stanton,  Lucretia 
Mott,  Lucy  Stone  and  other  prominent  women  led  out  in  this 
gigantic  movement.  In  1850,  the  ranks  of  the  reformers 
were  re-enforced  by  the  greatest  of  all  great  American  wom- 
en, Susan  B.  Anthony.  Miss  Anthony  was  a  Quaker,  and 
at  that  time  a  youthful  school  teacher.  She  was  the  most 
single-minded  in  her  unselfish  devotion  to  her  ideal  of  any 
woman  who  has  made  history  in  the  United  States. 

In  the  spring  of  1883,  a  party  of  distinguished  English 
and  American  women,  among  whom  were  Miss  Anthony  and 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  Cady  Stanton,  decided  among  themselves, 
while  at  a  reception  given  to  the  American  ladies  in  Liver- 
pool, to  call  an  international  council  of  women,  preparatory 
to  forming  an  International  Suffrage  Association.  It  was 
later  decided  to  call  this  council  of  women  in  America  and 
to  hold  it  on  the  fortieth  anniversary  of  the  first  Suffrage 
convention  held  at  Seneca  Falls.  Accordingly,  extensive 
preparations  were  made  for  this  event,  the  burden  of  the 


work  being  borne  by  Miss  Anthony,  Mrs.  May  Wright  Sew- 
all  and  Miss  Rachel  Foster.  The  sessions  were  to  continue 
eight  days,  beginning  with  March  25,  1888.  Washington 
was  chosen  as  the  place  of  meeting,  because  the  Suffrage 
conventions  were  held  there  yearly,  and  because  this  city, 
being  the  center  of  the  law-making  forces  of  the  nation,  must 
hold  within  itself  some  measure  of  the  heart  and  the  center 
of  things  spiritual,  as  well  as  temporal,  for  our  government. 

This  convention,  the  first  of  the  kind  ever  held  in  the 
world  so  far  as  history  records,  was  worthy  of  itself  and  the 
occasion.  Women,  the  brightest  and  best  known,  came  from 
every  civilized  nation,  and  a  few  from  the  nations  we  are 
pleased  to  call  heathen.  The  programs  covered  topics  on 
education,  philanthropy,  temperance,  industries,  profes- 
sions, legal  conditions,  political  conditions,  and  moral  educa- 
tion. To  these  were  added  the  discussions  and  decisions  of 
the  organization  of  permanent  National  Councils  of  Women, 
and  an  International  one  to  be  composed  of  the  various  Na- 
tional Councils.  This  latter  idea  was  born  in  the  brilliant 
mind  of  Mrs.  May  Wright  Sewall,  but  it  was  warmly  sup- 
ported by  Miss  Anthony,  and  became  the  active  purpose  of 
all  present. 

The  women  were  greeted  by  the  fore-gathered  intellects 
at  the  seat  of  government  with  some  respect,  some  merri- 
ment, and  a  great  deal  of  social  recognition.  The  social  at- 
tention was  a  farther- reaching  help  than  was,  or  is  ever,  re- 
alized. Receptions  were  tendered  the  women  at  two  of  the 
most  palatial  and  aristocratic  of  the  senatorial  mansions, 
while  President  Cleveland  himself,  assisted  by  his  charming 
wife,  opened  the  White  House  to  welcome  this  unusual  as- 
semblage of  ladies. 

There  is  a  happy  significance  in  the  fact  that,  in  com- 
mon with  other  organized  bodies  of  women  in  the  country, 
the  three  organizations  of  women  in  the  Mormon  Church 

200  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

were  invited  to  send  representatives,  and  all  three  accepted 
the  invitation.  The  Relief  Society  was  represented  by  M/s. 
Emily  S.  Richards,  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  by  Mrs.  Luella  C. 
Yotmgf,  and  the  Primary  by  Mrs.  Janet  Young- Easton.  The 
Relief  Society  and  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement 
Association  joined  the  National  Council  of  the  United  States, 
which  was  organized  at  this  convention. 

The  purpose  in  the  National  Council  is  set  forth  in  the 
preamble  to  its  constitution  in  the  following  words: 

We,  women  of  the  United  States,  sincerely  believing  that 
the  best  good  of  our  homes  and  nation  will  be  advanced  by 
our  own  greater  unity  of  thought,  sympathy  and  purpose, 
and  that  an  organized  movement  of  women  will  best  conserve 
the  highest  good  of  the  family  and  the  state,  do  hereby  unite 
ourselves  in  a  confederation  of  workers,  committed  to  the 
overthrow  of  all  forms  of  ignorance  and  injustice,  and  to  the 
application  of  the  Golden  Rule  to  society,  custom  and  law. 

Its  ethical  breadth  and  scope  are  indicated  in  the  follow- 
ing liberal  terms: 

This  Council  is  organized  in  the  interest  of  no  one  propa- 
ganda, and  has  no  power  over  the  organizations  which 
constitute  it,  beyond  that  of  suggestion  and  sympathy;  there- 
fore, no  organization  voting  to  enter  this  Council  shall  there- 
by render  itself  liable  to  be  interfered  with  in  respect  to  its 
complete  organic  unity,  independence,  or  methods  of  work, 
or  be  committed  to  any  principle  or  method  of  any  other  or- 
ganization or  to  any  act  or  utterance  of  the  Council  itself  be- 
yond compliance  with  the  terms  of  this  constitution. 

As  to  the  detail  of  membership  within  the  Council,  the 
following:  clause  will  be  explanatory: 

SECTION  1.  Any  organization  of  women,  the  nature  of 
whose  work  is  satisfactory  to  the  executive  committee,  either 
as  to  its  undoubtedly  national  character  or  national  value, 
may  become  a  member  of  this  Council  by  its  own  vote  and 
by  the  triennial  payment  of  one  hundred  dollars  into  the 


treasury  of  the  National  Council  not  later  than  three  months 
prior  to  its  triennial  meetings. 

The  Council  decided  to  hold  its  great  public  conventions 
once  in  three  years;  yet,  since  the  organization,  executive 
sessions  with  public  exercises  are  held  yearly.  The  trien- 
nials are  held  in  Washington,  but  the  executive  sessions  are 
held  in  various  parts  of  the  United  States.  The  offices  are 
triennial  in  their  nature,  and  are  similar  to  those  of  other 
governing  bodies. 

At  this  time  also  was  organized  an  International  Coun- 
cil of  Women,  to  be  composed  of  national  councils.  Its  pur- 
poses and  aims  were  similar  to  the  national  councils,  and  its 
scope  was  bounded  only  by  the  compass  of  the  earth  on  which 
we  live. 

One  of  the  first  representatives  sent  from  the  Y.  L.  M. 
LA.  was  Mrs.  Carrie  S.  Thomas  of  Salt  Lake  City,  who 
was  appointed  as  delegate  to  the  triennial  session  of  the  Na- 
tional Council  of  Women  at  Washington,  held  February,  1891. 
She  went  paying  her  own  expenses.  In  her  report  of  her 
visit  in  February  of  that  year,  she  expressed  herself  as  be- 
ing confident  that  the  Board  made  no  mistake  in  sending  a 
representative  to  that  convention.  She  said  she  was  very 
well  received,  and  she  was  sure  of  good  results  to  our  women 
from  being  represented  there. 

In  1893,  the  United  States  of  America  joined  in  celebrat- 
ing the  discovery  of  the  continent  through  a  gigantic  World's 
Fair  at  Chicago.  In  connection  with  this  Fair,  a  series  of 
congresses  were  held,  occupying  every  week  of  the  time  from 
the  beginning  to  the  close.  Most  of  the  topics  in  these  meet- 
ings were  of  that  common  human  interest  which  included 
men  and  women  in  the  ranks  of  speakers  and  listeners.  Some 
few  were  exclusively  devoted  to  the  interest  and  elucidation 
of  men's  topics  -if  there  can  be  such  an  anomaly.  During 
one  week,  there  was  a  series  of  meetings  devoted  to  those 

202  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

matters  belonging-  alone  to  women's  interests — if  again  there 
is  such  a  thing  as  an  interest  belonging  solely  to  either  sex. 

However,  tinder  the  auspices  of  Mr.  C.  C.  Bonny,  who 
was  president  of  the  Congress  Auxiliary,  but  more  particularly 
under  the  leadership  of  Mrs.  Bertha  Honore  Palmer,  the  dis- 
tinguished president  of  the  Board  of  Lady  Managers,  an  ex- 
ecutive committee  of  women  was  formed,  consisting  of  Mrs. 
May  Wright  Sewall,  chairman,  and  Miss  Rachel  Foster, 
secretary,  to  arrange  the  details  and  to  carry  forward  the 
work  of  calling  a  World's  Congress  of  Women.  That  it  was 
most  successfully  done  was  attested  by  the  brilliant  results  of 
the  Congress. 

On  May  15th,  1893,  there  opened  the  largest  and  most 
popular  of  the  congresses  which  extended  through  the  six 
months  of  the  Fair.  Twenty-seven  countries  were  repre- 
sented and  one  hundred  and  twenty- six  organizations  sent 
five  hundred  and  twenty-eight  delegates.  During  the  week 
eighty-one  meetings  were  held  in  the  different  rooms  of  the 
Art  Palace.  There  were  from  seven  to  eighteen  meetings  in 
simultaneous  progress  each  day,  and  according  to  official  es- 
timate, the  total  attendance  exceeded  one  hundred  and  fifty 
thousand  persons. 

The  two  women's  organizations  of  Utah  were  invited  to 
occupy  a  day  each,  in  presenting  their  work;  but  it  was  felt 
that  one  day  would  be  sufficient,  to  be  divided  between  the 
two  societies.  The  Relief  Society  occupied  the  afternoon, 
while  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  represented  in  the  evening. 
Mrs.  Zina  D.  Young  presided  at  the  afternoon  service,  and 
her  sweet  spirit  of  charity  and  peace  pervaded  the  whole  at- 
mosphere. The  speakers  of  the  afternoon  were  Mrs.  Jane 
S.  Richards,  Mrs.  M.  I.  Home,  Mrs.  R.  E.  Little,  Mrs.  E. 
B.  Wells,  Dr.  Mattie  Hughes  Cannon  and  Mrs.  Electa  Bul- 
lock. At  the  close  of  the  program,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Lisle  Sax- 
on, a  well  known  woman  of  the  South  who  had  visited  Utah, 


came  to  the  stand  and  paid  a  glowing  tribute  to  our  Utah 
women.  In  the  evening,  Mrs.  Elmina  S.  Taylor  had  charge 
of  the  service  and  she  presided  with  queenly  dignity.  The 
program  of  that  historic  session  was  as  follows; 


Under  the  auspices  of  the  Woman's  Branch  of  the  World's 
Congress  Auxiliary,  World's  Columbian  Exposition.  Mrs. 
Potter  Palmer,  president;  Mrs.  Charles  Henrotin,  vice- 
president.  Memorial  Art  Palace,  May  15  to  21,  inclusive, 


Of  the  Young  Ladies'  National  Mutual  Improvement  Asso- 
ciation. Improvement  our  motto,  Perfection  our  aim. 
Headquarters,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah.  Department  Hall 
number  seven,  of  the  Memorial  Art  Palace,  Michigan 
Avenue,  facing  Adams  street,  near  the  center  of  Chi- 
cago, Friday,  May  19,  1893.  Evening  session,  7:45  o'clock. 
Officers:  Elmina  S.  Taylor,  president;  Maria  Y.  Dougall, 
first  vice-president;  Martha  H.  Tingey,  second  vice-presi- 
dent; Ann  M.  Cannon,  secretary  and  treasurer;  Mae  Tay- 
lor, corresponding  secretary. 


Music,  Voluntary  .  .  Miss  Kate  Romney 

Congregational  Hymn  .  My  Country,  'Tis  of  Thee 

Invocation  .  .  .  Mrs.  Adella  Eardley 

(Mrs.  May  Talmage 
Miss  Mary  Romney 
Mrs.  Minnie  J.  Snow 
Miss  May  Preston 

Introductory  Remarks  .  Pres.  Elmina  S.  Taylor 

Address,  ' 'Literature  and  Art"          .  Mrs.  May  Talmage 

Recitation,  "The  Ultimatum  of  Human  Life" 

Miss  Laura  Hyde 
Address,  "Legal  and  Political  Status  of  Utah  Women" 

Mrs.  Emily  S.  Richards 

Address,  "Motherhood"  .  Mrs.  Martha  H.  Tingey 

Soprano  solo  .  .  Miss  Mary  Romnev 

204  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  Report              .  Mrs.  Maria  Y.  Dougal1 

Address,  " Our  Girls"             .           .  Mrs.  Minnie  J.  Snow 

Address,  "  Education  of  Women"  Miss  Julia  Farnsworth 


Voluntary               .                .              .  Miss  Kate  Romney 

Mrs.  Isabella  Beecher  Hooker  came  to  this  session,  and 
gave  a  ringing-  talk  of  encouragement  to  these  Western 
women . 

From  the  first  the  Utah  women  have  enjoyed  an  excel- 
lent reputation  in  the  Council  for  their  thorough  business 
methods.  The  Relief  Society  and  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual 
Improvement  Associations  have  not  only  promptly  paid  their 
dues,  and  other  solicited  contributions,  but  they  have  also 
sent  to  the  various  sessions  each  year  two  or  more  represent- 
atives. Certainly  this  has  not  been  done  with  idle  or  sinis- 
ter motives.  An  honest  desire  to  meet  and  dispel  the  preju- 
dices of  the  women  of  the  world  has  been  one  of  the  motives 
of  the  Mormon  women.  There  has  been  no  effort  made  to 
proselyte  in  the  Council  for  that  is  contrary  to  the  Council's 
idea;  but  a  frank  opportunity  to  know  what  manner  of  women 
the  Mormon  women  are  has  been  offered  during  these  con- 

There   have   been    some   splendid   historical    executive 
meetings  held  since  the  World's  Fair  in  Chicago,  at  Atlanta 
at  Minneapolis,  at  Omaha,  at  Indianapolis,  at  New  Orleans 
at  Toledo,  and  at  Portland,  with  of  course,  the  regular  Tri- 
ennials held  in  Washington. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  Council  sessions  was  that 
held  in  Washington,  in  1899.  This  Triennial  was  attended 
by  Mrs.  Martha  Home  Tingey  and  Mrs.  Minnie  J.  Snow  as 
the  representatives  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  Mrs.  E.  B.  Wells 
and  Mrs.  ZinaY.  Card  represented  the  Relief  Society;  while 
Mrs.  Susa  Young  Gates  went  as  an  officer  of  the  Council 
itself,  being  acting  press  chairman  of  the  National  Council. 


Mrs.  Lucy  B.  Young  was  there  as  a  patron  of  the  Council; 
and  Miss  Ann  M .  Cannon  was  a  member  of  the  committee  on 
resolutions.  There  were  with  the  party  Mrs.  Lulu  Greene 
Richards  and  Miss  Mabelle  Snow,  who  accompanied  her 
mother,  and  a  young  Hawaiian  girl,  Hanna  Kaaepa,  who 
went  to  speak  in  the  Council  at  the  invitation  of  Mrs.  May 
Wright  Sewall.  This  young  native  was  entertained  by  the 
Hawaiian  queen,  Lilioukalani,  who  was  living  in  Washing- 
ton at  the  time,  and  who  gave  a  dinner  to  Miss  Anthony, 
Mrs.  Sewall,  Mrs.  E.  B.  Wells,  Mrs.  Lucy  B.  Young  and 
Mrs.  Susa  Young  Gates.  Miss  Hanna  Kaaepa  made  a  good 
impression,  speaking  in  native  and  wearing  with  dignity  the 
modified  costume  of  her  people,  decked  with  leis  and  shells. 

The  fiercest  blizzard  almost  of  the  centurv  struck  Wash- 
ington during  the  week  of  the  Council,  February  llth  to 
20th.  Its  equal  has  rarely  been  seen,  even-  in  the  West. 
During  this  season  also  occurred  one  of  the  hardest  fought 
mental  battles  ever  experienced  in  Council  history.  The 
struggle  was  occasioned  by  the  introduction  of  a  resolution 
aimed  directly  at  the  unseating  of  Brigham  H.  Roberts,  who 
was  then  seeking  his  place  in  Congress  The  Mormon  wom- 
en present  were,  most  of  them,  Republican  in  politics,  and 
all  of  them  were  strong  suffragists.  For  these  reasons  they 
were  political  opponents  of  Mr.  Roberts;  but  he  had  been 
legally  elected  to  the  position  and  they  felt  that  a  resolution 
striking  personally  at  a  man  because  he  held  to  a  form  of 
marriage  understood  by  him  as  a  religious  sacrament,  was 
in  the  nature  of  a  public  insult  offered  the  people  of  Utah. 
Accordingly,  they  one  and  all  opposed  the  resolution. 

The  resolution  committee  struggled  with  the  question 
for  one  week,  and  finally,  when  it  came  before  the  Council 
proper,  the  majority  report  read  as  follows: 

Whereas,  The  National  Council  of  Women  of  the  United 
States  stands  for  the  highest  ideals  of  domestic  and  civic 

206  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

virtue,  as  well  as  for  the  observance  of  law  in  all  its  depart- 
ments, both  state  and  national;  therefore, 

Resolved,  That  no  person  should  be  allowed  to  hold  a 
place  in  any  law-making-  body  of  the  nation  who  is  not  a  law- 
abiding1  citizen. 

The  minority  report  read: 

Whereas,  The  passage  of  the  Edmunds  bill  (so-called) 
established  the  law  of  monogamic  marriage  as  binding1  upon 
all  citizens  of  the  United  States;  therefore, 

Resolved,  That  no  person  shall  be  allowed  to  hold  a  place 
in  a  law-making  body  of  the  nation  who  is  not  in  this,  and  in 
all  other  matters,  a  law-abiding-  citizen. 

This  was  felt  to  be  a  crucial  moment  in  the  history  of 
the  Council  itself;  for,  if  it  began  a  work  of  discrimination 
and  arbitration  on  political  as  well  as  religious  beliefs,  the 
future  was  sure  to  see  its  overthrow.  And  so  the  battle  was 
fierce,  and  the  whole  Council  took  sides  vigorously. 

It  would  be  impossible  in  the  limits  of  this  book  to  give 
the  details  of  that  interesting  last  day.  But  the  Utah  women 
pleaded  their  cause  with  power  and  humility.  Miss  Anthony, 
as  always,  stood  squarely  on  her  great  platform,  "equal 
rights  to  all,  special  privileges  to  none."  Mrs.  Judith  Ellen 
Foster,  Miss  Sadie  American,  Rev.  Anna  Garlin  Spencer, 
Mrs.  Ida  M.  Weaver  of  Idaho,  and  Mrs.  Mary  Lowe  Dickin- 
son all  spoke  eloquently  for  the  majority  report.  And  at 
last,  when  the  vote  was  taken,  there  were  thirty-one  in  favor 
of  the  majority  report,  and  sixteen  in  favor  of  the  minority 
report.  This  was  accepted  by  the  Utah  women  as  a  direct 
interposition  of  Providence  in  defense  of  truth  and  principle. 
It  was  not  that  Mr.  Roberts  was  attacked  as  a  Mormon  nor 
even  as  a  polygamist;  but  that  he  was  singled  out  of  all  the 
men  chosen  to  sit  in  the  halls  of  Congress,  as  the  one  offender 
against  moral  law.  One  of  the  Utah  women  wanted  to  amend 
the  resolution,  by  making  it  impossible  for  any  man  who 


offends  against  the  seventh  commandment  to  hold  a  seat  in 
Congress.  But  Miss  Anthony  answered  with  spirit  and  vigor 
that  such  a  law  enforced  would  result  so  disastrously  for  Con- 
gress that  we  ohould  be  left  practically  without  a  law-making 
body.  And  thus  closed  that  memorable  incident. 

There  have  been  three  International  Councils  held  since 
1888;  one  in  London  in  1899,  during  the  summer,  and  one  in 
Berlin  in  1904,  also  in  the  summer,  and  one  in  Toronto, 
Canada,  in  July,  1909.  Although  the  Young  Ladies'  Associ- 
ations could  not  be  officially  represented  at  these  gatherings, 
yet  there  were  members  of  the  Utah  associations  who 
received  distinguished  privileges  at  these  great  con- 
gresses. At  London  Mrs.  E.  B.  Wells,  who  was  then  the 
recording  secretary  of  the  National  Council  of  the  United 
States,  attended  and  spoke  at  one  of  the  meetings.  Mrs. 
Susa  Young  Gates  was  a  member  of  the  press  committee  of 
the  National  Council  of  the  United  States,  and  she  was  also 
there  as  a  speaker  of  the  Congress;  and  Mrs.  Elizabeth 
Clariclge  McCune,  who  was  already  a  patron  of  the  National 
Council,  became  a  patron  of  the  International  and  attended 
all  the  business  sessions  in  her  official  capacity.  There  were 
in  all  thirteen  women  from  Utah  at  this  great  and  brilliant 
Congress  and  Quinquennial,  and  they  were  among  those  who 
received  the  hospitality  of  the  Duchess  of  Sutherland,  the  Lord 
Mayor  of  London,  and  of  her  gracious  majesty,  Queen  Vic- 
toria, who  entertained  the  foreign  delegates  at  Windsor  Cas- 
tle at  a  delightful  tea-party. 

All  of  these  events  have  marked  special  features  in  the  his- 
tory and  advancement  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  work.  For 
they  have  taken  our  message  of  good  will  out  to  the  world,  and 
have  brought  back  the  best  of  what  the  world  has  to  give  to  us. 

Utah  women  have  ever  been  eager  workers  in  the  suf- 
frage movement,  both  in  local  and  in  national  capacity. 
They  have  likewise  taken  an  interested  part  in  the  Peace 

208  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

propaganda,  and  are  now  working-  with  the  national  forces 
in  this  direction. 

The  Utah  women  have  had  the  pleasure  of  entertaining 
some  of  the  great  women  of  the  world  in  Salt  Lake  City.  Mrs. 
Elizabeth  Cady  Stanton,  Miss  Susan  B.  Anthony,  Mrs.  May 
Wright  Sewall,  Dr.  Anna  Howard  Shaw,  Mrs.  Charlotte  Per- 
kins Oilman,  Mme.  L.V.  F.  Mountford  have  all  been  here;  as 
have  also  such  leading  American  women  as  Lillian  M.  Hollis- 
ter,  Mary  Wood  Swift,  Fannie  Humphreys  Gaffney,Mrs.  Kate 
Waller  Barrett,  Mrs.  M.  Josie  Nelson,  Dr.  Etta  L.  Gilchrist, 
Miss  Sadie  American,  and  Mrs.  William  Todd  Helmuth;  Miss 
Popelin,  of  Belgium;  Emily  Janes,  of  England;  Frokan  Kraig, 
of  Norway;  Baroness  von  Plateu,  of  Sweden;  Miss  Fies,  of 
Holland;  Marchesa  Beamon,  of  Italy;  Miss  Blacky  and  her  sis- 
ter Marion  and  Miss  M.  M.  Anderson,  of  Scotland;  Miss  M. 
E.  Creighton  (sister  of  the  late  Lord  Bishop  of  London); 
'Miss  Williamson,  of  England;  Mrs.  Willoughby  Cum- 
mings,  of  Canada;  Miss  Balde  and  the  Misses  Vorst  von 
Boorst,  of  Holland;  Mrs.  Leo  Grinden,  of  England;  Mrs. 
Anna  Hansen,  of  Denmark,  and  many  others. 

It  becomes  the  duty  of  the  historian  to  chronicle  the  fact 
that  the  year  1910  sees  a  marked  decrease  of  interest  in  club 
and  council  activities,  at  least  in  the  United  States.  Women 
have  passed  the  fascinating  stage  of  a  personal  bowing  ac- 
quaintance with  most  of  the  sociological  and  literary  ques- 
tions of  ancient  and  modern  times;  they  have  lost  interest  in 
telling  and  listening  about  Things  and  Facts,  and  have 
turned  their  attention  rather  to  the  doing  and  achieving  of 
deeds  and  of  reformatory  work.  Civic  and  labor  leagues,  with 
city  and  precinct  social  settlement  work,  have  supplanted  or 
are  now  largely  supplanting  the  purely  literary  and  art  chibs. 
Women,  as  men,  are  discovering  that  all  formative  work,  all 
progressive  development  rests  on  the  basis  of  the  individual 
versus  the  individual;  that  the  pursuit  of  art  and  beauty  and 


culture,  unless  based  on  a  deeply  unselfish  foundation's  nar- 
rowing to  the  soul  and  destructive,  in  the  final  analysis,  to 
the  nation  itself. 

The  work  of  the  humble,  hidden  associations  among  the 
Mormon  gfirls  began  with  the  foundation  principles  of  loving 
mutual  service  and  mutual  individual  advancement.  Combin- 
ing, however  crudely,  the  inseparable  principles  of  the  prac- 
tical and  the  theoretical,  of  the  social  and  the  educational,  as 
of  the  mental  and  the  spiritual,  these  associations  find  them- 
selves still  fresh  and  avid  in  the  pursuit  of  knowledge  tem- 
pered by  wisdom  and  of  culture  illumined  by  truth.  They 
are  not  neglecting  their  prized  associations  with  their  eastern 
council  co-workers,  but  send  out  delegates  to  the  annual 
executive  sessions. as  to  the  Triennials  held  at  Washington. 
All  in  all,  we  may  well  be  grateful  concerning  our  past  asso- 
ciations with  the  great  national  and  world-wide  women- 
movements,  satisfied  with  our  present  status,  and  hopeful  for 
the  future  of  all  concerned  in  the  development  of  woman  and 
women ! 



Mrs.  Emma  Goddard  was  born  in  Lancashire,  England, 
April  19,  1861,  and  she  came  to  this  country  when  a  girl  of 
seventeen.  With  her  parents,  Joseph  Nield  and  Jane  Stand- 
ing Nield,  she  settled  in  Millard  county,  Utah.  Her 
grandparents  on  the  paternal  side  came  to  Utah  in  1854,  and 
partook  of  all  the  hardships  incident  to  the  settlement  of 
the  new  country.  Her  mother,  who  was  a  noble  woman 
and  came  of  a  good  English  family,  sacrificed  for  her  con- 
victions the  association  of  those  near  of  kin,  who  were  very 
dear  to  her,  for  after  her  connection  with  the  Mormon  Church 
they  entirely  ostracized  her. 

Emma  was  a  bright  pupil  and  early  became  a  teacher. 
She  taught  in  Millard  county  for  seven  years,  and  subse- 



HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

quently  attended  the  Brig-ham  Young  Academy  in  Provo, 
later,  in  1889,  moving:  to  Salt  Lake  City.  She  has  al- 
ways been  an  eager  and  earnest  student  in  spiritual  as 
well  as  mental  things.  She  was  a  Sunday  School  teacher 
for  twenty-five  years,  and  also  a  member  of  the  ward 

choir  many 
years.  She  was 
made  president 
of  the  Twenty  - 
first  ward  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.  in  Sep- 
tember, 1892, 
and  served  in 
that  capacity 
four  years.  She 
was  married  to 
Benjamin  God- 
dard  in  the  St. 
George  Temple 
in  October,  1883, 
and  is  devotedly 
attached  to  her 
loved  ones. 

Mrs.  God- 
dard  was  chosen 
by  President  El- 
mina  S.  Tay- 
lor to  act  on  her 
Board  in  the 
spring  of  1896. 
vShe  has  since 
traveled  exten- 
sively in  the  in- 
terest of  the 

EMMA  GODDAKD.  caUSG,        visiting" 

nearly  every  stake  in  Zion.  She  was  a  member  of  one  of  the 
early  Guide  committees,  acting1  for  several  years.-  She  also 
served  for  some  years  on  the  Journal  committee,  and  was 
untiring-  in  her  services  in  both  capacities.  She  represented 
the  Journal  when  the  Utah  Press  Club  visited  the  Pacific 
coast  in  1902.  It  is  quite  natural  that  she  should  be  a  con- 


stant  and  faithful  worker  in  the  Bureau  of  Information,  so 
ably  presided  over  by  her  husband  ever  since  its  organiza- 
tion in  1902.  She  has  traveled  some  in  eastern  cities  and 
is  aggressively  proud  of  her  connection  with  the  despised  fol- 
lowers of  Christ,  and  the  Mormon  Prophet.  She  counts  as 
one  of  her  choicest  blessings  her  association  with  the  Y.  L. 
M.  A.  and  holds  the  friendship  of  Presidents  Taylor  and 
Tingey  as  a  priceless  treasure. 

Sister  Goddard  possesses  the  nervous  temperament 
which  gives  unbounded  enthusiasm  and  loyalty  to  any  chosen 
cause;  but  with  that  gift  goes  the  suffering  of  the  over-zeal- 
ous worker  who  spares  everyone  but  himself,  and,  finally, 
learns  that  God  requires  a  duty  of  selfishness  as  well  as  un- 
selfishness at  our  hands.  Sister  Goddard  is  a  fluent,  earnest 
speaker.  Her  generous  appreciation  of  the  worth  and  labors 
of  others  keeps  her  soul  sweet  and  uncankered  in  the  weary- 
ing yet  purifying  trials  of  public  service. 


Born  of  that  splendid  Scotch  stock  which  has  produced 
so  many  heroes  and  heroines,  the  Harpers  and  Wallaces, 
Miss  Rose  came  to  earth  after  her  parents  had  braved  the 
scorn  of  family  and  friends  by  joining  the  Mormons,  and 
had  emigrated  to  Utah.  She  was  born  in  Salt  Lake  City, 
and  was  richly  endowed  by  nature,  both  mentally  and  physi- 
cally; but  having  good  Scotch  sense,  the  girl  walked  her 
calm  way  through  all  the  dangers  and  pitfalls  of  youth.  She 
was  an  ardent  student,  first  in  the  public  schools,  then  in  the 
University  of  Utah,  and,  later,  in  the  Latter-day  Saints' 

She  entered  the  Mutuals  when  she  was  only  thirteen, 
but  she  was  well  grown  for  her  years,  and  full  of  an  ardent 
desire  to  secure  all  the  advantages  that  life  had  to  offer.  She 
also  became  a  Sunday  School  teacher  at  the  tender  age  of 
thirteen.  Her  work  in  this  organization  was  rather  unique, 
for  she  took  a  class  of  boys  and  girls,  she  herself  being  but  a 
child,  and  went  with  this  class  from  grade  to  grade  until 
they  reached  the  highest  department.  Here  she  became 
assistant  teacher  in  the  theological  class.  She  was  also 
busy  in  the  Mutuals,  and  in  1895  became  second  counselor 

212  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

to  Sister  Carrie  S.  Thomas  in  the  Seventh  ward  Y.  L.  M.  I. 
A.  In  1896,  she  was  chosen  by  President  Taylor  to  act  on  the 
General  Board  as  an  aid;  and  she,  like  all  the  others,  feels 
that  deep  sense  of  pride  and  gratitude  that  she  was  chosen 
by  Sister  Taylor  herself.  The  bond  of  affection  between  the 


beautiful  and  gifted  girl  and  the  wise  and  grand  woman  of 
seventy,  was  a  very  deep  and  close  one.  Rose  was  not  only 
active  in  Mutual  and  Sunday  School  but  she  was  a  member 
of  the  ward  and  Tabernacle  choirs  until  her  marriag'e.  She 
was  united  in  marriagfe  to  John  F.  Bennett,  now  a  member 



of  the  Sunday  School  Union  Board,  November  17,  1897. 
She  has  borne  four  children  to  her  husband  in  the  years 
that  have  followed,  besides  attending  with  some  regularity 
her  Board  meetings,  and  acting  on  general  committees. 

She  is  a  very  bright  and  a  very  spiritual  minded  work- 
er. She  has  the  rare  gift  of  wisdom,  and  her  words  are  al- 
ways garnished  with  truth.  She  would  scorn  a  prevarica- 
tion, as  she  would  any  other  dishonorable  act.  Her  testi- 
mony of  the  truth  of  Mormonism  is  a  living,  pulsating, deep- 
rooted  actuality;  not  the  pale  acquiescense  too  often  found  in 
the  modern  girl's  heart.  She  would  die  for  her  religion,  or 
better  still,  she  would  make  any  necessary  sacrifice  to  live  it 
purely  and  truly. 


The  predominant  trait  in  the  character  of  Mrs.  McCune 
is  genuineness — integrity  of  the  purest  quality.  This  it  is 
which  has  made  her  a  cheerful  philosopher  in  the  midst  of 
pioneer  poverty,  and  which  keeps  her  nature  sweet  and  un- 
spoiled in  the  midst  of  her  great  riches  and  prosperity.  She 
was  born  of  goodly  parents  in  steady  old  England,  and  was 
brought,  as  a  babe  of  nine  months,  in  the  year  1852,  to  the 
wilds  of  Utah,  to  join  the  ever  unpopular  Mormons.  The 
family  settled  in  Nephi,  and  there  the  merry,  rollicking,  witty 
girl  grew  from  infancy  to  young  womanhood.  She  was  one 
of  the  pioneer  telegraphers,  as  the  position  of  "operator"  was 
open,  even  in  those  early  days  in  Utah,  to  women  as  well  as 
men.  What  operator  of  the  time  does  not  remember  the  sharp 
clickety  click  of  "Lizzie  Claridge,"  or  the  deliberate  calls  of 
"'Lizzie  Parks"  as  they  passed  jokes  along  the  line,  or  pro- 
pounded conundrums  to  fellow-operators  hundreds  of  miles 
away,  after  business  hours?  There  were  few  women  oper- 
ators in  the  United  States  in  the  early  sixties,  and  most  of 
them  were  in  Utah. 

In  1867,  Brother  Claridge  was  called  to  settle  in  the  for- 
bidding country  of  the  "Muddy,"  in  Nevada,  and  the  story  of 
that  struggle  i>  written  large  in  the  youthful  development  of 
his  brave,  undaunted  daughter  Elizabeth;  for  her  spirit  knew 
nothing  but  hope,  courage,  and  unbounded  faith  in  God  and 
her  good  father.  Her  remarkable  power  of  adaptation  to  any 

214  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

environment  stood  the  girl  in  good  stead  at  this  time;  her  in- 
nate refinement  preserved  her  from  all  physical  coarseness  or 
mental  stultification.  After  the  "Muddy  mission"  was 
abandoned,  the  Claridge  family  moved  to  Orderville,  and 
took  an  active  part  in  the  United  Order.  From  here  Eliza- 
beth moved  back  to  Nephi  to  take  charge  of  the  telegraph 


office.  She  there  renewed  the  friendship  of  her  early  youth 
with  Alfred  W.  McCune.  They  were  married  in  1872,  and 
the  young  wife  soon  found  herself  surrounded  with  a  new 
environment,  for  her  husband  from  his  early  youth  was 
successful  in  all  his  business  operations,  and  wealth  began 
to  pour  in  upon  them. 


Mrs.  McCune  has  borne  the  trials  and  circumstances  of 
success  and  riches  with  the  same  simplicity  and  grace  which 
characterized  her  early  life.  She  was  one  of  the  first  women 
to  do  missionary  work  in  the  open  field.  In  1896  she  spent 
several  months  in  England,  gathering-  genealogy  and  visiting 
relatives.  At  this  time  she  turned  her  beautiful  temporary 
summer  home,  in  East  Bourne,  England,  into  headquarters 
for  the  elders  in  that  district,  which  she  and  her  young  daugh- 
ter went  upon  the  streets  and  helped  to  sing  the  songs  of  Zion, 
in  the  open  air  meetings. 

Despising  pretense,  sham  and  snobbery  as  heartily  as 
does  her  sensible  husband,  Mrs.  McCune  yet  throws  the 
mantle  of  charity  over  all  such  faults  in  others  who  may  ap- 
proach her.  Few  would  divine  the  sensitive,  artistic  tem- 
perament hidden  beneath  the  modest  exterior  of  this  true 
Saint.  The  exquisite  beauty  of  her  home  on  the  hill — Nebo 
House — is  the  best  expression  of  the  harmnoy  and  artistry 
which  is  a  part  of  this  complex  character.  She  inherits  from 
her  father  shrewd  common  sense  and  deep  religious  impulse, 
while  to  her  gentle  mother  she  owes  her  love  of  the  refined 
and  beautiful. 

Mrs.  McCune  was  chosen  by  Sister  Taylor  to  act  as  an  aid 
in  the  General  Board  in  1898,  and  she  has  labored  diligently 
to  fulfill  her  duties  ever  since  that  time.  She  became  a  patron 
of  the  National  Council  of  Women  of  the  United  States,  and 
later  a  patron  of  the  International  Council  of  Women,  at  the 
time  of  the  Congress  held  in  London  in  1899.  She  attended 
that  great  Congress,  and  made  many  friends  as  well  as  re- 
newed acquaintance  with  old  ones.  She  was  chosen  as  a 
Temple  worker  when  the  Salt  Lake  Temple  was  completed 
in  1903,  and  in  later  years  has  accepted  office  in  the  Gene- 
alogical Society  of  Utah.  She  is  devoted  to  the  work  of  sal- 
vation for  the  dead  in  all  its  phases,  and  spends  much  time 
and  means  in  this  unselfish  labor,  Mrs.  McCune  recently 
spent  two  years  in  South  America,  where  her  husband  has 
large  mining  interests.  She  travels  a  great  deal,  and  is  wel- 
comed by  the  girls  of  the  Association  everywhere.  She  is 
greatly  beloved  by  the  Board,  for  she  is  always  ready  for 
travel  or  work,  in  season  and  out  of  season,  and  her  infec- 
tious mirth  and  wit  have  sweetened  many  a  tiresome  hour  of 
Board  consultations  and  made  this  hard  work  easy.  She  is 

216          •  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

a  delightful  speaker,  and  possesses  an  unfailing"  tact  which 
puts  her  at  once  in  touch  with  the  spirit  of  every  occasion . 
She  is  generous,  wise,  modest,  faithful  and  pure.  Her  high 
sense  of  honor  and  truth  makes  her  a  wise  counselor  and  a 
true  friend. 


There  is  one  sociological  fact  connected  with  the  devel- 
opment, of  the  Mormon  people  which  carries  a  forceful  argu- 
ment with  it.  The  strongest  and  most  enduring  building- 
material  ever  used  is  called  reinforced  concrete.  This 
material  is  composed  of  cement  and  gravel  and  sand;  and  it 
is  held  together  by  steel  braces  distributed  throughout  the 
mass.  The  Latter-day  Saints  have  been  taken  from  every 
civilized  nation,  but  mostly  from  the  solid,  firm,  Teutonic 
peoples.  The  Mormons  are  held  together  by  fine  steel 
threads  which  are  made  out  of  the  Iron  Rod  of  God's  Word; 
they  have,  therefore,  every  element  of  strength  and  endur- 
ance known  to  human  society.  From  the  northern  races  of 
Europe  have  come  a  mighty  phalanx  of  soldiers  for  Christ. 
The  Scandinavian  races  have  given  to  the  Church  a  sturdy 
strength  and  solid  integrity  that  has  been  equalled  only  by 
their  distant  cousins,  the  Britishers.  As  always,  the  honest, 
fearless  and  the  pure  in  heart  made  up  the  converts  who 
dared  to  face  the  scoffing  of  the  world  and  join  the  maligned 
Mormons.  Of  these  have  been  many  faithful,  and  some 
gifted  youths  and  maidens.  It  has  always  been  interesting 
to  the  student  to  see  these  quiet-spoken  foreigners  come  to 
western  America,  quaintly  dressed,  broken  in  speech,  and 
strange  to  the  ways  of  free  thought,  free  speech,  and  free 
actions.  To  watch  the  rapid  change  of  tone  and  manner 
and  to  see  the  ease  with  which  new  ideas  form  in  even  the 
slowest  mind  is  a  profound  proof  of  the  power  of  environ- 
ment. And  when  the  second  generation  brings  forth  its 
yellow-haired,  silver-voiced,  pink-cheeked,  stylishly-dressed 
girls,  or  the  tall,  comely,  magnetic  lads  who  are  the  most 
popular  beaus  in  the  village,  these  facts  set  one  to  thinking 
on  the  power  of  the  Gospel  to  polish  and  improve. 

These  reflections  come  vividly  to  mind  when  considering 
the  women  of  Scandinavia  who  have  been  placed  in  respon- 
sible positions  in  the  Church.  Among  them  all,  there  is 


none  more  striking-  and  more  worthy  to  be  considered  as  a 
type  of  this  illustration  than  Mrs.  Julia  M.  Brixen  of  the 
General  Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  She  was  born  in 
Sweden,  and  was  baptized  into  the  Church  when  thirteen 


years  of  age.  Her  parents  were  members  of  the  Lutheran 
church,  but  both  accepted  the  Gospel  and  were  of  the  best 
type  of  converts,  although  of  the  working  classes.  When 
the  girl  Julia  was  old  enough  to  work,  her  parents  sent  her  to 
Utah,  to  earn  something  to  help  emigrate  the  rest  of  the 

218  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

family.  The  child,  for  she  was  only  a  child,  found  work  in 
a  large  hotel  in  Salt  Lake  City.  Here  she  was  subject  to  all 
the  temptations  to  be  encountered  by  the  innocent,  and  too 
often  ignorant,  of  the  daughters  of  Eve.  But  God  and  her 
own  integrity  held  her  spotless  and  unsullied  in  the  midst  of 
the  swirling  maelstrom  about  her.  She  is  blessed  with  a 
natural  dignity  and  refinement  which  repelled  improper 
associates,  and  she  was  likewise  protected  by  two  strong  life- 
motives—love  of  intellectual  advancement,  and  the  deter- 
mination to  do  good  to  others.  She  was  deeply  concerned  in 
assisting  her  parents  to  emigrate  to  the  favored  home  of 
the  Saints.  So  she  worked  early  and  late,  and  soon  became 
a  necessity  to  the  managing  department  of  the  busy  hotel. 
She  still  found  time  to  learn  first  to  read  the  English 
language,  and  then  to  put  it  to  use  in  the  perusal  of  the  best 
English  authors.  The  lady-like  maid  in  the  hotel  had  many 
opportunities  to  answer  questions  concerning  her  dear  reli- 
gion, as  well  as  to  silence  the  scorn  and  abuse  of  thoughtless 
and  ignorant  strangers.  While  busy,  and  therefore  happy, 
she  was  sought  in  marriage  by  Mr.  Andrew  Brixen,  who 
soon  after  became  the  hotel  proprietor.  She  accepted  his 
offer,  and  was  married  August  16th,  1880.  The  intelligent 
maid  now  became  the  intelligent  mistress,  and  her  opportun- 
ities were  infinitely  enlarged  in  all  directions.  Her  parents 
had  been  helped  by  her  savings  to  follow  her  to  America, 
and  she  still  helped  them,  until  they  had  enough  to  buy  a 
comfortable  home .  Mrs.  Brixen  traveled  a  good  deal  in  the 
United  States  with  her  husband,  and  made  one  protracted 
tour  in  Europe  in  his  company.  She  visited  her  native  land 
and  spent  considerable  time  and  money  in  gathering  up  the 
genealogical  data  concerning  her  own  and  her  husband's 
family.  She  had  been  told,  through  the  gift  of  tongues,  that 
the  responsibility  of  redeeming  the  dead  of  her  father's 
household  rested  upon  her  shoulders;  and  she  could  not  rest 
till  she  had  gleaned  all  the  information  possible  to  obtain  in 
her  native  land.  Her  husband  was  quite  willing  to  aid  her 
in  this,  and  together  they  made  their  pleasure-tour  in  Europe 
a  profit  as  well  as  a  delight.  On  their  return  the  wife  has- 
tened to  complete  the  work  she  had  begun  in  the  Temple  of 
the  Lord,  both  for  her  own  and  her  husband's  dead. 

Mrs.  Brixen  was   chosen   to    act   as   first   counselor  to 


Ag-nes  Campbell  of  the  Twentieth  ward  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  in 
1898.  Three  years  later  she  was  elected  president,  on  the 
resignation  of  Miss  Campbell.  She  has  been  a  Sunday 
School  teacher  for  some  years.  In  April,  1898,  she  was 
invited  by  Sister  Mary  A.  Freeze  to  act  on  the  Salt  Lake 
stake  board,  but  when  she  attended  the  meeting-  at  which 
she  was  to  be  voted  in,  she  found  President  Elmina  S.  Tay- 
lor present,  and  to  her  surprise,  learned  that  Sister  Taylor 
had  selected  her,  with  Sister  Elizabeth  C.  McCune  and 
Sister  Ruth  M.  Fox,,  to  act  on  her  board.  She  was  voted 
into  the  General  Board,  May  2,  1898.  Sister  Brixen  is  a 
very  active  and  valuable  member  of  the  Board.  She  has 
done  yeoman  service  in  traveling  all  over  the  West  in  her 
capacity  as  aid.  She  has  acted  on  important  committees, 
both  temporary  and  permanent.  She  bears  as  strong-  and 
faithful  a  testimony  of  the  truth  of  the  Gospel  of  Christ  as 
any  soul  in  the  Church.  When  the  Bureau  of  Information 
was  organized  she  was  called  as  a  member,  and  has  been  ac- 
tive in  that  work. 


General  Conferences  and  Socials. — Conventions. — Gymnasiums. 

ONE  great  lesson  that  has  been  set  before  intelligent  men 
and  women  of  today  is  that  of  co-relation  of  econom- 
ics. Moreover,  to  co-operate  in  all  matters  affecting 
economic  and  social  life,  is  the  demand  of  the  ages;  if  we 
have  learned  anything  from  the  pages  of  history,  it  is  that 
there  should  be  no  classes  and  masses,  no  capital  and  labor 
in  the  ideal  life,  no  sex  divisions  in  civil  and  social  affairs. 
It  is  true  that  there  are  varying  grades  of  capacity  in  men, 
and  this  will  always  lead  to  a  division  or  classification.  It 
is  true  also  that  men  have  their  peculiar  interests  in  busi- 
ness and  civil  life,  while  women  have  their  own  field  of  ac- 
tivity, and  this  will  necessarily  tend  to  create  sex  division  in 
both  civil  and  religious  life.  But  the  statesman  who  looks 
toward  the  altruism  of  the  future  will  teach  the  strong  that 
their  strength  is  given  its  highest  expression  in  protecting 
the  weak;  and  that  superiority  of  intellect  is  a  menace  to 
civilization,  unless  it  carries  with  it  the  compelling  force  to 
use  all  superior  advantages  for  the  uplifting  of  the  inferior 
and  ignorant.  So,  too,  the  sex  lines  can  be  drawn  safely 
only  when  occupation,  not  natural  dominance,  draws  them. 
It  is  right  enough  for  men  to  classify  themselves  on  sex 
lines,  when  war  and  protection  from  inimical  force  is  the 
motive;  and,  too,  it  is  proper  enough  for  women  to  consider 
by  themselves  questions  pertaining  to  the  conduct  of  home 
labors  and  duties.  But  there  are  certain  large  questions 
which  pertain  to  public  as  well  as  individual  policy  which 
can  never  be  left  safely  to  the  consideration  of  either  sex 
alone.  May  there  not  be  some  matters  in  which  the  loving 


sympathy  of  her  womanly  heart,  fit  the  mother  to  be  a  joint 
leader  in  public  as  well  as  private  affairs?  The  gravest  mis- 
take of  modern  times  is  for  men  and  women  to  consider  and 
discuss  the  social  and  civil  questions  of  life  separate  from  one 
another.  The  women  who  go  out  to  reform  the  world  alone 
as  a  sex  will  find  themselves  as  far  away  from  success  when 
they  finish  as  when  they  began.  Likewise,  the  men  who 
legislate  on  family  and  social  questions  without  the  assist- 
ance of  wise  mothers  and  wives,  will  not  succeed  in  making 
just  laws  or  administering  exact  justice.  Therefore,  in 
social  as  well  as  educational  labors,  the  sexes  should  be  found 
working  side  by  side. 

It  was,  no  doubt,  some  thought  of  this  kind,  which 
prompted  the  general  superintendency  of  the  Young  Men's 
Associations  in  1896  to  consider  the  propriety  of  inviting  the 
Young  Ladies'  Associations  to  join  them  in  a  conference 
once  a  year.  Naturally  this  general  conjoint  movement 
would  suggest  a  like  combination  of  the  stake  boards  in  a 
similar  yearly  conference.  A  brief  outline  of  the  outgrowth 
of  this  combination  of  the  two  forces,  both  in  a  general  and 
local  form,  was  given  in  a  former  chapter.  As  a  matter  of 
historical  detail  it  will  be  well  to  record  here  that  the  first 
step  taken  in  this  direction  was  in  the  latter  part  of  Febru- 
ary, 1896,  when  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor  and  her  Board 
were  invited  to  meet  officially  with  President  Wilford  Wood- 
ruff and  the  General  Board  of  the  Young  Men's  Associations, 
to  consider  the  advisability  of  calling  a  conjoint  conference 
in  June  of  that  year.  She  graciously  accepted  the  invita- 
tion, and  the  conjoint  movement  was  very  soon  an  estab- 
lished fact. 

The  labors  incident  to  their  first  conjoint  conference 
were  taken  up  vigorously  by  both  boards.  Committees  were 
named  on  program,  on  the  reception  and  entertainment 
of  visitors,  and  on  general  arrangements. 

222  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

The  first  conjoint  conference  convened  on  the  morning- 
of  May  30,  1896,  in  Salt  Lake  City;  the  young  men  meeting- 
first  separately  in  Social  Hall,  the  young-  women  holding 
their  officers'  business  meeting:  in  the  Fourteenth  ward  As- 
sembly Hall.  In  the  afternoon  and  evening-  conjoint  public 
sessions  of  the  general  conference  were  held  in  the  Taber- 
nacle. There  were  also  three  conjoint  public  sessions  held 
on  the  following-  day  (Sunday),  and  the  time  was  divided 
equally  between  the  two  associations.  President  Elmina  S. 
Taylor  assisted  in  conducting  the  exercises.  The  meetings 
were  crowded,  and  the  utmost  interest  was  manifested  by  all 
classes  of  people  in  this  new  departure.  These  general  June 
conjoint  conferences  soon  became  a  regular  feature  of  the 
Mutual  Improvement  work  as  has  been  stated  in  a  former 
chapter,  and  they  were  amply  justified  by  their  increasing 
success  and  influence. 

The  power  and  value  of  the  social  element  in  life  is 
rarely  understood,  especially  by  those  most  affected  for  good 
or  evil  by  its  influence.  The  teacher,  the  parent,  and  the 
minister  of  the  gospel  too  often  consider  their  whole  duty  to 
young  people  performed  when  they  have  taught  them  their 
lessons,  have  fed  and  clothed  them,  and  have  made  them 
listen  to  a  sermon  or  lecture  on  the  Sabbath  day.  But  there 
is  a  greater  teacher  than  the  pedagogue,  a  subtler  reasoner 
than  the  parent,  and  a  stronger  force  than  the  sermon  or  the 
rebuke:  it  is  the  play  of  the  growing  boy,  the  amusement  of 
the  child  or  budding  girl.  "Give  me  your  children  in  their 
hours  of  play,  and  I  will  guarantee  them  against  all  other 
influences,"  said  a  great  philosopher. 

This  profound  truth  was  well  understood  by  the  Prophet 
Joseph  Smith  and  by  Brigham  Young,  and  theaters  were 
built  side  by  side  with  churches.  You  could  dance  in  the 
ward  schoolhouse  and  church  in  the  early  days,  at  least  until 
there  was  an  amusement  hall  erected  for  that  purpose;  only 


and  always,in  dance  or  in  drama,  there  must  be  nothing  common 
or  unclean .  David ,  the  psalmist ,  danced  to  the  Lord  of  the  He- 
brews; and  Miriam  led  the  Hebrew  women  in  a  song"  and  dance 
on  the  shores  of  the  Red  Sea.  Such  has  always  been  the  wise 
policy  of  this  Church,  from  the  time  of  the  Prophet  Joseph 
Smith.  Earnest  people  are  sometimes  inclined  to  underesti- 
mate the  value  of  this  factor  for  good  and  evil  in  the  life  of 
human  beings;  but  the  leading  men  and  women  among  this 
people  have  always  advocated  close  attention  to  and  personal 
association  in  the  amusements  of  young-  and  old.  Therefore 
it  was,  when  the_  conjoint  conference  of  the  two  M.  I.  Associ- 
ations became  a  settled  institution,  that  the  need  was  felt  for 
some  social  features  to  be  affixed.  It  was  deemed  essential 
to  draw  all  the  elements  into  a  closer  touch  and  deeper  re- 
lationship than  could  be  gained  from  public  sessions  and  for- 
mal meetings.  Then,  too,  the  members  of  the  General 
Boards  felt  that  they  were  under  some  measure  of  personal 
obligation  to  the  various  stake  officials  who  had  entertained 
them.  Underlying:  it  all,  was  the  sub-conscious  knowledge 
that  the  social  lever  is  the  strongest  one  that  can  be  used  in 
the  elevation  of  humanity.  The  Savior  of  the  world  went 
to  a  social  entertainment,  given  in  His  honor  by  a  despised 
publican,  who  had  no  other  merit  than  common  honesty  and 
an  uncommon  appreciation  of  his  own  unworthiness.  The 
Master  well  understood  the  power  g-ained  by  social  contact 
with  all  classes  of  people. 

The  first  social  function  undertaken  by  the  two  General 
Boards  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  Associations  was  ar- 
ranged in  their  second  general  conference,  when  it  was  de- 
cided to  give  a  reception  and  banquet  in  one  of  the  large 
halls  in  Salt  Lake  City.  A  great  deal  of  work  was  involved 
in  the  preparation  to  entertain  the  three  or  four  hundred 
visitors;  and  numerous  committees  labored  faithfully  for 
weeks  to  produce  the  final  brilliant  affair  which  occurred  at 

224  HISTORY  OF  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

the  Fifteenth  ward  meetinghouse.  Flowers  were  every- 
where; a  string-  band,  concealed  behind  a  bank  of  palms, 
discoursed  sweet  music.  The  reception  was  followed  by  a 
banquet  interspersed  with  toasts  and  music.  The  brilliant 
toastmaster,  Major  Richard  W.  Young-,  carried  off  the  pro- 
gram of  toasts  and  sentiments  with  great  success  and  eclat; 
and  the  whole  affair  was  as  enjoyable  as  a  social  entertain- 
ment could  well  be. 

These  social  features  now  seem  a  necessary  part  of  the 
June  conference;  and  there  have  been  many  enjoyable  and 
successful  ones  given  since  that  evening;  notably  those  given 
at  the  palatial  homes  of  Mrs.  Elizabeth  C.  McC.une,  both  in 
the  old  Gardo  House  and  in  her  new  residence  on  the  hill. 
There  have  been  beautiful  affairs  given  at  the  historic  old 
Bee  Hive  House,  through  the  courtesy  of  both  President 
Lorenzo  Snow  and  President  Joseph  F.  Smith.  These  occa- 
sions were  especially  appreciated  by  visiting  members. 

Following  this  example  of  the  two  General  Boards,  the 
stake  officials  have  planned  regular  conference  socials,  held 
at  their  conference  or  convention  times.  Concerts,  theatri- 
cals, parties  of  various  kinds  are  given,  with  an  occasional  fair 
or  fruit  festival.  Wards  have  also  adopted  the  same  plan,  at 
least  to  some  extent.  This  year  (1910)  a  systematic  and  de- 
termined effort  is  to  be  made  to  place  all  the  ward  amuse- 
ments under  the  charge  and  supervision  of  the  Mutual  offi- 
cers. Debates,  story-telling  contests  and  amateur  home- 
written  theatricals  are  to  be  provided  to  take  the  place  of 
poor  moving-picture  shows  and  the  promiscuous  "dance." 

The  history  of  the  evolution  of  the  fall  conventions  which 
is  the  best  expression  of  our  conjoint  work  and  which  has  now 
become  so  systematized  and  valuable  that  it  is  simply  indis- 
pensable, is  a  natural  outgrowth  of  the  June  conjoint  confer- 

Until  1903  stake  conferences  were,  as  a  rule,  held  twice 


a  year,  a  separate  Young-  Ladies'  conference,  and  a  conjoint 
Young  Men's  and  Young-  Ladies'  conference,  both  of  which, 
as  far  as  possible,  were  visited  by  members  of  the  General 
Boards.  The  General  Board  of  the  Young  Men's  Association, 
feeling  the  need  of  a  brief  training  school  or  business  confer- 
ence for  their  stake  and  ward  associations,  called  a  series  of 
conventions,  for  the  month  of  September,  in  1902.  .  The  local 
sisters'  associations,  realizing  the  great  value  of  these  con- 
ventions, began  to  ask  for  similar  gatherings .  Accordingly, in 
the  spring  of  1903,  arrangements  were  made  to  hold  conven- 
tions for  both  wings  of  the  Mutuals  at  the  same  time,  and  the 
custom  is  now  thoroughly  established.  The  conventions 
are  planned  as  a  training  school  in  the  mechanical  labors 
of  the  local  and  the  stake  work,  that  is,  the  machinery  of 
the  associations  is  dissected  and  displayed  for  the  profit  and 
learning  of  the  constantly  changing  officers.  How  to  pre- 
sent the  lesson,  how  to  obtain  results,  and  how  to  combine 
both  mental  and  spiritual  improvement  in  the  most  suc- 
cessful manner  is  the  object  of  these  conventions. 

From  the  beginning,  the  Young  Men's  local  ward  meet- 
ings have  been  held,  almost  without  exception,  in  the  winter 
months  only.  This  is  because  of  the  rural  occupations  of  the 
boys  of  the  country  towns,  the  short  summer  nights,  and 
many  distractions  of  summer  city  life.  For  some  years  the 
young  women  kept  up  their  summer's  work,  independent 
and  successful,  but  in  many  places  they  succumbed  to  the 
popular  movement.  Therefore  these  fall  conventions  were  to 
prove  of  great  value  to  both  associations,  for  they  would  serve 
to  open  the  season  with  the  proper  impetus  and  engender 
enthusiasm  in  the  very  beginning  of  the  year's  work.  An 
idea  of  the  condition  of  the  associations,  and  the  work  first  at- 
tempted, can  be  gained  by  a  perusal  of  the  first  convention 
program  (1903): 


226  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Y.  L.  M.  L  A.,   Session,— 10  a.  m. 

1 .  Preparation  for  the  Opening  of  the  Season . 

2.  Parliamentary  Drill. 

3.  Grading-  the  Associations. 

4.  Class  Work. 

5.  Guide  Work. 

Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  Session, — 2 p.  m. 

1.  Secretaries. 

2.  The  Dime  Fund. 

3.  The  Young  Woman's  Journal. 

4.  Traveling  Libraries. 
Conjoint  Session, — 7:30  p.  m. 

1.  Amusements. 

2.  Conjoint  Officers'  Meeting. 

3.  Preliminary  Programs. 

The  convention  committees  of  the  two  General  Boards 
meet  in  the  early  spring  and  map  out  a  suggestive  list  of  fall 
convention  dates  which  is  submitted  to  the  stakes  for  approval 
or  correction.  These  dates  must  all  be  crowded  into  the 
months  of  August  and  September,  they  must  not  conflict  with 
the  regular  stake  conference  dates,  nor  with  Relief  Society, 
Sunday  School,  or  Primary  Association  dates,  so  that  on 
some  Sundays  there  will  be  as  many  as  fourteen  conventions 
held.  This  entails  much  traveling,  a  numerous  corps  of 
visiting  General  Board  officials,  all  of  whom  are  busy,  unpaid 
people;  it  also  requires  the  expenditure  of  considerable  sums 
of  money  for  actual  traveling  expenses. 

The  general  convention  committee,  which  is  usually  a 
temporary  one  consisting  of  three  representatives  from  each 
board,  perfect  these  dates  after  receiving  corrected  dates 
from  stake  officials,  and  draw  up  a  plan  of  desired  con- 
joint work,  then  their  joint  labors  are  at  an  end.  Next,  each 
separate  general  convention  committee  prepares  a  circular 
for  general  distribution  in  the  separate  associations,  contain- 
ing dates  set,  general  and  special  instructions,  and  an  outline 


program  for  the  convention  work.  No  description  of  the 
thoroughness  of  this  work  will  answer  so  well  as  the  insertion 
in  this  history  of  our  latest  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  circular.  It  is 
here  appended: 

Please  send  at  once  to  ward  Presidents  a  sufficient  number  to  sup- 
ply each  local  officer. 


Salt  Lake  City,  July  1st,  1909. 

To  the  Stake  Presidents  and  all  Stake  and  Local  Officers  of  the 
Young  Ladies'1  Mutual  Improvement  Associations: 

Dear  Fellow  Officers: — Do  all  in  your  power  to  secure  a 
full  attendance  of  your  officers  at  this  convention.  The  more 
you  can  gather,  the  better,  not  only  because  of  the  instruc- 
tion they  will  receive,  but  because  of  the  spirit  of  enthusiasm 
they  will  carry  to  their  local  work. 

In  order  to  get  the  most  out  of  the  convention,  each  offi- 
cer should  carefully  study  the  topics  and  think  along  the  lines 
suggested.  For  this  reason  send  the  circular  to  the  officers 
as  soon  as  possible,  that  all  may  be  able  to  join  in  the  dis- 


1.  Distribute  these  circulars  at  once  to  all  stake  and 
ward  officers  including  class  teachers,  and  to  the  stake  presi- 
dency and  bishopric,   requesting  their  presence  at  the  con- 

2.  Consult  the  stake    superintendent  Y.    M.  M.  I.  A. 
and  the  presidency  of  your  stake;  together  agree  upon  and 
arrange  for  places  of  meetings  where  the  Sunday  School  and 
ward  meetings  will  not  be  interfered  with. 

3.  Hold   a  meeting  of   the  stake  board    immediately 
after  receiving  these  outlines  to  plan  the  convention  work. 

4.  Assign  the  topics  to  the  most  competent  persons  and 
limit  talks  to  the  time  specified  in  program. 

5.  Provide  suitable  music. 

6.  Arrange  for  the  two  separate  meetings  of  the  Y.  L. 

228  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

M.  I.  A.  at  10  a.  m.  and  2  p.  m.,  inviting  the  stake  presi- 
dency, high  council,  bishops  and  their  counselors  and  all 
stake  officers  of  the  auxiliary  associations  to  be  present. 
Where  traveling  has  to  be  done  by  teams,  ask  for  co-oper- 
ation of  the  brethren,  both  stake  and  local,  in  providing 
transportation  for  your  girls. 

7.  Advertise  the  convention  in  the  local  papers  and  re- 
quest the  bishops  to  have  notice  given  out  in  all  ward  meet- 

8.  Have  all  Sunday  School  teachers  who  are  Mutual 
Improvement  officers  or  class  leaders  excused  from  Sunday 
School  to  attend  the  convention.     This  is  in  accordance  with 
instructions  from  the  First  Presidency. 

9.  See  that  your  ward  organizations  are  complete  and 
class  leaders  selected  for  the  coming  year  that  they  may  get 
the  benefit  of  the  convention . 

10.  Instruct  members  to  bring  note  books  and  pencils. 

11.  Provide  suitable  accommodations  for  visitors  from 
the  outlying  wards.     Let  the  luncheon  between  morning  and 
afternoon     meeting   be    a   light    repast   and    have   all    ar- 
rangements as   simple  as  possible.      We  prefer  having  our 
girls  in  the  meetings  rather  than  preparing  elaborate  meals. 

12.  Be  sure  all  arrangements  are  made  so  there  will  be 
no  need  of  whispeied  consultations  in  meeting.       Begin  the 
convention  promptly.      Invite  the  visiting  brethren  and  sis- 
ters to  take  part  in  the  discussion.      Endeavor  to  hold  all 
speakers  to  the  subject  under  consideration. 


Morning  Session — 10  o'  clock. 

(NOTE — The  purpose  of  the  morning  and  afternoon  ses- 
sions is  to  consider  our  coining  season's  work  as  fully  as 

I.     TESTIMONY  MEETINGS — How  to  Make  Them  Successful. 
(15-minute  address.) 

Ask  and  it  shall  be  given  you;  seek  and  ye  shall  find;  knock 
and  it  shall  be  opened  unto  you. — Matt.  7 :  7 . 


A .  Purpose . 

B .  Preparation . 

1.  Mental. 

(a)  Read  standard  Church  works;  Faith  Pro- 
moting-  Series;    biographies  of  good  men 
and  women.     See  John  3:   39. 

(b)  Observe:     Praiseworthy   traits;     fine    ex- 
amples; nature's  beauties. 

2.  Spiritual. 

(a)  Prayer. 

(b)  Purity  of  Life. 

(c)  Companionship  of  Holy  Spirit;   See  John 
14:   26;   Doc.  &  Cov.  84,   85;   Book  of  Mor- 
mon, Moroni  10:  4-5. 

(See  President  Tingey's  talk  in  July  fournaL 
Further  suggestions  and  discussion,  10  minutes. 

II.     THE  APOSTASY —     (10-minute  address.) 

A.  Importance  of  the  subject. 

1.  The  fundamental  claim  of  the  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  rests  on  the  restor- 
ation of  the  Gospel  in  the  present  dispensation. 

2.  Had  there  been  no  general  apostasy  from  the 
Primitive  Crmrch  there  could  have  been  no  res- 

B.  Plan  of  this  course  of  lessons. 

1.  The  subject  is  most  appropriate  at  the  present 
stage  of  our  study — coming  as  it  does  after  the 
lessons  dealing  with  the  apostolic  age,  and  pre- 
paratory to  a  study  of  the  history  of  the  Re- 
stored Church. 

2.  Material  for  study. 

(a)  The  Scriptures,  both  ancient  and  modern, 
prove  the  fact  of  the  great  apostasy.  An- 
cient Scriptures  predict  it;  modern  Scrip- 
tures affirm  it  as  having  taken  place. 

(b)  History  other  than  scriptural.      The  les- 
sons will  comprise  citations  from  historians 
of  the  period  extending  from  the  '  'Meridian 
of  Time"  to  the  present  age,  with  sugges- 
tions as  to  the  proper  interpretation  of  such. 

230  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

NOTE — Ample  material  for  preparing  this  brief  address 
will  be  found  in  the  first  lesson  of  the  course  already  pub- 
lished in  the  Journal  for  July.  This  lesson  presents  in  out- 
line the  plan  of  the  course. 

III.  QUESTIONS.     (To  be  asked  by  a  stake  officer.) 

1.  How  do  you   expect  to  draw  in  the  girls  who 
should  be  members  and  are  not? 

2.  What  plan  will  you  adopt  to  secure  their  regu- 
lar attendance? 

3.  How  do  you  hope  to  make  welcome  and  interest 
newcomers  among  you? 

4.  Mention  some  plan  that  will  especially  interest 
and  bring  into  use  the  talents  of  the  foreign 
girls.     Those  musically  inclined.   Dramatically. 
Socially.      Those  whose  tastes  are    domestic. 
Those  who  are  fond  of  needlework. 

5.  How  can  you  secure  prompt  attendance? 

6.  How  are  you  going  to  maintain  order? 

7.  What  has  been  your  most  successful  method  in 
securing  home  preparation? 

8.  What  method  have  you  adopted  to  get  reports 
of  home  reading?     What  can  you  do  to  increase 
home  reading? 

9.  When  you  observe  the  conduct  of  your  girls  how 
do  you  let  them  know  that  you  approve  or  cen- 
sure their  actions? 

10.  What  can  you  do  to  improve  the  health  of  your 

Afternoon  Session — 2  o'  clock. 

IV.  THE  HOME.     (15-minute  address.) 
A.     Purpose  of  the  course: 

1.  To  present  the  ideal  Latter-day  Saint  home. 

2.  To  instill  a  love  of  home  and  its  responsibilities. 

3.  To  show  the  dignity  of  work. 

4.  To  teach  girls  to  practice  what  they  learn. 

5.  To  teach  them  to  make  the  best  use   of  what 
they  possess. 

6.  To  teach  them  to  put   their   best   efforts   into 
everything  they  do. 

7.  To  teach  willing  and  loving  service. 


B.     How  to  attain  these  results. 

1.  Let  the  spirit  of  the  Gospel  permeate  all  teach- 

2.  Present  ideal  conditions,  even  though  unable  to 
attain  them  yourselves.    "Hitch  your  wagon  to 
a  star." 

3.  Be  not  dogmatic;    another's   plan    may   be  as 
good  as  yours. 

4.  Encourage  free  expression  of  ideas. 

5.  Emphasize  your  teaching  by  any  scriptural  ref- 
erences on  the  subject. 

6.  Never  be  discouraged. 

The  outlines  for  the  two  courses  will  be  found  in  the 
Officers'  Notes  of  the  June  and  July  Journals.  They  should 
be  read  carefully,  but  the  divisions  can  not  be  treated  in  de- 
tail in  this  15 -minute  talk  on  account  of  lack  of  time. 

V.  THE  YEAR'S  LITERARY  COURSE.    (10-minute  address.) 

Read  the  outlines  as  presented  in  Officers'  Notes  of  June 
and  July  Journals  and  present  the  points  most  needed  in  your 
stake . 

VI.  REMARKS.     Visitors. 

Conjoint  Evening  Session — Time  Appointed  by  Stake  Boards — 
Public  Invited. 

One  musical  numbtr  should  be  furnished  by  the  Young- 
Ladies,  and  one  by  the  Young  Men,  leaving  the  remainder 
of  the  evening  free  to  be  filled  according-  to  the  inspiration  of 
the  hour.  If  it  should  happen  that  no  members  of  the  Gener- 
al Boards  are  present,  the  stake  officers  shoulcl  be  prepared 
to  occupy  the  time,  giving"  any  necessary  instructions  on 
Mutual  Improvement  work  or  matters  essential  to  the  wel- 
fare of  our  young  people. 

We  hope  that  the  convention  topics  will  be  very  bene- 
ficial; and  that  this  year's  work  will  be  more  successful  than 
has  that  of  any  previous  year. 

Each  year  the  convention  work  has  been  handled  better 
and  the  attendance  has  increasad.  Seek  to  make  this  year's 

232  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

convention  surpass  all  others  in  work  accomplished,  attend- 
ance of  officers,  and  spirit  manifested. 

With  heartfelt  appreciation  for  your  splendid  efforts  in 
the  past,   with  earnest  prayers  for  your  continued  success, 
and  with  love  for  you  all,  we  are, 
Your  co-workers, 

THE  GENERAL  BOARD  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 
By  MARTHA  H.  TINGEY,  President. 

RUTH  M.  Fox,  First  Counselor. 
MAE  T.  NYSTROM,  Second  Counselor. 

Consider  the  traveling-  entailed  upon  the  General  Board 
who  must  attend  these  conventions!  Never  less  than  three 
and  sometimes  six  weeks  are  spent  in  visiting  the  Mexico 
and  Arizona  stakes;  while  nearly  as  much  time  is  con- 
sumed in  visiting  the  Canada  and  Idaho  stakes.  Big  Horn 
is  in  Wyoming  and  it  requires  several  days  away  from  home 
to  spend  one  day  there.  Union  is  near  Portland,  Oregon;  Star 
Valley,  in  Wyoming;  many  others  involve  from  twenty-five 
to  one  hundred  and  fifty  mile  rides  over  dusty  roads,  in  ad- 
dition to  the  distance  by  railroad;  many  of  these  trips  require 
the  catching  of  trains  in  the  middle  of  the  night,  sitting- in  way 
stations  for  hours  to  change  cars,  and  all  the  trying  incidents 
due  to  hurried  journeys.  Yet  these  duties  are  undertaken  with 
light  hearts  and  cheerful  spirits  by  members  of  the  two  Gen- 
eral Boards,  for  the  appreciation  and  hospitality  shown  to  the 
visitors  by  stake  officials  at  the  end  of  the  trips  is  of  the  most 
genuine  type. 

The  stake  officers  and  members  meanwhile  have  their 
hands  full  to  prepare  for  these  fall  conventions.  Halls  must 
be  secured,  notices  published,  circulars  distributed,  speakers 
chosen,  and  topics  assigned.  Every  ward  must  be  represent- 
ed and  when  the  visitors  from  both  the  local  wards  and  the 
General  Board  come  into  town,  good  and  sufficient  entertain- 
ment must  be  provided.  Asa  nil e,  light  refreshments  are 
served  at  the  noon  hour  on  Sunday,  and  this  must  be  arranged . 
Music  is  an  important  feature  of  all  our  work,  so  that  chor- 


uses,  solos  and  quartets  must  be  provided;  and  not  only  pro- 
vided, but  supervised  lest  unseemly  words  or  songs  shall  be 
chosen  by  thoughtless  young  musicians.  For  all  this  work 
stake  joint  committees  are  chosen  with  many  sub- committees 
on  decoration,  music,  refreshments,  press  and  program.  Thus, 
an  army  of  young  people  is  at  work  during  the  early  fall 
season  planning  and  preparing  for  the  fall  conventions.  Could 
anything  better  be  conceived  of  to  occupy  the  time  and  enlist 
the  sympathy  of  these  young  restless  spirits?  To  distribute 
responsibility  is  to  call  into  action  the  best  elements  of  many 
human  souls,  directing  in  a  proper  channel  the  strenuous  en- 
ergies of  bubbling  youth.  As  a  rule  schools,  to  absorb  time 
and  strength,  have  not  yet  begun  in  August  and  September 
when  the  conventions  are  held;  crops  are  gathered,  vacation 
has  added  zest  to  labor  and  lightness  to  every  endeavor;  so  that 
again  is  demonstrated  the  Divine  wisdom  in  thus  calling  into 
action  all  the  forces  of  youth  at  the  renewal  season  of  the  year. 

The  latest  and  most  costly  outgrowth  of  the  work  done 
for  the  physical  development  of  the  young  people  of  this 
Church  is,  perhaps,  the  indirect  result  of  an  early  effort 
made  in  this  direction  by  the  conjoint  M.  I.  A.  boards  of  the 
Salt  Lake  stake  of  Zion. 

In  1895,  some  of  the  enterprising  young  spirits  connected 
with  that  stake  conceived  the  idea  that  a  centralization  of  ef- 
fort might  well  be  made  to  group  the  scattered  interests  in 
physical  education,  and  in  libraries,  in  the  establishment  of 
an  up-to-date  gymnasium  and  reading  room  for  Salt  Lake  City. 
The  Mutual  Improvement  League  was  organized  in  1895  with 
the  two  Salt  Lake  stake  boards  at  its  head.  The  Social  Hall, 
the  historic  place  of  happy  memories,  was  secured  as  head- 
quarters, and  the  fine  gymnasium  already  established  in  this 
place  by  Prof.  Maud  May  Babcock  'was  purchased.  This 
brilliant  young  convert  to  Mormonism,  with  many  others, 
gave  her  heart  and  soul  to  the  successful  establishment  of  the 
League.  The  M.I.  libraries  belonging  to  all  the  wards  in 

234  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

the  Salt  Lake  stake  of  Zion  were  generously  turned  over  to 
the  reading  room  of  the  League.  The  lower  part  of  the 
house  was  used  as  the  library,  and  the  upper  part  remained  as 
the  gymnasium. 

For  three  years,  this  enterprise  struggled  on;  first,  as  a 
stake  affair,  later  under  the  two  General  Boards,  then  again 
under  the  Salt  Lake  stake  boards.  But  at  the  end  of  this 
time  it  was  decided  to  discontinue  the  organization.  One 
very  possible  reason,  which  constitutes  a  vital  part  of  our  re- 
ligion was:  in  all  rural  and  agricultural  communities,  the 
stake,  the  ward,  the  home,  can  withdraw  within  itself, 
with  sufficient  force  to  nullify  any  outside  attraction  or  temp- 
tation. The  home  is  patterned  after  the  heavenly  dwelling 
of  our  Divine  parents;  the  ward  is  merely  an  ecclesiastical 
collection  of  homes;  and  the  stake  is  a  group  of  wards.  The 
whole  effort  of  the  teachers  and  leaders  amongst  us  is  and 
should  be  to  increase  the  attractiveness  of  the  home;  to  make 
of  the  ward  just  a  larger  family  group;  and  to  carry  into 
the  stake  this  close  relationship.  Because  of  this,  the  young 
people  are  generally  engaged  at  home,  especially  in  the  coun- 
try, with  all  their  spare  time  spent  in  the  larger  circle  of  the 
ward;  even  in  Salt  Lake  City,  few  young  Mormons  have 
acquired  the  "club"  or  "up-town"  habit. 

For  these  reasons,  the  Mutual  Improvement  League  work 
was  not  long  successful.  But  some  noble  efforts  were  put 
forth  and  surely  no  good  thought  or  effort  is  wasted;  a  num- 
ber of  young  people  got  some  valuable  experiences,  and 
much  incidental  good  was  accomplished.  The  mother  who 
bears  and  watches  over  a  delicate  child,  only  to  see  it,  at  last, 
fade  and  die,  would  never  admit  that  her  child  wrould  better 
never  have  been  born;  she  knows,  if  no  one  else  in  all  the 
world  does,  what  a  developing  and  fruitful  experience  her 
struggle  has  been  to  her.  And  so  we  cannot  speak  of  the  M- 
I.  League  as  a  failure. 


In  the  larger  cities  the  need  of  a  central  gymnasium  to 
take  the  place  of  country  exercises  and  sports  has  been  deeply 
felt  of  late  years.  Several  stakes  have  made  special  effort  to 
meet  this  need.  To  the  recent  efforts  put  forth,  more  par- 
ticularly by  the  enterprising-  officers  of  the  Young-  Men's 
General  Board,  must  be  added  the  needs  of  the  L.  D.  S. 
Hig-h  School.  These  two  organizations  combined  and  per- 
suaded the  Church  authorities  to  assist  them  in  the  erection 
of  a  handsome,  modern  g-ymnasium.  In  the  board  of  con- 
trol, which  was  recently  org-anized,  two  young-  women,  both 
of  them  active  workers  in  that  previous  effort  long  ago,  were 
chosen  to  act.  Prof.  Maud  May  Babcock,  physical  director 
of  the  U.  of  U.  and  founder  of  physical  education  in  this  region, 
with  Miss  Ann  M.  Cannon,  one  of  MissBabcock's  first  pupils, 
have  been  thus  honored.  The  Deseret  Gymnasium  is  located 
at  the  corner  of  College  and  Temple  avenue,  in  the  center  of 
the  block  east  of  the  Salt  Lake  Temple.  It  is  one  of  the 
finest  structures  in  the  United  States  and  is  perfectly  equip- 
ped. Miss  Anna  Nebeker,  former  president  of  Nebo  stake 
Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  is  special  director  of  the  work  for  women, 
and  is  ably  assisted  by  the  Misses  Mary  Johnson,  Hazel  Ed- 
wards and  Margaret  Caldwell.  Prof.  Wm.  E.  Day  who  has 
had  many  years  experience  in  Young  Men's  Christian  Asso- 
ciation work,  has  supervision  of  all  the  physical  work  in  the 
institution.  H.  Leo  Marshall  and  Robert  Richardson  are 
Mr.  Day's  assistants  in  the  work  for  men.  Use  of  the  build- 
ing is  divided  proportionately  between  men  and  women,  cer- 
tain hours  being  given  exclusively  to  each.  While  the 
greatest  benefits  from  this  gymnasium  accrue  to  the  people 
of  Salt  Lake,  Ensign,  Liberty,  Pioneer  and  Granite  stakes, 
it  is  hoped  to  be  of  service  to  others  also,  by  training  young 
men  and  women  as  teachers  for  the  more  distant  stakes. 

In  conclusion,  let  us  say,  the  lines  of  demarcation  are 
and  always  have  been  drawn  very  rigidly  between  the 

236  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Young  Men's  and  the  Young"  Ladies'  work,  notwithstanding 
all  the  conjoint  activities  which  have  here  been  dwelt  upon. 
In  ward,  in  stake  and  in  general  capacity,  each  carries  on 
his  or  her  labor  absolutely  independent  of  the  other,  save 
and  except  where  conjoint  programs  and  conferences  are  in- 
volved. The  young:  men  have  their  own  distinct  studies, 
scarcely  knowing  or  caring-  what  lines  are  followed  by  the 
girls;  each  has  its  own  magazine,  and  its  own  social  and 
financial  problems.  When  there  are  conjoint  meetings  to 
plan,  amusements  to  project  or  gymnasiums  to  build  or 
equip,  the  boards  or  committees  meet  in  a  local  or  general 
way  and  engage  in  free  but  formal  discussion.  There  ar' 
few  attempts  by  the  young  men  to  assume  any  dictatorship, 
as  there  are  rare  instances  on  the  other  hand  of  servile  de- 
pendence on  the  part  of  the  girls.  Each  knows  his  or  her 
duty  and  place,  and  the  whole  machinery,  adjusted  by  the 
priesthood  and  maintained  in  loving  mutual  service,  moves 
smoothly  and  rapidly  onward. 



Helen  Winters  Woodruff  was  a  sister  to  Mrs.  Augusta 
W.  Grant.  Theirs  was  a  family  of  superior  and  intelligent 
girls,  trained  in  a  superior  and  womanly  way.  All  of  them 
developed  into  the  type  of  wives  and  mothers  which  fill  the 
world  with  the  glory  of  womanhood.  Helen  was  the  young- 
est.. She  was  a  mixture  of  the  intelligence,  beauty,  vivacity 
and  integrity  which  was  divided  up  among  the  others  in 
varying  portions.  She  was  as  merry  and  as  frolicsome  as  a 
twittering  robin,  and  as  genuine  as  a  pure  soul  and  a  strong 
will  could  make  a  human  being.  She  was  born  in  Pleasant 
Grove,  Utah  county,  Utah,  September  24,  1873.  She  re- 
ceived all  the  scholastic  advantages  which  the  country  afford- 
ed..  In  her  teens  she  was  a  graduate  from  the  Brigham 
Young  University;  she  was  also  active  in  Mutual  work  from 
her  childhood.  She  taught  school  in  Salina,  Sevier  county, 



and  in  Coalville.  Afterwards  she  studied  at  the  State  Uni- 
versity. During-  her  course  in  that  school,  she  met  Abraham 
O.  Woodruff,  who  had  just  returned  from  a  German  mission. 
They  were  married  in  the  Salt  Lake  Temple  in  1897.  After 
their  union,  no  one  who  ever  knew  them  thought  of  them 
apart.  If  ever  God  made  two  perfectly  congenial  and  mated 
souls,  that  couple  were  Owen  and  Helen  Woodruff.  When 

OWFN     AND     11K1.KN     WOODRUFF. 

Owen  was  called  to  the  apostleship,  and  later  to  work  on 
the  General  Board  of  the  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.,  it  seemed  the 
proper  thing-  to  call  Helen  to  be  an  aid  to  Sister  Taylor. 
She  was  set  apart  to  that  office  in  1898.  She  labored  in- 
cessantly in  that  position  until  her  sudden  and  sad  death. 
She  was  an  ardent  lover  of  children,  and  when  her  little  ones 
came  pouring-  into  her  household,  she  was  but  the  happier 
and  the  prouder.  She  was  the  picture  of  haughty,  incensed 
motherhood  to  the  would-be  scoffer  who  might  seek  to  ca,it 
a  slur  at  this  old-fashioned  ideal  of  child-bearing.  Her 
tongue  was  a  well-spring  of  merriment  and  gayety  untouched 
with  venom  and  innocent  of  slander.  But  she  could  rebuke, 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

and  with  sharpness,  when  thoughtlessness  or  insult  attacked 
the  principles  she  held  dear.  Helen  was  a  born  mimic;  she 
could  wind  a  cloak  aboiit  her  splendid  shoulders,  stoop  them 
as  a  sign  of  age,  and  with  a  torn  hat,  she  was  the  perfect 
presentment  of  a  whining-  old  man.  The  various  broken 
European  tongues  were  tripped  off  her  lips  with  an  added 
jest  or  repartee  which  would  convulse  a  whole  audience  of 
sober  people.  And  yet  her  wit  had  never  a  trace  of  malice, 
nor  did  her  jest  carry  an  untoward  suggestion  beneath  its 
fun.  She  was  a  queenly  girl,  and  a  true  mate  to  her  kingly 
husband.  They  had  four  beautiful  children,  whose  sweet 
faces  are  here  pictured. 

Owen  and  Helen  made  a  name  and  memory  for  them- 
selves in  every  pioneer  settlement  in  the  borders  of  Zion. 
The  Saints  in  the  Big  Horn  country  looked  upon  Apostle 
Owen  Woodruff  and  his  lovely  young  wife  as  next  only  to  the 
angels.  It  is  an  inspiring  thing  to  hear  of  the  fulfilled 
prophecy  and  the  untiring  labors  of  this  faithful  apostle .  Out 
upon  the  evening  air  in  hundreds  of  humble  homes  in  Big 
Horn  there  steals,  at  sunset,  the  sound  of  a  family  hymn, 



and  the  soft  silence  which  follows,  marks  the  low-toned  ap- 
peal to  heaven  for  daily  mercies.  Their  patron  apostle 
promised  this  believing1  community  that  if  they  would  follow 
this  simple  practice,  none  of  their  posterity  should  wander 
from  the  fold  of  Christ.  And  they  have  believed!  Shall '  it 
not  be  accounted  unto  them  for  righteousness? 

When  Apostle  Woodruff  and  his  family  set  out  for  Mexico 
in  the  spring-  of  1904,  no  one  dreamed  of  the  tragedy  which  was 
to  follow.  Both  were  as  happy  and  as  trustful  as  of  old.  But  in 
the  month  of  June  of  that  year,  they  both  died  of  that  fearsome 
disease,  small-pox.  Away  from  family  and  home,  but  never 
away  from  friends,  everything  that  love  could  dictate  or  pro- 
vide was  done  and  given  to  soothe  and  comfort  them.  Hel- 
en died  first,  in  the  City  of  Mexico.  Owen  got  as  far  as  El 
Paso  on  his  return  with  the  children,  when  he,  too,  was 
stricken,  and  life  here  was  changed  for  him  to  life  eternal. 
Together  they  had  lived,  labored  and  loved,  and  together 
they  died.  They  were  buried  in  that  far-away  land;  but  the 
memorial  service  in  memory  of  the  beloved  dead  was  as 
glorious  as  mortality  might  ever  witness. 

Helen  is  at  work,  over  There,  beside  her  beloved  hus- 
band, and  associated  with  her  revered  leader,  President  El- 
mina  S.  Taylor!  There  she  is,  still  merry  without  guile, 
and  happy  without  pain.  We  shall  all  meet  her  there  on 
that  eternal  board  of  women  workers  for  truth  and  progress. 


Born  in  a  family  where  intelligence  and  spiritual  refine- 
ment were  the  predominating  influences,  Augusta  Winters 
was  early  trained  to  habits  of  physical  and  mental  industry. 
She  was  born  July  7,  1856,  in  Pleasant  Grove.  Her  parents 
were  poor,  but  ambitious  and  progressive.  The  mother 
taught  the  girls  the  arts  of  weaving,  spinning,  cooking,  sew- 
ing, dressmaking,  wool-carding  and  general  housework. 
Mrs.  Grant  says:  "I  knitted  stockings,  made  dresses,  sewed 
and  wove  rag  carpets,  carded  wool,  planted  potatoes  and 
corn,  dried  fruit,  helped  to  convert  sugar  cane  into  pioneer 
molasses,  and  twice  papered  a  room.  But,"  she  adds,  with 
characteristic  candor,  "I  would  never  choose  any  of  these 
occupations  as  my  life-work."  In  the  family  there  were  five 

240  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

girls  and  three  boys,  one  boy  dying-  in  infancy,  all  excellent 
characters  and  faithful  workers. 

Mrs.  Grant  possesses  the  gift  of  pedagogy  to  a  marked 
degree.  Almost  from  the  time  she  learned  her  letters,  she 
has  acted  as  a  pupil-teacher.  Her  mother  was  a  school- 
teacher, and  all  of  the  daughters  followed  that  profession. 
Augusta  was  especially  gifted  in  the  power  to  impart  what 
she  knew  to  others.  At  the  age  of  twelve,  she  acted  as  an 
assistant  teacher  to  an  old  lady,  Mrs.  Laura  Liston,  in  a 
summer  school,  thus  paying  her  own  tuition,  as  well  as  that 
of  her  two  sisters.  She  attended  the  Timpanogas  school  in 
Provo,  and  later  entered  the  Brigham  Young  Academy, 
when  that  school  was  organized.  She  also  attended  the 
State  University,  graduating  from  the  second  normal  class, 
in  1877.  She  taught  school  between  times,  to  assist  in  pay- 
ing for  her  education,  although  her  parents  also  did  all  in 
their  power  to  give  their  children  every  educational  advan- 
tage. At  the  age  of  sixteen,  she  assumed  entire  charge  of 
a  school,  which  happened  to  be  a  summer  school.  Next 
summer  she  took  another  school,  with  two  assistants.  She 
has  taught  school  in  Pleasant  Grove,  West  Jordan,  Cotton- 
wood,  Mill  Creek,  Farmington  and  Salt  Lake  City.  She  be- 
gan with  a  salary  of  thirty  dollars,  and  ended  with  one  hun- 
dred dollars  a  month.  Mrs.  Grant  was  an  early  telegrapher, 
but  used  her  skill  only  as  a  substitute  and  for  a  short  period. 

One  circumstance  will  illustrate  her  lovely  mother's 
abiding  faith,  and  the  daughter's  calm  reliance  on  the  prom- 
ises of  the  Holy  Spirit.  The  mother  had  taught  her  young 
daughter  the  principle  of  tithing;  and,  during  her  early 
school-teaching  venture  she  begged  Augusta  to  pay  her  tith- 
ing, although  the  salary  was  small.  "if  you  will  do  this," 
said  the  mother,  "I  will  promise  you  through  the  spirit  of 
prophecy,  that  next  year  your  salary  will  be  increased." 
The  girl  carried  out  the  counsel  to  the  letter.  School  and 
the  winter  were  ended,  but  there  was  no  call  at  any  price 
for  the  youthful  teacher's  services  for  the  next  year.  Occa- 
sionally, through  the  following  summer,  the  girl  would  say, 
in  her  gentle,  laughing  way:  "Well,  mother,  the  increase  in 
salary  is  not  in  sight  yet."  And  the  mother  would  answer 
with  counter-assurances.  Finally,  the  Saturday  before  the 
regular  school  term  was  to  begin  arrived,  but  no  engage- 



ment  was  in  sight.  Without  the  least  lack  of  faith  the  girl 
still  made  merry  in  her  innocent  way  at  her  mother's  ex- 
pense. That  very  afternoon,  the  post  brought  a  letter  from 
another  county,  offering  the  salary  of  sixty  dollars  a  month, 


and  in  twenty-four  hours  the  young  teacher  was  in  her  new 
temporary  home. 

Mrs.  Grant  is  very  proud  of  all  these  early  experiences 
of  struggle  and  effort,  and  nothing  delights  her  more  than  to 
meet  her  former  pupils,  scattered  all  through  the  Church. 
She  taught  for  about  ten  years,  when  she  was  married  to 


242  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Apostle  Heber  J.  Grant.  She  has  had  but  one  child,  a 
daughter,  and  that  she  feels  is  a  gift  from  God.  But  what 
God  had  denied  to  her  in  one  way,  He  granted  in  another; 
for  it  has  always  been  her  lot  to  "mother"  a  large  family, 
her  husband's  motherless  children  and  others. 

Mrs.  Grant  has  been  active  in  Church  and  club  work  for 
a  long'  time.  She  has  acted  as  secretary  in  some  organiza- 
tion ever  since  she  was  fourteen  years  of  age.  She  was  then 
made  secretary  of  the 'first  Y.  L.  M.  I.  Association  in  her 
home  town.  She  has  since  served  the  Thirteenth  ward  Re- 
lief Society,  the  Salt  Lake  stake  Relief  Society,  and  the 
Free  Kindergarten  in  the  same  capacity.  She  was  the  first 
president  of  the  State  Kindergarten  Society  of  Utah,  and  has 
been  a  member  of  a  number  of  home  clubs.  She  has  trav- 
eled quite  extensively  in  her  own  country,  and  spent  fifteen 
months  in  Japan  with  her  husband  when  that  mission  was 
first  opened. 

Mrs.  Grant  is  the  embodiment  of  peace  and  beautiful 
repose.  When  asked  how  one  might  acquire  this  charming 
and  restful  quality  of  character  and  habit,  she  laughingly 
replied:  "I  have  always  had  all  I  wanted,  because  I  never 
wanted  more  than  I  had.  I  always  like  to  do  what  I  have  to 
do,  and  I  never  want  very  badly  what  I  can't  have,  therefore 
I  am  always  quite  contented  and  happy.  I  don't  believe  in 
telling  my  troubles  to  others,  nor  in  thinking  I  have  any;  for 
then,  I  really  don't  have  them.  But  there  is  one  thing,"  she 
added,  "which  is  a  trial  tome,  public  speaking."  Mrs.  Grant 
is,  notwithstanding,  a  pleasing  speaker,  and  never  bores  one 
by  talking  of  things  about  which  she  knows  little.  She  is  an 
indefatigable  worker  on  committees,  and  never  fails  in  her 
duty.  She  loves  peace  and  would  not  willingly  oppose  or 
enter  into  long  arguments,  but  if  it  comes  to  the  point  where 
her  decision  must  be  given  for  or  against,  she  gives  it  frank- 
ly, without  fear  or  favor.  One  of  the  loveliest  traits  about 
this  charming  woman  is  her  exquisite  charity.  She  never 
reviles  and  rarely  even  criticizes.  She  may  lack  spontaneity 
and  enthusiasm,  for  she  has  such  a  perfect  abhorrence  of 
flattery,  insincerity  and  exaggeration,  that  she  is  inclined  to 
go  to  the  other  extreme  and  scarcely  gives  sufficient  expres- 
sion to  her  real 'feelings,  and  might  be  judged  as  lacking  in 
this  regard.  In  her  position  she  sets  an  admirable  example 


of  "the  simple  life"  in  dress  and  living-.  Her  mother's  good 
teachings  are  still  on  her  lips  and  in  her  heart  and  the  reso- 
lutions made  so  many  years  ago  in  the  Retrenchment  Society 
in  Pleasant  Grove  still  are  in  force  in  Mrs.  Grant's  life  and 
example.  In  addition  to  her  other  public  duties,  Mrs.  Grant 
tries  to  spend  one  day  each  week  in  the  Temple,  working  in 
her  modest  and  entirely  private  way.  She  is  not  only  con- 
verted to  this  work  because  of  the  marvelous  blessings  re- 
ceived in  this  labor,  but  because  her  soul  delig-hts  in  the 
thought  of  setting  the  captive  free.  The  keynote  of  her 
character  is  obedience  to  law  and  authority.  She  finds  time 
to  spend  an  occasional  half-day  in  the  service  of  the  Bureau 
of  Information.  Mrs.  Grant  is  a  recognized  leader  in  social 
circles;  but  so  modest  and  unselfish  is  her  sway  that  she 
draws  all  hearts  after  her.  So  well-planned  and  simple  are 
her  household  arrang-ements  that  all  under  her  roof  are  well 
cared  for  and  content.  She  is  an  intelligent  and  discrimi- 
nating reader  and  a  thoroughly  well-educated  woman — in  the 
best  sense  of  that  elastic  term.  All  in  all,  this  life  and  this 
character  are  profitable  to  study,  to  emulate,  and  to  live. 


No  more  intelligent  and  all-around  useful  member  of 
the  General  Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  is  now  in  position 
than  the  subject  of  this  sketch — Mrs.  Estelle  Neff  Caldwell. 
Modest  to  a  fault,  dignified  without  pride,  kind  without 
effusion,  generous  without  lavishness,  well-informed  without 
pedantry,  and  herself  a  bit  of  imprisoned  sunshine  in  a  body 
which  has  known  the  discipline  of  suffering"  since  she  was  a 
child — this  young-  matron  is  one  of  the  best  types  of  friend, 
wife,  mother,  Mutual  worker  and  Saint  this  Church  has  pro- 
duced. She  was  born  on  a  farm  fifteen  miles  south  of  Salt 
Lake  City.  Her  father  died  when  she  was  eleven  years  old, 
and  the  widowed  mother  removed  to  Nephi,  where  Estelle 
received  her  common  school  education.  She  was  an  ambi- 
tious girl  and  her  mother,  being  of  the  same  turn  of  mind, 
was  glad  to  help  her  daugfhter  to  attend  the  Brigham  Young- 
Academy  at  Provo.  Few  mothers  with  a  large  family  have 
made  a  sunnier  record  on  life's  page  than  that  made  by 

244  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Estelle's  mother.  She  kept  boarders  by  the  dozen,  cooking-, 
scrubbing  and  washing',  with  a  smile  in  her  eye  and  laug"h- 
ter  on  her  lips  for  every  difficult  day  and  hour.  Her  chil- 
dren have  now  risen  up  to  do  her  honor  and  she  still  smiles 
in  the  face  of  life  and  wins  back  from  every  circumstance 


some  gleams  of  joy  and  blessedness.  Such  mothers  and  such 
daughters  make  life  and  the  Gospel  worthy  of  all  praise. 

Estelle  graduated  in  the  locally  famous  class  of  1897, 
and  at  the  head  of  her  class,  too,  being-  class  historian.  It 
was  at  the  close  of  this  four-year  course  in  school  that  Mrs . 
Gates  propounded  the  query  to  Estelle  Neff  which  was  an- 


swered  in  the  affirmative,  and  which  has  meant  so  much  to 
the  whole  after  life  of  the  Journal  and  of  the  girl  herself: 
" Would  you  be  willing  to  venture  your  future  in  an  attempt 
to  establish  the  Young  Woman' s  fournal  on  a  sound  business 
basis,  with  only  dim  prospects  of  success  ahead,  and  the 
road  strewn  with  plenty  of  big-  discouragements?"  The  an- 
swer took  Miss  Neff  at  once  to  Salt  Lake  City,  anji  here  in 
the  old  Constitution  building,  she  went  to  work  with  Mrs. 
Gates  in  the  Journal  office  to  begin  the  experiment  which 
ended  so  happily  for  all  concerned.  Miss  Neff  worked  ex- 
actly eight  years  in  the  business  department  of  the  Journal. 
In  that  time  she  was  general  business  manager,  scribe, 
assistant  to  the  editor,  counselor-at  large,  and  comforter  to 
any  who  sought  her  advice,  and  if  any  man  or  woman  found 
her  wanting  in  any  good  or  beautiful  essential,  the  historian 
has  never  met  that  individual.  While  living  in  the  Four- 
teenth ward,  she  was  chosen  by  Mrs.  Ruth  M.  Fox  as  a 
counselor  in  the  ward  M.  I.  Association.  Miss  Neff  acted 
as  vSunday  School  teacher  from  her  very  early  years.  When 
the  Bureau  of  Information  was  organized  in  1902,  she  was 
called  as  one  of  the  workers  and  labored  there  until  her  mar- 
riage. She  was  married  June  30,  1905,  to  Richard  Elmer 
Caldwell,  a  bright  young  civil  and  mining  engineer. 

Mrs.  Neff  Caldwell  was  chosen  as  an  aid  to  the  General 
Board  in  October,  1902.  Her  trained  intellect  has  been  well 
used  in  her  present  position.  Her  education,  begun  in  her 
mother's  sunny  home,  carried  forward  in  the  B.  Y.  U.  at 
Provo,  still  advanced  in  the  business  affairs  of  the  fournal, 
and  then  crystallized  in  the  wide  and  noble  sphere  of  wife  and 
mother,  has  made  her  the  admirable  woman  that  she  is. 
Married  with  little  knowledge  of  home  labors,  she  set  her 
intelligence  to  the  problems  before  her,  and  the  results  have 
again  proved  that  one  can  always  make  a  silken  purse  if 
given  the  pure  silken  thread  for  a  foundation.  Today  she 
is  the  proud  mother  of  three  beautiful  and  vigorous  children. 
One  son  and  two  daughters  make  her  life  a  song  of  praise 
and  peace.  She  is  now  acting  upon  the  fournal  committee 
and  enjoys  thoroughly  that  slight  revival  of  her  old-time 
public  activities.  Yet  has  she  learned  the  graciousness  and 
blessedness  of  the  perfect  home  life,  and  her  voice  is  ever 
raised  in  glorification  of  wifehood  and  motherhood. 




The   General   Board  meetings. — Standing   committees. — Temporary 
committees. — Reports  by  General   Board  members. 

TN  the  conduct  of  any  business  which  involves  diversified 
-•-  interests,  the  necessity  for  confiding  each  specialized  in- 
terest to  a  small  group  of  workers  is  soon  felt.  To  require 
twenty  people  to  consider  the  details  of  each  branch  of  the 
labor  involved  in  carrying  on  a  great  organization  or  business 
is  a  waste  of  time  and  vital  force;  precious  hours  are  frittered 
away  in  useless  discussion  of  trivial  points — usually  the  most 
trivial-— and  decisions  are  hard  to  reach. 

The  local  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  boards  which  are  small  and  few 
in  number,  with  practically  one  line  of  work  to  follow,  have 
never  known  the  necessity  for  a  separation  of  their  officers  into 
various  committees  as  have  the  stake  boards  and  the  General 
Board.  The  need  was  felt  first  by  the  General  Board,  and 
that  need  grew  naturally  out  of  the  various  activities  which 
were  planned  for  the  local  organizations.  The  conduct  and 
supervision  of  a  magazine,  the  organization  of  ward  and 
traveling  libraries,  the  selection"  and  preparation  of  Guide 
lessons,  the  detailed  labor  attendant  upon  conference  and 
convention  dates,  topics  and  circulars,  all  these  with  various 
temporary  and  passing  questions,  required  much  time,  labor 
and  consideration. 

In  the  beginning  of  their  organized  existence  all  such 
questions  were  brought  into  the  sessions  of  the  entire  board. 
President  Elmina  S.  Taylor  and  her  counselors  would  give 
some  preliminary  thought  to  such  problems,  but  they  were 
usually  brought  before  the  Board  for  discussion  and  settle- 


ment.  The  Board  meetings,  held  at  first  irregularly,  then 
quarterly,  then,  for  four  years  (1894-1898)  monthly,  were 
found  entirely  inadequate  for  the  labor  involved.  Accord- 
ingly, action  was  taken  July  5,  1898,  to  make  the  meetings 
semi-monthly,  and  in  the  spring  of  1903  they  were  made 
weekly.  Until  after  President  Taylor's  death  in  December, 
1905,  these  regular  General  Board  meetings  were  held  in' the 
dear  old  parlor  of  her  home,  158  west  Third  South  street, 
Salt  Lake  City,  Utah.- 

How  many  glorious  meetings  have  been  held  in  that 
room,  and  how  redolent  of  sacred  memories  is  that  place,  for 
all  the  members  of  Sister  Taylor's  Board!  The  piano,  the 
pictures,  the  quaint  parlor  chairs,  the  green  shutters  at  the 
windows,  all  were  dear  and  desirable  to  the  favored  women 
who  gathered  beneath  that  hospitable  roof.  It  may  have 
been,  as  our  president  used  to  say,  that  "her  girls"  left  a 
blessing  behind  them;  but  certain  it  is  that  they  carried  one 



HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

away  from  the  holy  presence  of  that  noble  woman.  As  long- 
as  life  shall  last,  the  memory  of  those  meetings,  that  cheery 
home,  and  that  gracious  lady  will  be  treasured  as  one  of  their 
priceless  gifts,  by  those  who  gathered  there. 


During-  those  formative  years  much  history  was  making 
for  the  Mutual  Improvement  Associations.  Among-  the  young- 
women  of  the  Church  there  was  felt  the  vivid  awakening- 
touch  of  the  Church  school  training.  Girls  from  every  part 
of  the  Church  from  Canada  to  Mexico,  came  eagerly  down 
to  the  famous  Brigham  Young  Academy,  now  University,  at 
Provo,  the  parent  Church  school,  or  to  others  of  the  rapidly 
increasing  colleges  and  high  schools  of  both  Church  and 
State.  The  graded  work  done  in  the  Church  institutions, the 
splendid  theological  organization  originated  by  the  master- 
mind of  Karl  G.  Maeser,  the  impetus  towards  a  combined  in- 
tellectual and  spiritual  training  was  felt  strongly  by  the  youth 


of  Zion.  Its  influence,  with  the  other  quickening-  forces  of 
our  modern  "strenuous"  life  combined  to  fashion  into  com- 
parative perfection  the  mechanism  and  conduct  of  both  the 
young-  men  and  young-  women  of  our  Mutual  Improvement 

The  first  active  committee  work  done  in  the  General 
Board  was  that  important  phase  of  Mutual  Improvement  work, 
Guide  lessons.  Projected  and  prepared  at  first  by  one  mem- 
ber— Mrs.  Gates — the  task  of  discussion  and  revision  was 
found  too  cumbersome  in  its  detailed  demands  upon  the 
whole  Board.  Accordingly,  a  Guide  committee  was  orgfan- 
ized,  and  many  of  the  Board  members  have  served  in 
this  exacting:  calling-.  Studies  were  to  be  selected  with  a 
thought  to  the  varied  conditions  of  the  girls — some  in  strug-- 
gling  pioneer  conditions,  others  located  in  towns  and  cities, 
with  access  to  public  libraries  and  to  literary  and  theological 
courses  in  Church  or  State  schools  and  colleges.  The  Guide 
committee  itself  now  strug-gles  with  these  problems  and 
reaches  a  tentative  conclusion,  while  the  results  are  brought 
into  the  full  session  of  the  Board  there  to  submit  very  often  to 
lively  discussion  and  substantial  revision.  Ag-ain  and  ag:ain 
the  report  is  referred  back  to  the  committee,  for  the  work  is 
far-reaching  and  important.  When  finally  approved  and 
printed,  few  who  read  them  realize  the  amount  of  time  and 
labor  their  preparation  has  involved. 

The  organization  and  labors  of  the  Journal-  committee 
have  been  spoken  of  in  a  previous  chapter.  No  one  should 
think  these  labors  light.  All  criticism  si  Journal  articles  and 
methods  necessarily  finds  its  way  to  their  ears.  There  are 
doubtful  articles  to  consider,  literary  aspirants  to  encourage, 
or  dismay.  The  steady  policy  of  giving  first  place  to  local 
talent  involves  more  than  one  problem,  while  financial  ques- 
tions are,  like  the  poor,  ever  with  them. 

The  traveling  library  movement,  which  had  become  very 

250  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

popular  in  the  women's  clubs  throughout  the  country,  soon 
found  its  way  to  Utah.  The  proposition  came  before  the 
Board,  introduced  first  by  Mrs.  Ruth  M.  Fox,  that  traveling 
libraries  should  be  organized  throughout  the  wards  and 
stakes,  and  at  length  the  Board,  December  10th,  1898, 
passed  upon  the  question  favorably.  These  traveling  libraries 
were  not  in  any  way  to  conflict  with  the  regular  stationary 
libraries  owned  and  managed  by  the  various  ward  associ- 
ations; but  the  stake  officers  were  to  purchase  some  of  the 
best  books,  and  these  were  to  be  boxed  in  sets  by  the  stake 
officials  and  sent  around  to  the  various  ward  associations. 
The  boxes  were  to  be  left  for  a  stated  time  in  a  ward,  then 
to  be  sent  on  to  the  next  ward.  It  was  hoped  that  the  fact 
that  there  was  a  set  time  in  which  to  read  the  books,  would 
help  to  increase  the  interest  of  the  girls.  This  has  proved 
to  be  the  case.  Today  there  are  over  4,000  books  gathered 
by  the  stakes  into  traveling  libraries  and  over  20,600  in  the 
local  libraries.  These  traveling  library  books  are  divided  up 
into  small  lots,  for  convenient  distribution.  The  time  for 
exchange  of  sets  is  generally  at  the  stake  conference  held 
four  times  a  year. 

The  necessity  of  wise  selection  and  supervision  over  the 
reading  matter  supplied  the  pliable  minds  of  girls  fore- 
shadowed the  formation  of  a  library  committee  in  both  gen- 
eral and  stake  boards;  for  the  work  of  establishing  the 
libraries  is  but  one  phase  of  the  work  required  of  this  stand- 
ing committee.  Organized  December  19th,  1898,  with  Mrs. 
Ruth  M.  Fox  as  chairman,  this  committee  soon  faced  the 
problem  of  selection  and  purchase  of  the  required  books. 
This  led  to  long  printed  lists  in  the  journal  of  proper  books 
from  which  the  libraries  could  choose.  Miss  Sarah  Edding- 
ton,  who  became  chairman  in  January,  1908,  has  undertaken 
and  carried  through  a  detailed  supervision  of  all  ward  and 
stake  libraries.  Getting  into  direct  communication  with 


ward  librarians,  the  general  committee  have,  by  a  discreet 
policy  of  selection  and  elimination,  brought  this  feature  of 
the  work  up  to  a  high  standard.  They  have  given  an  excel- 
lent variety,  including  works  on  history,  biography,  man- 
ners and  morals,  poetry,  travel,  nature,  science  and  fiction. 
In  1910  the  lists  of  books  recommended  in  previous  years 
were  collected  and  published,  together  with  instructions  to 
librarians  in  regard  to  raising  funds,  selecting  and  purchas- 
ing books  and  other  valuable  information;  these  were  issued 
in  the  form  of  a  catalogue,  being  distributed  free  to  stake  and 
local  librarians. 

One  of  the  most  important  committees  organized  in  the 
General  Board  is  that  on  conventions.  Like  most  if  not  all 
the  standing  committees,  the  personnel  of  this  committee  is 
changed  every  year  or  two,  the  Board  being  sufficiently  large 
to  permit  it — the  work  and  the  women  receiving  benefit  from 
such  change.  This  committee  has  charge  of  convention  dates, 
plans  and  circulars.  It  meets  with  a  like  committee  from  the 
Young  Men's  Associations  to  appoint  dates  for  the  fall  con- 
ventions. In  addition,  a  circular  is  prepared,  dealing  with 
the  topics  to  be  treated  and  the  modes  of  procedure.  The 
June  conference  committee,  as  might  be  supposed,  is  divided 
into  sub-coiijmittees  on  transportation,  program,  amusement 
and  refreshment. 

A  temporary  committee,  of  very  long  standing,  was  or- 
ganized December  4th,  1899,  called  the  history  committee. 
At  first  only  a  pamphlet  was  to  be  written,  then  a  history,  to 
which  was  subsequently  added  the  idea  of  biographical 
sketches  and  stake  histories — with  illustrations.  Thus  grew 
into  being  the  published  story  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual 
Improvement  Association. 

A  committee  organized  in  January,  1909,  is  one  for 
which  a  suitable  name  has  not  been  found.  Of  this  com- 
mittee Mrs.  Julia  M.  Brixen  makes  a  most  efficient  and  capa- 

252  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

ble  chairman.  Its  duties  are  to  look  after  girls  who  do  not 
have  proper  home  environment,  and  to  help  safe-guard  the 
interests  of  working  girls. 

Many  temporary  committees  are  formed  to  attend  to  the 
details  of  various  activities,  such  as  the  committee  on  build- 
ing, referred  to  in  another  chapter;  and  the  committee  on  fur- 
nishing the  rooms  now  used  by  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

One  more  important  and  beautiful  interest  which  con- 
cerns all  alike  is  entrusted  to  the  general  music  director  and 
organist.  They  have  a  general  oversight  over  the  music 
used  in  the  associations,  and  often  assist  ward  music  direc- 
tors in  the  choice  and  purchase  of  suitable  glees,  trios  and 
solos.  They  have  charge  of  the  music  in  the  June  confer- 
ences in  our  departmental  work,  and  supply  half  the  music 
for  the  general  assemblies. 

A  minor  detail  of  the  work  done  by  the  General  Board 
is  contained  in  the  report  of  the  varying  conditions  found  by 
its  various  members  in  their  visits  throughout  the  country. 
On  the  return  of  such  member,  she  hands  in  a  report  on  a 
printed  form  furnished  her  by  the  secretary.  A  compre- 
hensive view  of  each  stake  is  thus  furnished  the  Board,  es- 
pecially as  this  report  is  supplemented  by  oral  statements  of 
more  or  less  importance.  In  this  way  President  Tingey  and 
her  Board  keep  in  complete  touch  with  every  local  and  stake 
organization  in  the  Church.  Here  again  is  a  segment  of  the 
delicate  machinery  which  ties  together,  one  of  the  strongest 
and  most  united  organizations  of  women  in  this  world. 

The  work  done  by  the  members  of  the  General  Board 
is  duplicated,  in  varied  measure,  by  stake  and  ward  boards 
of  the  associations.  Wards  are  not  robbed  of  their  individ- 
uality; they  may  vary  their  methods  and  studies,  introduce 
fresh  ideas,  institute  new  plans.  Indeed  this  is  often  done. 
Visiting  General  Board  members  come  home  from  conference 
or  convention  with  vivid  seed-thoughts  gathered  from  stake 


and  ward  sources.  The  summer  time,  unprogrammed  and 
entirely  free,  is  a  fruitful  ground  in  which  the  local  officers 
may  plant  new  ideas  and  devise  up-to-date  studies  to  keep 
the  girls  together  and  to  meet  local  conditions. 

Thus  the  Mutual  Improvement  lines  are  broadened  and 
the  communal  lives  of  the  girls  enriched.  Each  ward,  each 
stake,  has  an  individuality  of  its  own;  no  two  are  alike.  But 
like  the  varied  leaves  on  the  fig-tree,  each  bears  on  its  broad 
surface  the  bright  impress  of  a  mutual  purpose,  a  Mutual 
Improvement . 



The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  born  in  Cheltenham,  Eng- 
land, May  31st,  1848.  Her  parents  were  both  in  the  Church, 
and  when  she  was  but  two  years  of  age  they  emigrated  to 
Utah,  bringing  her,  their  only  child,  with  them.  They  were 
both  of  gentle  breeding  and  the  trials  of  pioneer  life  were 
very  severe  to  them.  The  mother's  natural  taste  and  refine- 
ment was  supplemented  by  a  very  shrewd  ability  to  create 
and  utilize  opportunities;  and  the  girl  Nellie  was  given  every 
educational  advantage.  Although  she  was  very  diffident, 
her  queenly  presence  commanded  instant  respect  and  ad- 
miration. She  was  only  sixteen  years  of  age  when  her  par- 
ents received  a  note  from  President  Brigham  Young  saying: 

11 Dear  Brother  arid  Sister  Colebrook: 

"Would  you  allow  your  daughter  Nellie  to  act  upon  the 
stage?  It  would  very  much  please  me. 

"Your  Brother, 


How  had  he,  the  President  of  the  Church,  divined  all 
the  secret  aspirations  and  ambitions  of  that  reserved  and  shy 
soul?  Who  had  heard  from  the  sensitive  lips  one  word  of  all 
that  had  burned  in  her  heart?  To  Nellie  these  questions  al- 
ways remain  unanswered.  But  she  was  a  bubble  upon  the 
bosom  of  her  own  swirling  emotions  for  days  after  that  magic 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

missive  was  received.  Her  parents  consented  for  their 
cherished  daughter  to  go  upon  the  wonderful  pioneer  stage 
of  the  wonderful  pioneer  Salt  Lake  Theater;  for  the  path  of 

the  histrionic  aspir- 
ant was  as  guarded 
on  that  family  stage 
as  in  any  other 
walk  of  life — the 
corruption  and  vice 
of  stage  life  of  the 
world  had  not  crept 
in.  The  perform- 
ances were  as  much 
a  part  of  the  social 
life  of  the  pioneers, 
as  were  their  balls 
or  concerts.  The- 
aters were  opened 
and  closed  with 
prayer,  and  no  im- 
moral play  was 
permitted  to  ap- 

And  so  Nellie 
Colebrook  became 
a  part  of  that 
unique  life.  She 
appeared  with  all 
the  celebrities  who 
remained  for  a 
time  in  Zion — Mc- 
Cul lough,  Edwin 
NELLIE  c.  TAYLOR.  Adams,  Paunce- 

fort,  the  Irwins,  Mme.  Schiller,  Julia  Dean  Hayne,  Annette 
Ince,  and  Ben  De  Bar.  She  was  leading  lady  during  the  sixties; 
and  was  an  actress  to  be  proud  of.  McCullough  offered  her 
$500  a  night  and  the  costumes  furnished,  if  the  would  play 
with  him  as  his  leading  lady.  She  was  naturally  tempted  by 
this  munificent  offer;  but  the  wise  and  good  man,  Brigham 
Young,  who  had  called  her  to  the  stage,  gave  her  a  long  af- 
ternoon counsel,  and  she  decided  to  remain  at  home.  After 


her  marriage  to  Bishop  George  H.  Taylor,  she  left  the  stage, 
never  to  return. 

For  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century,  she  was  identified 
with  Mutual  Improvement  work.  She  served  as  president 
of  the  Fourteenth  ward  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  for  five  years,  when 
she  was  appointed  second  counselor  to  Mary  A.  Freeze  of  the 
Salt  Lake  stake  board,  holding  that  position  for  fourteen 
years.  On  the  call  of  President  Freeze  to  the  General  Board, 
Nellie  was  made  president  of  the  stake.  When  the  Salt  Lake 
stake  was  divided,  she  herself  was  called  to  a  place  on  the 
General  Board,  to  act  as  an  aid.  She  was  one  of  the  most 
popular  members  of  the  General  Board,  possessing  a  wonder- 
ful power  to  reach  the  hearts  of  the  girls  with  her  inspired 
appeals,  and  she  traveled  much  in  the  pursuit  of  her  calling 
in  the  Mutuals. 

Her  health  was  poor  in  later  years,  and  in  1908  she  took 
a  trip  to  England,  where  her  younger  son  was  laboring  as  a 
missionary,  to  secure  genealogy  ai*d  in  the  hope  that  her 
physical  condition  would  be  improved.  Returning  in  the 
best  of  spirits  and  much  restored  in  health,  she  at  once  re- 
sumed her  work  on  the  General  Board.  She  had  enjoyed 
her  labors  in  England,  as  an  unofficial  missionary,  and  was 
the  more  ready  to  plunge  into  her  Mutual  work  on  her  re- 
turn. But  there  was  a  wider  sphere,  a  longer  mission,  a 
greater  and  far  more  blissful  duty  awaiting  her.  She  was 
wanted  in  the  world  of  spirits.  She  was  taken  violently  ill 
in  the  latter  part  of  March  with  paralysis  of  the  brain,  and 
after  seven  days  of  stupor,  she  passed  peacefully  away, 
watched  over  by  her  devoted  son  and  loving  friends.  With 
sweetness  and  peace  she  lived  out  her  life;  in  peace  and  mer- 
ciful unconsciousness  she  fell  asleep.  "How  beautiful  upon 
the  mountains  are  the  feet  of  them  that  bringeth  good  tid- 
ings, that  publisheth  peace!" 


It  is  an  encouraging  thing  for  a  girl  reared  in  the  country 
to  find  that  many  of  our  brightest  and  best  workers  in  the 
ranks  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  Associations  have  been 
born  and  educated,  or  partially  so,  in  small  country  villages. 
This  was  the  case  with  Mrs.  Emily  Caldwell  Adams.  She 
was  born  at  St.  Johns,  Rush  Valley,  Tooele  county,  Utah. 

256  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Her  parentvS  moved  to  Tooele  City  when  she  was  fourteen 
years  of  age,  and  here  she  rapidly  absorbed  what  education 
and  advancement  the  larger  town  had  to  offer.  She  was 
chosen,  when  seventeen  years  of  age,  to  be  counselor  in  the 
Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  to  Miss  Maggie  Heron  of  Tooele.  At  the 


death  of  Sister  Heron,  she  was  appointed  president  of  the 
association.  Miss  Caldwell  resigned  from  this  position  to 
go  to  Logan  and  attend  the  Brigham  Young  College  in  that 
place.  The  Caldwell  family  moved  to  Salt  Lake  City  in 
1892  to  secure  better  educational  advantages  for  their  chil- 


dren,  and  Emily  at  once  entered  the  University  of  Utah.  She 
was  also  set  to  work  in  the  Mutuals,  being-  chosen  as  coun- 
selor to  Nellie  Morris,  in  the  Fifteenth  ward  association. 
Later,  she  was  chosen  by  Sister  Mary  A.  Freeze,  as  an  aid 
in  the  Salt  Lake  stake  board.  When  President  Freeze  was 
called  as  aid  in  the  General  Board,  Miss  Caldwell  was  ap- 
pointed to  act  as  second  counselor  to  President  Nellie  C. 
Taylor,  in  the  Salt  Lake  stake  presidency  of  the  Mutual  Im- 
provement associations.  In  the  division  of  the  stakes,  in 
1904,  she  was  chosen  by  Sister  Elmina  S.  Taylor  to  act  on 
the  General  Board  as  an  aid.  In  June,  1899,  she  was  mar- 
ried to  Thomas  Adams,  a  rising"  young1  lawyer.  He  was 
also  country  born  and  reared,  and  was  a  substantial  member 
of  the  legal  profession,  and  an  honor  to  the  Church  and 
Kingdom  of  God.  Six  years  after  their  marriage,  Mrs. 
Adams  was  left  a  widow,  with  an  only  son,  four  years  old. 
Ever  since  her  entrance  into  the  Board,  Mrs.  Adams  has 
been  an  indefatigable  worker,  both  in  traveling-  and  on  com- 
mittees. She  is  an  excellent  speaker,  and  has  a  clear  mind 
and  a  comprehensive  grasp  of  every  subject  in  which  she 
may  be  interested.  In  no  better  way  could  her  sweet  faith 
and  trust  in  God  and  His  providences  be  demonstrated  than 
in  the  womanly  courage  and  patience  with  which  she  has 
faced  life  since  her  great  trial.  One  highly  commendable 
feature  of  her  strong  character  was  shown  in  the  firm  refusal 
to  shroud  herself  in  widow's  weeds.  Only  the  tender  sorrow 
in  eyes  and  mouth  have  betrayed  the  suffering  which  she  has 
so  sacredly  guarded.  Her  life  and  character  furnish  a  true 
model  for  the  young  daughters  of  Zion  to  emulate. 


Too  often  modest  worth  is  left  to  labor  in  obscurity. 
However  much  modesty  and  humility  may  be  admired  in  the 
abstract,  the  aggressive  person  is  apt  to  be  set  in  the  front 
ranks.  But,  fortunately,  the  common  voice  of  humanity 
demands  that  leaders  shall  possess  something  besides 
aggressiveness.  There  must  be  real,  not  superficial,  qualities 
of  superiority,  else  the  proud  courage  is  found  to  be  empty 
pretense,  and  the  world  seeks  a  better  leader,  a  wiser 
voice.  When,  however,  gifts  of  intellect  are  united  with 



HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

genuine  diffidence  and  humility,  the  few  will  discover  the 
rare  combination,  and  they  will  hasten  to  make  their  discov- 
ery known  to  the  public.  This  has  been  the  case  with  the 
subject  of  this  sketch. 

The  mother  of  Mary  Connelly  was  born  in  England,  and 

made  the  usual 
sacrifice  of  all 
her  family  asso- 
c  i  a  t  i  o  n  s  and 
friends  to  join 
her  fortunes 
with  the  "Mor- 
mons." Mary 
was  born  Feb. 
19,  1876,  in  Salt 
Lake  City.  She 
was  a  thorough 
student  and  was 
deeply  interest- 
ed in  her  work. 
She  graduated 
from  the  U.  of 
U.,  in  the  Nor- 
mal course, 
when  she  was 
but  eighteen 
years  of  age, 
and,  four  years 
later,  took  out 
a  degree  in  the 
college  course. 
Since  that  time, 
Mary  has  taught 
school,  first  in 
the  district 

schools  of  the  city,  and  later  in  the  Salt  Lake  high  school. 
Her  nature  is  too  deep  and  full  to  spend  itself  on  the 
surface  of  life's  stream.  When  old  enough  Mary  entered  the 
Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  and  served  for  a  time  as  secretary,  later  as 
counselor  and  then  as  president  of  the  Twenty- First  ward 
association,  Salt  Lake  City.  On  the  division  of  the  ward  she 



was  made  president  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  the  new  Twen- 
ty-Seventh ward.  Only  a  few  months  later,  President  Nellie 
C.  Taylor  called  her  to  the  position  of  aid  on  the  Salt  Lake 
stake  board,  and  shortly  after,  she  was  asked  to  act  on  the 
General  Board,  where  she  has  since  labored  diligently  in  her 
position  as  aid.  Miss  Connelly  is  now  editor  of  the  Young 
Womarf s  Journal. 

Those  who  meet  this  modest,  quiet  young"  woman  for 
the  first  time,  do  not  guess  at  the  depth  of  her  experiences, 
nor  the  strong  current  of  her  soul.  She  carries  to  every 
darkened  room  and  to  every  saddened  heart  of  her  acquaint- 
ance the  sweet  flowers  of  earth,  and  those  sweeter  blos- 
soms of  tender  love  and  sympathy ,  that  never  bloom  till  the 
heart  has  been  itself  wrung  with  secret  sacrifice  and  purified 
by  silent  suffering.  She  is  a  convincing  speaker,  and 
possesses  the  training  and  capacity  to  do  much  splendid  work 
for  the  cause  of  truth. 


Elen  Wallace  possesses  many  qualifications  which  go  to 
make  up  leadership.  If  it  were  not  for  her  shrinking 
modesty,  she  might  attain  eminence.  However,  her  talents 
may  put  her  where  her  lack  of  aggressiveness  might  never 
find  her.  She  is  a  sister  to  Mrs.  Rose  Wallace  Bennett 
and  has  the  same  artistic  temperament,  and  the  same  con- 
vincing testimony  of  the  truth.  After  leaving  the  district 
school  Miss  Wallace  took  a  course  in  theL.  D.  S.  University, 
and  has  since  taken  special  studies  in  the  University  of 
Utah.  This  has  been  supplemented  by  an  extensive  course 
of  private  reading  and  the  advantages  and  culture  of 
foreign  travel. 

She  began  work  in  the  Mutuals  at  a  very  early  age,  act- 
ing first  in  the  position  of  second  counselor  and  later  as 
first  counselor  in  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  the  Seventh  ward, 
Salt  Lake  City.  She  was  an  aid  on  the  Salt  Lake  stake 
board,  for  one  year,  prior  to  the  division  of  the  stakes  in 
1904,  and  when  that  board  was  disbanded  through  the  divi- 
sion of  the  stakes,  was  appointed  by  President  Elmina  S. 
Taylor  to  a  position  on  the  General  Board  to  act  as  aid. 
Here  she  has  labored  with  zeal  and  quiet  enthusiasm,  and 

260  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


although  her  voice  may  not  often  be  heard  in  the  long-  and 
busy  councils,  when  she  does  speak,  her  words  are  tempered 
with  wisdom.  In  January,  1905,  she  was  chosen  to  act  as 
associate  editor  of  the  Young  Woman's  Journal,  and  gave 


great  help  and  skilled  assistance  in  this  position.  She  has 
since  worked  on  the  journal,  Traveling  Library,  and  many 
special  committees,  doing  most  effective  work,  as  her  ability 
enables  her  to  act  in  many  diverse  lines.  Miss  Wallace  has 
traveled  extensively  in  the  interest  of  the  Board.  She  has 
a  charming  personality  and  is  very  popular  wherever  she  is 


Her  Character. — Her  Death. — The  Funeral  Services. 

THE  great  difference  between  the  religion  of  the  ancient 
Hindoos  and  Christianity,  is  the  difference  in  the  re- 
lation of  the  individual  to  the  whole.  The  subtle  force  of  the 
East  India  dogma  lies  in  its  power  to  take  the  soul  half  way 
on  the  high  road  to  heaven.  The  message  of  both  Brahma 
and  Buddha  contained  the  first  principle  of  true  religion;  that 
is,  the  devotion  of  the  individual  to  the  whole;  the  giving  up 
of  the  self  and  selfish  will  to  the  will  of  a  Higher  Power,  but 
the  second  part  of  that  eternal  principle  of  progress  is  lost  to 
the  East  Indians,  or  they  have  long  since  perverted  its  mean- 
ing. The  end  in  the  Hindoo  religion  is  a  final  absorbtion  of 
human  souls  into  the  divine  Nirvana.  All  individualities 
lose  their  identity  in  this  principle  or  essence.  Nirvana 
might  be  described  as  ethereal  light  and  peaceful  radiance. 

The  teaching  of  the  Savior  was  the  same  as  that  of  Buddha 
so  far  as  the  first  part  of  the  principle  is  concerned,  namely 
that  of  the  giving  up  of  the  individual  will  to  a  Higher  Will; 
this  is  the  first  vital  step  to  be  taken  by  the  eager  proselyte 
of  eternal  truth.  But  Jesus  taught  that  this  voluntary  sub- 
mersion of  the  human  into  the  divine  will  resulted  not  in  any 
loss  of  identity,  but  in  a  final  glorification  of  the  individual. 
The  follower  of  Jesus  gave  his  soul  in  order  to  regain  it,  still 
as  an  individual  soul,  in  its  purified  and  exalted  form;  it  was 
not  to  be  absorbed  into  a  principle  or  spiritual  mass,  but  to 
come  forth  as  Jesus  Himself  did,  with  a  celestialized  body, 
with  which  to  eat  and  drink,  and  with  all  the  parts  of  the 
human  body  purified  and  exalted. 

There  is  one  thought  which  comes  frequently  to  the 
student  of  the  lives  of  the  great  men  and  women  who  have 

262  HISTORY  OF  1  HE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

made  the  history  of  this  people.  It  is  said  that  Joseph  Smith 
and  Brig-ham  Young  performed  such  and  such  labors;  but  it 
is  also  true  that  the  glory  should  not  be  ascribed  to  them, 
except  as  they  were  the  instruments  of  the  Lord.  It  is  the 
Savior  who  has  done  this  and  that  work.  Again,  the  Savior 
Himself  was  quick  to  acknowledge  that  He  came  not  to  do 
His  work,  but  the  work  of  His  Father. 

The  consideration  of  the  character  and  life  work  of 
Elmina  S.  Taylor,  the  details  of  her  death,  and  the  attendant 
impressive  ceremonies,  are  presented  in  this  chapter,  not  so 
much  because  of  her  own  greatness,  great  as  she  was,  nor 
because  of  the  reverent  love  accorded  to  her  by  all  her  asso- 
ciates; but  rather  for  the  lessons  taught,  and  the  ideals  which 
will  be  thus  awakened  within  the  hearts  of  the  daughters  of 
Zion.  No  one  was  so  ready  as  she  to  sink  her  individuality 
in  the  measure  of  that  whole  work;  for  this  reason,  if  no  other, 
posterity  will  be  anxious  to  fathom  the  causes  which  made  her 
life  what  it  was,  and  her  reward  what  it  will  be.  If  we  would 
attain  to  her  fullness,  we  must  study  her  life  and  follow  her 
example.  Thus  we  might  study  the  life  and  work  of  any  true 
Saint,  and  through  that  inquiry  learn  perhaps  as  much  of  the 
character  and  purposes  of  the  Lord  who  inspired  the  individ- 
ual as  of  the  personality  of  the  subject  of  our  study. 

The  most  striking  characteristic  of  Elmina  S.  Taylor  was 
her  reserved  modesty.  This  amounted  almost  to  a  fault,  for 
it  reacted  at  times  upon  her  life;  but  it  was  a  trait,  not  an  in- 
tegral part  of  her  character.  When  aroused  or  assailed,  or 
when  personally  attacked  for  principle,  she  lost  that  shrink- 
ing reserve,  and  stood  forth  in  defense  of  herself  as  an  expo- 
nent of  a  part  of  God's  work  upon  earth.  So  now,  we  would 
call  forth  the  character  and  life  of  our  departed  leader,  clothed 
in  the  record  of  her  deeds  and  accomplishments,  that  we  may 
study  through  them  the  purposes  and  results  of  a  Divine  will 
made  manifest  in  the  history  of  the  Mutual  Improvement 


The  contribution  of  Elmina  S.  Taylor  to  the  life  and 
success  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  work  among  the  girls 
was  amazingly  great.  She  imparted  dignity  to  every  cord 
and  sinew,  nerve  and  tissue  of  the  Mutual  body.  No  hamlet 
so  remote,  no  girl  so  distant,  that  the  force  and  power  of  the 
leader  was  not  felt  directly  or  indirectly.  With  that  dignity 
of  spirit  came  a  certain  healthy  formality  of  procedure,  a 
quiet  sobriety  of  demeanor,  and  a  careful  recognition  of  all 
the  proprieties. 

Sister  Taylor  was  the  soul  of  frugality;  not  the  parsi- 
monious closeness  that  sometimes  masquerades  under  that 
name,  but  she  had  a  perfect  knowledge  of  her  resources  and 
she  made  a  consistent  and  prudent  distribution  of  such  stores 
and  means  as  came  under  her  care.  She  was  not  given  to 
parading  her  powers  in  this  direction,  nor  the  resources  of 
the  association  she  represented,  any  more  than  she  was  of  an- 
nouncing from  the  housetops  the  extent  of  her  private  char- 
ities and  incomes;  but  neither  had  she  the  least  disposition  to 
conceal  any  information  desired,  wherever  such  a  wish  was 
legitimate  and  proper. 

Her  nature  was  deep,  rather  than  broad,  so  that  the  depth 
of  love  which  surged  through  her  for  "my  girls,"  as  she  al- 
ways lovingly  called  them,  was  rather  an  expression  of  her 
intimate  personal  relation  with  the  particular  girls  enrolled 
under  the  banner  of  Mutual  Improvement,  than  it  was  any 
natural  outpouring  towards  all  humanity.  This  close,  indi- 
vidual relationship  brought  its  own  reward  in  the  ardent  de- 
votion which  it  inspired  in  every  girl  who  joined  the  associ- 
ation, and,  therefore,  partook  of  the  silent  but  forceful  spirit- 
ual influence  of  the  leader. 

The  characteristic  which  made  her  long  administration 
so  pre-eminently  successful,  washer  splendid  executive  abil- 
ity, combined  with  a  certain  large  wisdom,  which  never 
allowed  her  to  be  partial  or  selfish.  She  was  a  ' 'natural  born 
leader,"  as  the  phrase  goes  among  us;  she  was  a  fine  reader  of 

264  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

character,  and  had  the  gift  which  generally  accompanies  that 
trait — the  gift  of  discernment.  She  was  so  discreet  that  she 
could  enjoy  the  confidence  of  her  immediate  associates,  with- 
out betraying  one  to  the  other.  She  was  endowed  with  the 
power  and  wisdom  to  command;  this  was  ever  present  with 
her,  even  upon  her  dying  couch— the  word  spoken  from  her 
lips  must  needs  be  obeyed,  although  she  rarely  spoke  in  any- 
thing but  gentle  tones.  How  subtle,  and  yet  how  apparent 
is  this  gift  of  leadership;  it  has  many  component  parts,  and 
rarely  do  they  all  unite  in  one  person,  as  was  the  case  with 
Sister  Taylor,  and  Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow. 

The  foundation  of  every  true  character  must  be  integrity; 
that  old-fashioned  term,  which  means  so  much,  and  which 
can  rarely  be  acquired.  President  Joseph  F.  Smith  dwelt 
upon  this  trait  of  Sister  Taylor's  character,  when  speaking  at 
her  funeral.  It  was  a  deep-sounding  note  which  ran  from 
her  out  to  every  soul  marshaled  under  her  leadership. 
Genuine,  true,  wise  and  clear-sighted — this  is  what  she  was, 
pre-eminentlv.  To  know  the  right  and  to  do  it,  what  more 
can  any  man  or  woman  do!  This  she  did,  come  life,  come 

She  made  her  whole-souled  contributions  to  the  public 
good,  undertaken  ever  reluctantly,  but  carried  forth  faith- 
fully to  the  day  of  her  death.  If  one  would  ask  what  was 
the  character  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  Associations  for 
girls  during  the  first  third  of  a  century,  let  him  study  the 
lives  and  characters  of  the  two  women,  Eliza  R.  Snow  and 
Elmina  S.  Taylor,  who  led  them  during  that  period.  It  is  a 
solemn  thought  that  the  one  who  stands  at  the  head  of  a 
great  movement  or  community,  imparts,  whether  he  will  or 
not,  much  the  same  character  to  his  people,  his  work,  and  his 
time,  that  he  himself  possesses.  For  his  strength,  he  will 
give  strength;  for  his  weakness,  he  will  impart  weakness. 
God  will  overrule  it  all,  but  the  individual  will  dominate  the 
whole,  as  the  influence  of  the  whole  will  determine  the  nature 


of  the  individual.  When  the  wicked  rule,  the  people  not 
only  mourn,  but  they  deteriorate;  and  so,  likewise,  when  the 
righteous  govern,  the  people  rejoice,  and  are  elevated  and 
stimulated  to  good  works. 

Come  we  now  to  a  consideration  of  those  details  which 
preceded  and  enveloped  the  closing  life-movements  of  the 
great  woman  whose  character  meant  so  much  to  the  cause  of 
Mutual  Improvement.  Peacefully  she  had  lived,  peacefully 
she  died.  She  had  loved  and  served,  and  at  her  death  all 
Israel  mourned.  Like  Deborah  of  old,  her  victories  and  her 
honors  were  divided  among  the  men  and  the  women  who 
labored  and  fought  side  by  side  with  her.  Had  she  sung  a 
song  of  praise  to  God,  she  would  have  marshaled,  as  did  the 
prophetess,  her  counselors  and  her  scribes,  her  aids  and  her 
leaders  of  hosts,  to  stand  forth  and  receive  each  her  full 
measure  of  praise  and  good  report.  And  she  too  would  have 
characterized  herself,  first  and  always,  as  "a  mother  in 
Israel!"  Then,  like  Deborah,  she  would  have  called  upon 
the  priesthood — her  Barak — as  the  crowning  feature  of  her 
song,  to  arise  and  bear  off  his  honors  with  due  meed  of 
praise  and  glory.  Like  Deborah,  she  would  have  closed  her 
song,  giving  forever  to  God  the  Father  and  His  Son  Jesus 
Christ,  all  honor  and  dominion,  and  this  tribute  would  em- 
body her  life  work, with  a  note  of  triumphant  praise  to  every 
assisting  power,  forgetting  and  losing  herself  in  the  passion 
of  gratitude  which  her  victory  had  inspired. 

The  health  of  Sister  Taylor  was  very  uncertain  for  sev- 
eral years  prior  to  her  death.  She  had  a  paralysis  of  the 
throat,  which  prevented  her  from  swallowing.  This  was  the 
disease  which  caused  the  death  of  the  famous  writer,  George 
Eliot.  Sister  Taylor  grew  weaker  and  weaker,  for  she  found 
it  impossible  at  the  last  to  swallow  even  liquids;  indeed,  that 
was  often  harder  to  do  than  to  swallow  a  little  solid  food. 
Her  heart  was  also  affected,  and  she  had  many  sinking  spells. 
But  her  indomitable  spirit  carried  her  over  pangs  which 

266  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

would  have  slain  weaker  souls.  She  was  nursed  and  watched 
over  by  her  husband  and  her  only  daughter  Mae,  between 
whom  and  the  mother  there  existed  a  reverent  devotion, 
rarely  seen  even  in  an  only  daughter  and  her  mother. 

The  weekly  meetings  of  the  General  Board  were  held  in 
the  dear  old  parlor  till  the  last;  and'  though  Sister  Taylor  was 
not  always  strong  enough  to  sit  up  during  the  entire  session, 
she  would  lie  on  the  couch,  quietly  listening  to  the  discus- 
sions and  suggestions.  But  if  any  difficulty  or  possible  dis- 
sension arose,  or  a  decision  was  doubtful,  she  would  arouse, 
and  with  uplifted  head  and  in  ringing  tones  pour  forth  elo- 
quent words  of  inspiration  until  every  one  present  would  ac- 
knowledge that  God  was  with  Sister  Elmina  S.  Taylor. 

In  the  late  fall  of  1904,  the  strong  spirit  began  to  lose  its 
hold  on  the  frail  body.  Though  her  associates  saw  she  was 
gradually  growing  weaker,  few  realized  that  the  end  was  so 
near.  She  arose  every  day,  was  dressed  and  walked  to  a 
couch  in  the  room  adjoining  her  bedroom.  Her  cough  ^rew 
gradually  worse,  though  she  rested  well  at  night.  Monday 
evening  she  seemed  unusually  well,  and  sat  up  half  an  hour 
reading  the  paper.  But  in  the  night  she  grew  worse,  and  in 
the  early  morning  the  household  was  called.  The  change 
had  come.  At  eleven-fifteen,  Tuesday  morning,  December 
six,  nineteen  hundred  four,  she  merely  ceased  to  breathe. 
There  was  no  struggle,  no  spasm  of  pain;  only  the  spirit  for- 
sook its  mortal  tenement  and  the  body  was  at  rest. 

Our  high  priestess  was  dead,  but  so  beautiful  was 
her  life,  and  so  peaceful  was  her  death,  that  a  chastened, 
glorified  calm  rested  everywhere  about  her.  Those  who  had 
known  her,  rejoiced  and  were  glad  because  of  the  fullness  of 
her  life  and  its  infinite  meaning;  even  those  who  knew  her 
not,  were  touched  by  the  largeness  of  her  labors  as  mani- 
fested in  the  devotion  of  her  associates. 

The  funeral  was  typical  of  her,  and  of  her  religion.  The 
story  of  that  service  demands  a  place  in  history,  both  because 


of  what  it  was  and  what  it  meant.  The  members  of  her  own 
Board  were  called  together,  and  the  funeral  arrangements 
were  perfected  under  the  efficient  leadership  of  her  first 
counselor,  Sister  Maria  Y.  Don  gall.  The  exquisitely  beau- 
tiful clothing,  all  of  fine  white  linen,  as  is  the  custom  among 
us,  was  fashioned  by  the  reverent  fingers  of  the  women  who 
had  labored  with  her  so  closely  and  intimately.  With  an 
exact  appreciation  of  simplicity,  economy  and  justice,  she 
had  in  life  deprecated  the  extremes  to  which  the  custom  of 
sending  floral  tributes  to  the  dead  had  been  carried  by  some 
of  our  people;  but  even  she  would  have  accepted  gladly  the 
munificent  outpouring  of  flowers  which  came  spontaneously 
from  far  and  near.  The  stricken  love  of  all  her  associates 
could  find  expression  in  no  better  way  than  to  crowd  her 
bier  with  floral  tokens  of  respect  and  reverence. 

The  General  Board  of  the  young  men,  with  President 
Joseph  F.  Smith  at  the  head,  united  with  the  young  women 
to  carry  forward  the  public  arrangements  for  the  funeral. 

The  services  were  held  in  the  Assembly  Hall.  The 
hall  was  decorated  profusely  with  white  bunting  and  potted 
palms,  with  smilax  drooping  in  the  folds  of  the  white  drap- 
ery. Ferns  and  great  vases  of  white  chrysanthemums  gar- 
nished the  pulpits.  The  seating  of  the  vast  auditorium  was 
under  the  charge  of  white-robed  girls,  and  the  choir  chairs 
were  filled  with  lovely  girl  singers,  dressed  in  spotless  white. 
The  music  was  under  the  charge  of  Sister  Alice  C.  Tudden- 
ham,  and  Sister  Lizzie  Thomas  presided  at  the  organ. 

The  General  Board  of  the  Young  Ladies  assembled  at 
the  Taylor  home  and  walked, with  other  close  friends,  behind 
the  hearse  to  the  hall.  The  services  were  presided  over  by 
President  Joseph  F.  Smith,  and  the  pulpits  were  filled  with 
the  leaders  of  the  various  organizations.  The  last  two  histor- 
ical women  living  at  that  date,  Bathsheba  W.  Smith  and 
Emmeline  B.  Wells,  occupied  seats  in  the  upper  pulpit,  and 
both  spoke  a  few  words  of  consolation  and  appreciation.  It 

268  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

was  an  impressive  sight  to  the  thoughtful,  that  the  only 
woman  who  was  present  at  the  original  organization  except 
the  members  of  President  Young's  household,  Mrs.  Bathsheba 
W.  Smith,  should  help  to  lay  away  the  first  general  president 
of  that  association,  after  thirty-five  years  of  active  M.  I.  A. 
history  had  been  made. 

The  pulpits  and  the  casket  were  enshrined  with  the  many 
floral  tributes  sent  from  organizations  from  near  and  distant 
stakes  and  from  personal  friends.  But  the  loveliest  tribute 
of  all  was  that  which  was  designed  to  represent  every  girl  in 
Zion:  a  great  blanket  of  green  enriched  by  fifty-six  tea  roses 
to  represent  the  stake  associations;  and  in  the  center  the 
words,  "From  Your  Girls,"  wrought  out  in  pure  white  nar- 
cissus flowers.  This  completely  covered  the  casket.  As 
each  member  of  the  General  Board  passed  on  her  way  to  her 
seat  in  the  pulpit,  she  dropped  a  single  American  Beauty 
rose  on  the  blanket  as  her  own  slight  offering  of  love. 

When  the  tuneful  voices  of  the  white-robed  choir-girls 
arose  in  the  first  hymn,  all  hearts  were  moved  with  sorrow 
and  with  praise.  "Thou  dost  not  weep  to  weep  alone,"  sang 
the  silver-throated  girls,  and  the  gentle  melody  stilled  rather 
than  augmented  every  emotion  of  distress. 

The  opening  prayer  was  eloquently  offered  by  Elder 
John  Henry  Smith.  The  second  hymn  was  that  one  of 
matchless  sentiment  by  Eliza  R.  Snow, 

"O,  my  Father,  Thou  that  dwellest, 
In  that  high  and  glorious  place." 

The  speakers  of  the  occasion  were  surely  inspired.  Rare- 
ly have  so  many  spontaneous  tributes  and  eloquent  phrases 
fallen  from  the  lips  of  our  leaders;  but  space  will  not  permit 
their  repetition.  The  speakers  were,  President  John  R. 
Winder,  Counselor  Maria  Y.  Dougall,  Elder  J.  Golden  Kim- 
ball,  President  Bathsheba  W.  Smith,  in  behalf  of  the  Relief 
Society;  Sister  Susa  Young  Gates,  Sister  May  Anderson, 


representing  the  Primary  Association;  Patriarch  John  Smith, 
vSister  Emmeline  B.  Wells,  Sister  Ruth  M.  Fox,  and  the 
closing  was  an  eloquent  discourse  from  the  lips  of  President 
Joseph  F.  Smith.  His  remarks  are  so  replete  with  wisdom 
that  they  will  be  given  here: 

After  reading  a  few  verses  from  the  first  and  second 
chapters  of  I  John,  he  said:  . 

I  do  not  wish  to  detain  the  congregation.  I  wish  to  say 
that  I  indorse,  without  recourse,  all  that  I  have  heard  said 
today  respecting  the  character,  life,  labors,  virtues,  wisdom, 
judgment  and  intelligence  of  our  sister,  Elmina  S.  Taylor. 
Pardon  me  if  I  make  such  a  broad  expression,  but  I  will  say 
that  most  people  of  my  acquaintance — and  I  presume  it  will 
apply  generally — that  most  people  walk  very  largely  in  a 
light  that  is  borrowed,  like  the  light  of  the  moon  borrowed 
from  the  sun.  I  have  known  a  few  men  and  women  in  the 
world  who  do  not  seek  borrowed  light,  for  the  light  is  in 
them  and  they  walk  in  the  light,  and  they  have  fellowship 
with  Jesus  Christ  and  with  their  associates,  with  the  Church, 
and  with  the  Kingdom  of  God  in  the  earth,  and  the  blood  of 
Jesus  Christ  hath  indeed  cleansed  them  from  all  sin.  I  will 
give  it  as  an  opinion  which  I  have  held  many  years,  because 
of  my  connection  with  these  Mutual  Improvement  Associa- 
tions and  with  Sister  Taylor,  that  she  was  one  of  the  few  in 
the  world  who  had  the  light  within  her,  and  who  had  the  in- 
spiration and  the  intelligence  that  is  born  of  truth  and  of  the 
forgiveness  of  sins,  of  the  cleansing  blood  of  Jesus  Christ, 
and  she  walked  in  it,  and  therefore  she  had  power  among  her 
associates  and  her  sisters.  She  was  legitimately  the  head  of 
the  organization  over  which  she  was  called  to  preside.  She 
borrowed  no  influence  from  others.  She  bore  her  own  in- 
fluence upon  the  minds  of  those  with  whom  she  was  associat- 
ed. There  came  out  of  her  soul  the  spirit  of  wisdom,  coun- 
sel and  judgment,  and  her  mind  was  clear  in  regard  to  the 
truth;  and  she  always  spoke  as  one  possessed  of  more  than 
ordinary  intelligence,  which  she  really  did  possess. 

Now,  it  is  not  my  custom  to  speak  praise  of  our  departed 
loved  ones.  I  would  rather  dwell,  if  the  time  would  permit 
me,  and  I  had  the  opportunity  to  do  it,  upon  the  glorious 

270  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

future  that  awaits  them,  upon  the  certainty  of  eternal  life 
which  they  have  espoused,  which  they  have  won  for  them- 
selves. I  would  rather  dwell  upon  the  goodness  and  glory 
of  God's  message  of  life  and  salvation  to  the  children  of  men. 
But  I  have  felt  to  say  these  few  words  in  indorsement  of 
what  has  been  said  by  our  brethren  and  sisters  with  respect 
to  Sister  Taylor.  It  was  said  that  she  was  a  strong  character, 
she  had  a  strong  personality.  This  is  true.  But  the  very 
strength  of  that  character  and  personality  was  tempered  and 
softened  by  the  choicest  spirit  of  kindness,  of  love,  of  mercy, 
and  of  charity  that  ever,  in  my  judgment,  adorned  woman- 
kind; and  while  she  possessed  this  strength  of  character  and 
this  strong  personality,  it  was  always  bent  in  the  direction  of 
righteousness,  in  the  direction  of  truth,  for  the  uplifting  of 
her  associates.  Herein  is  where  she  shone  most  brightly, 
because  all  her  thoughts  and  all  her  energies  were  directed 
in  the  right  channel  and  for  the  right  cause.  And  she  was 
singularly  free  from  mistakes  and  from  those  little  imperfec- 
tions or  weaknesses,  which  are  so  often  exhibited  by  fallen 
human  nature. 

My  brethren  and  sisters,  we  have  lost  a  valuable  soul 
from  among  us  in  the  flesh.  I  sometimes  marvel  why  it  is, 
when  these  spirits  are  so  few  and  so  far  between,  that  they 
should  not,  in  the  providence  of  God,  be  permitted  to  remain 
a  little  longer  with  us.  She  was  not  so  old  but  that  she  might 
have  lived  for  many,  many  years  and  continued  her  labor 
amongst  us.  But  in  God's  providence  the  youth  even,  the 
brightest,  sometimes,  amongst  us  and  the  most  faithful,  the 
most  diligent,  those  who  seem  to  be  qualified  to  accomplish 
the  greatest  good,  are  often  permitted  to  go  before;  while 
those  who  need  light,  who  borrow  light,  who  are  seeking 
light  and  intelligence  and  who  are  susceptible  to  it  and  are 
striving  to  absorb  it  in  their  souls  that  it  may  become  a  part 
of  them,  remain  to  struggle  along  with  their  imperfections 
and  with  the  difficulties  that  they  have  to  meet  with  in  life, 
to  do  the  best  they  can.  And  I  come  to  the  conclusion  that 
God  intends  that  we  shall  feel  and  know  that  it  is  not  man, 
nor  the  arm  of  flesh,  that  we  shall  put  our  trust  in;  but  that 
we  shall  depend  upon  Him,  and  put  our  trust  in  Him,  though 
the  world  is  opposed,  and  all  the  forces,  it  seems,  of  evil,  are 
arrayed  against  the  work  of  the  Lord. 


One  of  the  sisters  remarked  that  if  the  world  could  see 
and  know  the  virtue  and  the  purity  of  life  of  such  women 
as  Sister  Taylor  and  her  associates  in  the  Young  Ladies' 
Mutual  Improvement  Association,  it  would  seem  that  they 
would  hold  their  tongues.  This  I  fear  is  a  mistake.  I  be- 
lieve that  it  is  because  the  wicked  see  the  virtues  and  see  the 
purity  of  life,  the  honor  and  uprightness,  the  faith  and  fidelity 
of  the  daughters  of  Zion  and  of  the  faithful  sons  of  Zion,  that 
they  are  stirred  up  the  more  to  bitterness,  hatred  and  envy, 
as  the  wolf  is  stirred  in  his  hunger  and  ravenous  appetite 
against  the  innocent  lamb.  The  more  purity  you  have,  the 
better  you  live,  the  nearer  unto  God,  the  more  upright  you 
are,  the  more  the  wicked  will  hate  and  persecute  you,  and  say 
all  manner  of  evil  against  you  falsely;  for  so  they  did  against 
Him  who  was  without  sin  or  blemish,  for  it  was  against  Him 
who  was  purer  than  all  and  better  than  all,  who  had  more  in- 
telligence than  all  others  that  ever  lived  in  the  flesh,  they 
cried,  "Let  His  blood  be  upon  us  and  upon  our  children; 
crucify  Him,  put  Him  to  death."  And  I  say  again,  that  the 
wicked  in  the  world  hate,  and  will  continue  to  hate  you  as 
long  as  you  continue  to  possess  virtue,  purity,  honor  and 
truth,  until  He  comes  whose  right  it  is  to  reign  in  the  earth 
as  King  of  Kings  and  Lord  of  Lords,  and  shall  execute  judg- 
ment upon  the  wicked,  and  the  ungodly  shall  be  forced  to 
bow  the  knee,  and  their  blasphemous  tongues  shall  be  forced 
to  confess  that  Jesus  is  the  Christ,  the  Son  of  the  living  God. 
Now,  I  think  you  will  find  this  to  be  the  truth. 

The  Lord  bless  you.  I  will  say  to  Bishop  Taylor,  God 
bless  you,  and  help  you  to  continue  to  be  the  man  that  you 
are;  all  good  wives  help  their  husbands  to  be  good,  that  is, 
if  there  is  any  good  in  them.  To  him  I  say,  the  Lord 
bless  you,  comfort  your  heart,  give  you  that  strength  that  is 
needed  to  enable  you  to  continue  your  labor  as  a  shepherd  in 
Israel  and  as  a  guide  to  the  flock  over  which  you  preside  as 
a  bishop  of  the  Church;  and  that  you  and  yours  may  be 
blessed  and  filled  with  joy,  satisfaction  and  the  knowledge  that 
you  possess  all  the  glorious  privileges  and  rights  that  belong 
to  her  that  has  now  gone  before  you,  that  you  will  meet  her 
again  and  enjoy  her  society  forever  and  ever  in  the  mansion 
that  is  prepared  for  you,  or  will  be  prepared  for  you,  when 
you  shall  be  gathered  into  the  Kingdom  of  our  God.  This  is 

272  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

my  prayer  for  you.  Ever  be  true  to  the  Gospel  of  life.  And 
to  the  children  I  say,  be  true  to  the  examples  of  your  mother, 
walk  and  follow  in  her  footsteps,  for  she  was  inded  a  true 
mother  in  Israel,  and  a  wise  counselor,  a  glorious,  good  wom- 
an. God  bless  her  memory  to  all  those  who  knew  her,  and 
may  her  fame  and  her  name  be  handed  down  from  genera- 
tion to  generation  by  those  who  love  God  and  who  strive  to 
keep  His  commandments,  is  my  prayer  in  the  name  of  Jesus, 

Elder  Thomas  Hull  then  read  the  following: 


By  the  Young  Men 's  Mutual  Improvement  Association. 

' 'Sister  Elmina  S.  Taylor,  president  of  the  Young  La- 
dies' Mutual  Improvement  Associations,  having  died  at  her 
home  in  Salt  Lake  City,  December  6,  1904,  at  the  age  of 
seventy-four  years,  and  after  twenty-four  years  of  faithful 
service  as  the  supreme  head  of  our  companion  organization, 
the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Associations: 

"It  is  resolved  by  the  General  Superintendence',  for 
themselves  and  for  the  Young  Men's  Mutual  Improvement 
Associations  throughout  the  world: 

"That  we  express  in  unqualified  terms  our  praise  of  the 
splendid  organization  of  the  young  women  of  Zion  brought 
up  to  its  present  perfection  under  the  presidency  of  Sister 

"That  we  recognize  in  the  vast  labor  which  this  achieve- 
ment has  involved,  the  triumphant  consecration  of  a  noble 
life,  whose  whole  soul — with  qualities  of  mind  and  heart 
peculiarly  adapted  to  the  duties  of  leadership — was  dedicated 
to  this  service; 

"That  we  sympathize  deeply  with  the  officers  and  mem- 
bers of  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Associations 
in  the  sorrow  of  their  parting  from  their  distinguished  presi- 
dent, who  had  won  completely  their  respect  for  her  wisdom, 
and  confidence  in  her  executive  judgment,  and  their  un- 
feigned love; 

"That  we  commend  the  glorious  example  of  her  life  in 
its  unselfish  devotion  to  the  highest  ideals  of  culture  and  im- 
provement, to  the  emulation  of  the  young  women  of  our  people, 


and  her  memory  to  the  reverence  and  honor  of  all  who  love 
righteousness  and  who  delight  in  the  happiness  and  well- 
being  of  their  fellow  men." 

The  Young  Ladies'  chpir  then  sang  the  closing  hymn: 
"Rest  for  the  Weary  Soul,"  and  Apostle  Rudger  Clawson 
pronounced  the  benediction. 

At  the  cemetery  the  arrangements  were  no  less  beautiful 
— though  different  from  those  at  the  Assembly  Hall.  The 
associations  belonging  to  what  was  formerly  known  as  the 
Salt  Lake  stake  had  lined  the  grave  with  a  cloth  of  pure  white 
thickly  covered  with  fern  and  evergreen  leaves.  Into  this 
beautiful  receptacle  the  casket  was  lowered  and  the  spot  dedi- 
cated by  President  Nephi  L.  Morris  of  the  Salt  Lake  stake. 

Silently  her  associates  stepped  forward,  dropping  their 
roses  within  the  tomb  and  over  all  the  white  and  green  canopy 
was  folded.  No  touch  of  the  cold  earth  came  near  her,  for 
she  was  literally  buried  beneath  a  bed  of  roses  and  the  harsh 
sound  of  falling  earth  was  deadened  by  the  soft  petals.  The 
mound  was  made  and  over  it  was  laid  the  beauteous  blanket 
with  its  floral  legend  "From  Your  Girls."  Other  tributes 
from  hearts  just  as  warm  were  tenderly  arranged,  and  all 
was  completed. 

Thus  closed  the  life  and  labors  of  Elmina  S.  Taylor. 
With  that  closing  ended  the  first  period  of  organized  work 
among  the  young  women  of  Zion, — thirty-five  years  of  active 
existence  —thirty-five  years  of  preparation.  Had  the  lessons 
been  well  taught,  and  well  learned?  Only  eternity  may  answer 
these  questions.  We  of  mortality  are  so  apt  to  measure  life 
and  character  by  visible  results,  not  immortal  souls;  while 
God  sees  only  the  individual.  The  busy  city,  the  crowded 
harbor,  the  ships  upon  a  hundred  seas  and  the  smoke  of  in- 
dustry in  a  thousand  valleys,  these  are  our  finite  measures  of 
success;  while  to  the  Creator,  they  are  but  children's  play- 
houses in  the  sand.  The  beating  hearts,  the  struggling  hands, 


274  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

the  developed  power  and  the  intelligence  of  the  single  soul, 
of  these  He  makes  His  scales  wherewith  He  weighs  all  of  life, 
here  and  hereafter.  Whether  the  house  were  log  or  marble, 
matters  not  in  the  final  measurement.  The  story  :>f  the  rise 
and  fall  of  nations  and  individuals  is  the  same  yesterday, today 
and  forever.  Only  one  thing  accumulates,  and  that  is  the 
individual  comprehension  of  the  infinite.  All  else  is  but  tran- 
sitory and  tributary  to  that  immensity  of  single  existence. 
Beneath  all  single  expressions  of  the  law  lies  the  glorious 
fact  that  each  single  effort  for  righteousness  makes  definitely 
for  the  ultimate  triumph  of  the  immortal  Good.  And  when 
superior  souls  fight  the  good  fight  and  win  the  victor's  crown, 
the  warfare  is  made  the  easier  and  the  better  for  every  soul 
upon  earth,  and  even  for  the  hosts  of  heaven. 



Alice  Calder  was  born  in  Salt  Lake  City,  March  5,  1875. 
She  is  the  daughter  of  William  Calder.  Her  parents  were  of 
Scotch  stock,  her  mother  being  of  the  famous  McGregor  clan. 
Alice  possessed  superior  elocutionary  gifts  in  addition  to  her 
musical  powers,  and  almost  from  infancy  was  a  prominent  figure 
in  all  the  ward  entertainments.  She  loved  music,  and  was  made 
music  conductor  in  the  Twenty-First  ward  when  a  very  young 
girl.  She  has  considerable  skill  in  conducting,  and  has 
trained  many  glee  and  chorus  clubs  in  her  ward  associations . 
She  has  also  worked  in  the  ward  Mutual  as  counselor  and  sec- 
retary and  her  love  of  literature  is  second  only  to  her  passion 
for  music.  Alice  has  received  a  good  education,  having  at- 
tended the  private  school  of  that  once  welt  known  instructor 
of  the  young,  Mrs.  Camilla  Cobb;  she  also  attended  the  State 
University.  She  was  made  music  director  for  the  General 
Board  in  1898.  She  was  a  member  of  the  tabernacle  choir  for 
several  years  where  she  gained  ideas  in  expression  and  con- 
ducting from  Utah's  popular  choir  leader,  Evan  Stephens. 

Since  her  marriage  to  William  J.  Tuddenham  in  1900, 



Mrs.  Tuddenham  has  necessarily  been  less  active  in  public. 
She  possesses  a  sunny,  happy  disposition,  and  wins  the  sad- 
dest and  sorest  soul  to  her  side,  if  given  the  opportunity. 
Her  natural  love  of  domestic  pleasures  makes  it  difficult  some- 
times to  know  where  the  line  is  to  be  drawn  between  public 
and  private  cares.  But  wherever  she  is,  there  will  be  sun- 
shine and  music. 

Mrs.  Tuddenham  is  the  mother  of  four  fine  children,  one 

boy  and  three  little  daugh- 
ters. She  is  a  devoted  mother 
and  wife,  and  laughingly  ad- 
mits that  she  is  too  engrossed 
in  her  happiness  at  home  to 
venture  very  much  into  pub- 
lic life.  Yet  she  retains  her 
position  on  theGeneralBoard, 
and  often  comes  into  the 
weekly  meeting  to  assist  in 
every  phase  of  the  work  done 
there.  She  is  broad  in  her 
sympathies  and  full  of  sug- 
gestions on  many  subjects. 
She,  with  the  two  organists, 
i  s  now  engaged  in  the 
preparation  of  a  special  song 
book  of  music  by  home  au- 
thors and  home  musicians,  for 
the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  She  is 
very  enthusiastic  in  what- 

ALICE  CALDER  TUDDENHAM.  ever  she  undertakes  and  car- 

ries forward  her  duties  with 

vigor  and  success.  She  is  a  born  leader  in  musical  matters, 
but  none  the  less  a  successful  wife  and  a  devoted  mother. 


In  no  other  branch  of  art  is  Utah  so  interested  as  in  the 
beautiful  art  of  music;  it  has  often  been  remarked  by  visit- 
ing strangers  that  no  place  of  its  size  can  compare  with 
Utah  in  the  production  of  musicians,  both  vocal  and  instru- 
mental. It  is  indeed  an  honor  therefore  to  be  so  gifted  and  so 

276  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

well-trained  that  one  stands  in  the  front  ranks  of  our  home 
artists.  This  distinction  is  certainly  due  the  subject  of  this 
sketch,  who  is  still  young  and  full  of  brilliant  promise  for  the 
future . 

Mattie  Read  was  born  in  Nephi,  Juab  Co.,  and  is  the 
daughter  of  Walter  P.  and  Martha  A.  Pond  Read.  She  was 
educated  in  the  public  schools  and  later  in  the  State  Univer- 
sity, the  family  having  removed  to  Salt  Lake  City  when  she 
was  very  young.  Her  mother 
was  of  a  sensitive  and  refined 
nature ,  and  reared  her  daugh- 
ter to  be  a  true  Latter-day 
Saint.  The  father  is  a  local 
financial  leader,  and  Mattie 
has  therefore  had  excellent 
opportunities  to  develop  her 
gifts.  She  was  .organist  in 
her  ward  for  some  time,  and 
came  into  the  Board  as  gen- 
eral organist  in  1897.  She 
has  been  a  faithful  Mutual 
worker  from  her  very  early 
years,  acting  as  treasurer  of 
the  Twenty-First  ward  Y.L. 
M .  I .  A .  for  some  years .  She 
was  organist  of  all  the  auxili- 
ary associations  of  that  ward 
as  well  as  ward  organist.  In 
1902,  she  went  to  Germany 
to  study  music.  She  studied  MATTIE  READ  EVANS. 

in  the   Sterns  Conservatory 

for  a  year  and  a  half,  and  afterwards  for  over  two  years  under 
Godowsky,  who  is  the  recognized  leader  in  his  profession  in 
Germany.  He  was  so  satisfied  with  her  work  that  he  offered 
her  a  position  in  a  conservatory  for  girls  in  the  United  States. 
Miss  Read  declined  this  offer,  being  anxious  to  return  to 
her  home  and  people.  Since  her  return,  she  has  demonstrated 
her  powers  as  a  musician,  both  in  public  and  private.  Her 
work  with  the  ladies'  chorus  in  a  recent  June  conference  of 
the  Mutual,  although  performed  under  great  difficulties, 
proved  her  a  musician  with  ability  along  this  line. 


Miss  Read  was  married  to  Mr.  P.  Carl  Evans,  a  lawyer  of 
Salt  Lake  City,  in  1907,  and  is  the  mother  of  one  little  daugh- 
ter. She  has  tried  to  keep  up  with  much  of  her  public  work, 
for  she  has  been  often  in  demand  for  concerts  and  local 
musical  work.  She  is  organist  of  the  Eighteenth  ward  choir 
besides  retaining  her  large  class  of  private  pupils.  She  is  one  of 
the  interpretive  teachers  of  the  city,  and  her  waiting  list  of 
pupils  is  always  large.  She  plays  with  exquisite  expression,  but 
her  chief  quality  is  that  of  musical  pedagogy.  She  has  the 
gift  of  developing  the  art  in  ethers  and  even  if  she  were  not 
so  highly  trained  herself,  she  would  still  be  very  popular  be- 
cause of  this  rare  gift. 

Mrs.  Evans  is  of  delicate  and  refined  manners  and  pos- 
sesses the  spiritual  magnetism  which  is  called  "soul"  in  art 
circles.  The  General  Board  is  fortunate  in  the  labors  of  this 
young  woman,  for  her  strength  of  character  and  her  pure  testi- 
mony of  the  Gospel  but  serve  to  mark  with  shining  contrast 
the  extreme  diffidence  and  shyness  of  her  retiring  disposition.. 
The  future  years,  when  her  children  are  reared  and  home  is 
not  so  insistent  in  its  demands,  may  well  be  expected  to  utilize 
the  wealth  of  experience  she  is  acquiring.  This  in  turn  she  will 
bestow  upon  the  association  which,  after  her  happy  home  and 
its  beloved  inmates,  has  claimed  her  first  love. 


vSurely  every  dweller  in  Zion  has  heard  of  the  famous 
pioneer  musician,  Charles  J.  Thomas.  He  was  of  a  musical 
and  well-educated  family  and  was  trained  for  a  French  horn 
player.  He  was  considered,  in  his  early  youth,  the  best  per- 
former on  that  difficult  instrument  in  all  London.  He  was  of 
the  pure  English  type  of  musicians,  and  glees  and  madrigals 
sang  themselves  into  the  very  fiber  of  his  being.  He  played 
in  the  Royal  Italian  Opera  company,  and  was  himself  possess- 
ed of  histrionic  as  well  as  musical  ability.  But  he  sacrificed 
his  ambitions  and  prospects,  and  followed  the  course  of  his 
guiding  star  to  western  America  to  join  his  fortunes  with  the 
Mormons.  His  wife,  Amy  Adams,  the  mother  of  Eliza- 
beth, was  the  daughter  of  Barnabas  Adams,  a  pioneer  of 
the  best  type,  and  grandfather  of  Maude  Adams,  the  great 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

American  actress.  Elizabeth,  as  the  daughter  of  such  parents , 
could  scarcely  fail  to  inherit  rare  gifts  and  powers.  Her 
mother  is  also  musical,  and  sings  in  the  famous  Temple  choir, 
which  Brother  Thomas  still  leads. 

Elizabeth  was  born  May  6th,  1881,  in  the  house  where  the 
Thirteenth  ward  Retrenchment  Association  was  organized. 
She  is  possessed  of  that  regularity  of  feature  and  symmetry 

which  would  become  silken 
robes  and  jeweled  ornaments. 
But  she  has  been  trained  by 
her  good  mother  to  adorn  her 
spirit  with  the  pearl  of  hu- 
mility rather  than  to  seek  for 
the  perishable  glories  of  earth 
and  vain  pleasures.  When  she 
was  two  years  old,  she  knew 
by  sound  the  air  of  over 
thirty  tunes;  and  the  father 
delighted  in  displaying  this 
accomplishment  for  his  own 
and  his  friends'  amusement. 
She  was  singing  alto  at  the 
age  of  nine  years  in  Sunday 
School  and  Primary  enter- 
tainments, and  could  also  play 
on  the  piano  at  this  early  age . 
Elizabeth  has  not  had  the 
opportunity  of  cultivating  her 
gifts  abroad,  but  the  sweet 

ELIZABETH  THOMAS  sARDONi.  willingness  which  she  mani- 

fests to  use.  them  in  every 

good  and  worthy  cause,  makes  her  loved  and  admired  wher- 
ever she  goes. 

She  has  acted  as  counselor  to  the  president  of  the  Y.L.M. 
I.  A.  of  the  Thirteenth  ward,  where  she  was  born  and  reared, 
and  later  was  president  of  that  association.  She  was  made  as- 
sistant organist  for  the  General  Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I. A.  in 
1902,  and  is  faithful  in  her  attendance  in  that  duty.  She  was 
organist  for  the  Temple  choir  for  some  years, as  well  as  nearly 
all  the  auxiliary  organizations  in  her  ward.  She  has  studied 
at  home,  being  a  pupil  of  Arthur  Shepherd.  She  has  a  living 


testimony  of  the  Gospel,  and  has  the  gift  of  faith  and  healing, 
and  possesses  that  best  of  all  gifts,  unfailing-  charity. 

Elizabeth  was  married  on  the  22d  of  March,  1906,  to  a 
young-  Italian  convert  to  the  Gospel,  Lorenzo  Sardoni,  a  mu- 
sician of  g-ood  standing  in  the  community.  He  is  now  the 
director  of  an  orchestra  and  is  a  kind  husband  and  a  g-ood 
provider  to  his  charming-  wife  and  her  dear  ones.  They  have 
two  beautiful  boys,  and  both  parents  are  deeply  blessed  in 
their  joyous  privileg-e  of  parenthood.  And  here  we  leave  them 
to  work  out  the  common  and  happy  destiny  of  those  who  love 
art  and  truth  and  God. 



Order  of  procedure. — A  preliminary  meeting. — Nomination  by  the 
First  Presidency. — Reorganization  in  April;  names  presented  at 
June  conference,  1905. 

THE  winter  following-  Sister  Taylor's  death  was  a  busy 
one,  for  no  reorganization  was  effected  till  spring  and 
the  heavy  work  was  carried  forward  gallantly  by  the  Board. 
For  a  long  time  previous,  the  burden  of  the  executive  work 
had  fallen  upon  the  shoulders  of  Sister  Dougall,  as  first  coun- 
selor. The  news  of  the  world  of  Mutual  Improvement  work 
had  been  brought  to  Sister  Taylor  each  day  for  some  months 
previous  to  her  death,  by  the  assistant  secretary,  Agnes  S. 
Campbell;  but  the  labor  of  presiding-  at  meetings,  and  of 
directing  many  of  the  details  of  the  work, had  been  performed 
by  the  first  counselor.  The  second  counselor,  Sister  Ting-ey, 
was  ill  for  many  months,  and  was  unable  to  attend  meetings; 
she  was  carried,  as  it  were,  to  the  funeral  and  looked  very 
frail  as  she  sat  in  the  upper  pulpit  at  the  services.  Imme- 
diately following  the  funeral,  in  December,  Sister  Dougall 
was  taken  by  her  anxious  husband  to  spend  the  winter  in 
California,  her  health,  never  the  best,  having  been  seriously 
impaired  during  the  previous  year.  This  would  have  been  in 
the  nature  of  a  calamity,  but  for  the  providential  fact  that  the 
health  of  Sister  Tingey  was  almost  fully  and  miraculously 
restored,  permitting  her  to  come  all  winter  to  the  weekly 
Board  meetings. 

There  is  an  order  in  the  Church,  in  all  its  workings  and 
details.  Students  who  have  examined  the  machinery  of  the 
organization  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day 
Saints  are  struck  with  admiration  for  its  simple  and  effectual 
construction.  Parnell,  the  great  Irish  statesman,  pronounced 
it  the  most  perfect  organization  known  to  man;  while  the 


American  student  and  sociologist,  Prof.  Richard  Ely,  de- 
clared that  it  was  equaled  only  by  the  German  army  in  its 
completeness  and  detail.  This  order  and  system  extends  to 
the  auxiliary  organizations,  therefore  it  will  be  worth  while 
to  give,  briefly,  the  details  of  the  reorganization  of  the  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  Associations. 

When  an  officer  of  a  stake  or  local  auxiliary  organization 
dies  or  resigns,  the  superior  officers,  with  the  approval  and 
assistance  of  the  priesthood,  choose  another  to  fill  the  va- 
cancy; but  when  the  general  president  of  the  organization 
dies,  the  reorganization  is  in  the  hands  of  the  presidency  of 
the  Church.  The  death  or  resignation  of  the  president  of  any 
organization  in  the  Church  at  once  releases  the  counselors,  but 
the  offices  of  secretary  and  treasurer  are  continuous  ones,  and 
are  not  dependent  upon  any  other  office.  It  might  have  hap- 
pened that  the  office  of  aid,  being  created  by  Sister  Taylor 
herself,  and  therefore  not  being  of  regular  or  general  scope, 
would  at  her  death  be  discontinued,  or  at  least  the  members 
disorganized.  But  the  presiding  authority  of  the  Church 
elected  otherwise.  The  aids  in  the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual 
Improvement  Association  were  treated  as  part  of  the  General 

Sister  Taylor  died  in  December,  1904,  but  no  attempt  at 
reorganizing  the  General  Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was 
made  during  the  winter.  The  routine  work  was  carried 
forward,  under  the  direction  of  Counselor  Tingey.  In  the 
spring  of  1905  and  by  request  of  the  First  Presidency,  the 
members  of  the  General  Board  met  at  the  Brigham  Young 
Memorial  building  on  Sunday,  April  2,  1905,  at  the  close  of 
the  Temple  fast  meeting.  The  genial  organizer,  and  president 
of  the  Twelve  Apostles,  Francis  M.  Lyman,  was  present  and 
took  charge  of  the  meeting.  Associated  with  him  were  Apos- 
tles Hyrum  Smith  and  George  A.  Smith. 

When  all  were  seated,    the    meeting   was  opened  with 

282  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

prayer;  then  a  few  timely  remarks  were  made  by  Presi- 
dent Lyman,  who  said  the  presiding  brethren  greatly 
appreciated  the  labors  of  Sister  Elmina  S.  Taylor,  re- 
cently deceased;  they  now  desired  to  consult  with  her 
co -laborers,  with  regard  to  the  appointment  of  her  successor, 
and  asked  if  any  one  present  had  anything  to  say,  before  pro- 
ceeding with  the  duty  before  them.  President  Lyman  sug- 
gested that  the  members  present  write  the  names  of  possible 
candidates  on  slips  of  paper,  these  to  be  gathered  up  at  the 
close  of  the  meeting.  Names  need  not  be  confined  to  members 
of  the  present  Board.  It  would  be  best  to  give  several  from 
which  to  choose.  This  plan  was  followed. 

The  members  present  on  this  historic  occasion  were: 
Counselor  Martha  H.  Tingey,  Secretary  Ann  M.  Cannon, 
Treasurer  Mae  Taylor  Nystrom,  Aids  Adella  W.  Eardley, 
Agnes  S.  Campbell,  Sarah  Eddington,  Susa  Young  Gates, 
Minnie  J.  Snow,  May  Booth  Talmage,  Joan  Campbell,  Rose 
W.  Bennett,  Alice  K.  Smith,  Ruth  M.  Fox,  Julia  M.  Brixen, 
Augusta  W.  Grant,  Mary  A.  Freeze,  Estelle  Neff,  Nellie  C. 
Taylor,  Emily  C.  Adams,  Mary  E.  Connelly,  Elen  Wallace, 
Musical  Director  Alice  C.  Tuddenham,  Assistant  Organist 
Elizabeth  Thomas.  Members  not  present  were  Counselor 
Maria  Y.  Dougall,  in  Calif orhia,  Aids  Emma  Goddard,  ill; 
Elizabeth  C.  McCune,  in  Peru;  Organist  Mattie  Read,  in 
Germany.  After  the  papers  were  gathered  by  Apostle  George 
A.  Smith,  a  unanimous  vote  was  given  to  sustain  the  one 
chosen  by  the  First  Presidency.  The  hymn,  ''Lord  dismiss 
us  with  Thy  Blessing,"  was  sung  and  the  meeting  was 

The  General  Board  had  a  great  deal  of  work  on  hand  to 
prepare  for  the  June  conference,  and  this  was  now  April;  so 
that  their  labors  were  not  discontinued,  nor  was  there  any 
particular  excitement  in  the  Board.  Each  member  seemed 
to  feel  that  implicit  confidence  in  the  over-ruling  Providence 


which  guides  all  things  aright,  no  matter  what  the  personal 
prejudices  or  preferences  might  be. 

On  April  5th,  Wednesday  afternoon,  the  General  Board 
were  again  called  together,  and  they  met  in  the  editorial  room 
of  the  Journal  office.  This  meeting  was  presided  over  by 
Sister  Martha  Home  Tingey.  She  directed  the  usual  opening 
exercises  and  asked  for  the  reading  of  the  minutes  of  the  spe- 
cial meeting  held  the  Sunday  before  in  the  Memorial  building. 
The  general  secretary  then  opened  and  read  the  following 
letter  from  the  First  Presidency  of  the  Church: 

To  the  General  Board  of  the  Y.  L.M.  I  A. 

Deal  Sisters: 

The  committee  who  were  appointed  by  the  First  Pres- 
idency to  consult  you  with  reference  to  your  choice  of  one 
to  fill  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  death  of  your  beloved  and 
lamented  president,  Sister  Elmina  S.  Taylor,  have  reported 
to  us  as  follows: 

We  recommend  that  Sister  Martha  H.  Tingey  be  nomi- 
nated for  president,  Maria  Y.  Dougall  as  first  and  Ruth  M. 
Fox  as  second  counselors. 

We  hereby  notify  you  that  the  foregoing  recommendation 
is  accepted  and  heartily  approved  by  us,  and  we  submit  the 
same  as  our  decision  and  recommendation  to  the  Board. 
With  very  kindest  regards,  we  are, 
Your  brethren, 

First  Presidency  of  the  Church. 

It  was  moved,  seconded  and  carried  to  sustain  the  action 
of  the  First  Presidency. 

After  a  brief  pause,  Sister  Tingey  arose  and  expressed 
appreciation  of  the  honor  which  this  action  had  conferred 
upon  her,  and  stated  that  she  would  earnestly  endeavor  to 
carry  on  the  great  work  devolving  upon  her.  She  spoke 
lovingly  to  all  present,  mentioning  especially  the  aids,  some 

284  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

of  whom  had  wondered  if  they  would  now  be  released;  she 
told  them  she  could  not  spare  one  of  them  for  she  felt  great 
need  of  the  generous  support  and  assistance  of  every  member 
of  the  Board.  Each  one  present  spoke,  and  all  were  broken 
with  emotion,  and  melted  with  the  spirit  of  the  occasion. 

The  benediction  was  pronounced  by  Ann  M.  Cannon. 

Thus  ended  the  second  most  historic  meeting  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  After  this,  various  committees 
proceeded  to  complete  the  preparations  for  the  June  conference, 
and  all  members  of  the  Board  were  speedily  and  contentedly 
at  work. 

The  next  mail  brought  from  Sister  Dougall  in  California 
a  most  noble  and  characteristic  letter  to  Sister  Tingey,  which 
will  explain  itself,  and  will  form  a  part  of  this  history. 

Sister  Dougall  says: 

I  have  known  you  from  childhood;  have  labored  with 
you  for  the  past  twenty  years.  I  know  your  worth.  And  I 
feel  that  Sister  Taylor's  mantle  will  surely  fall  upon  your 
shoulders.  Could  she  speak  to  us,  I  know  she  would  say  she 
is  well  pleased  with  the  choice. 

I  appreciate  very  much  indeed  being  chosen  to  be  one  of 
your  counselors,  and  could  I  conscientiously  have  accepted 
the  position  would  have  done  so;  but  I  do  not  feel  I  could  do 
the  work  of  that  office  in  my  present  state  of  health .  And 
while  I  have  in  years  past  tried  to  perform  my  duties  as  Sis- 
ter Taylor's  counselor,  I  feel  the  work  growing  and  extending 
to  that  magnitude  it  would  be  impossible  for  me  to  attend  to 
the  work  that  would  necessarily  fall  upon  me. 

I  do  earnestly  pray  for  you,  dear  sister,  that  your  body 
may  be  strengthened,  your  mind  enlightened,  your  intellec- 
tual powers  increased  to  the  extent  that  nothing  will  be  a 
burden  to  you.  My  interest  will  always  be  with  you  in  the 
work;  I  love  it  and  am  still  one  with  you  in  spirit. 

I  know  that  you  will  be  as  clay  in  the  hands  of  the  potter 
to  be  formed  and  fashioned  as  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  may  will 
to  perform  His  glorious  work  in  the  earth. 

In  some  respects,  I  am  better  than  for  years,  and  im- 
proving gradually.  But  no  one  knows,  not  even  my  own 


family,  how  Sister  Taylor's  death  prostrated  me.  I  should 
have  resigned  months  and  months  ago,  had  it  not  been  for 
her  feeble  health,  but  I  could  not  feel  to  broach  the  subject 
to  her,  under  the  circumstances. 

I  love  the  Temple  work,  too,  and  feel  I  shall  be  able  to 
perform  that  without  so  much  physical  strength  as  the  Mu- 
tual Improvement  work  entails. 

Love  and  blessings  to  you  all. 

In  accordance  with  the  earnest  request  of  Sister  Dou- 
gall,  she  was  released  from  the  position  of  first  counselor, 
and  Mae  Taylor  Nystrom  was  chosen  by  the  First  Presidency 
to  act  as  Sister  Tingey 's  second  counselor,  while  Sister  Fox 
was  named  as  first  counselor.  The  appointment  of  Sister  Ny- 
strom pleased  and  comforted  the  members  of  the  Board  for 
the  loss  of  their  beloved  Sister  Dougall,  as  no  other  appoint- 
ment could  have  done. 

The  names  of  the  General  Board  were  not  placed  before 
the  people  at  the  general  April  conference,  and  not  until  the 
young  people  met  in  June;  but  the  Board  was  fully  organized 
by  the  middle  of  April.  One  essential  change  in  the  working 
of  the  committees  was  announced  by  President  Tingey  in 
May.  It  was  that,  in  accordance  with  the  wishes  and  in- 
tentions of  President  Taylor,  the  personnel  of  the  various 
committees  should  be  changed  from  time  to  time,  in  order  to 
have  new  ideas  and  new  plans  introduced.  The  members 
would  get  a  more  varied  experience  by  changing  about  and 
working  on  the  different  committees  than  by  confining  their 
labors  to  one.  Therefore,  it  was  decided  that  these  com- 
mittees should  continue  for  only  two  years. 

At  a  meeting  held  on  the  3rd  of  May,  1905,  Sister  Dou- 
gall, who  had  just  returned  from  California,  met  with  the 
General  Board.  Towards  the  close  of  the  meeting,  Sister 
Tingey  called  upon  Sister  Dougall  to  say  a  few  words.  The 
pent-up  eloquence  of  that  loving  heart  burst  forth  and  blessed 
and  encouraged  every  one  present.  At  the  conclusion  of 

286  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Sister  Bengali's  remarks,  Sister  Eardley  moved  that  Sister 
Dougall  be  made  an  honorary  member  of  the  Board.  There 
was  an  instant  second  by  half  the  members  present;  and  with 
unanimous  good- will,  the  motion  was  carried.  Thus  the  Board 
secured  the  counsel  and  occasional  assistance  of  their  oldest 
working-  member,  and  had  in  this  way  an  opportunity  to  ex- 
press, formally,  the  love  and  honor  in  which  they  held  Sister 
Maria  Young-  Doug-all. 

The  June  conference  of  1905  which  followed  was  one  of 
the  best  and  most  successful  ever  held  by  the  young  women 
of  Zion.  There  was  an  outpouring  of  love  and  sympathy 
which  must  have  gladdened  the  hearts  of  the  newly  chosen 
officers.  One  new  feature  of  this  conference  was  the  depart- 
ment meetings,  held  by  the  young  ladies.  The  presidents 
and  counselors  met  in  one  place,  the  aids  in  another,  the 
secretaries  in  a  room  by  themselves,  the  treasurers  in  another 
and  the  librarians  and  musical  directors  by  themselves.  This 
was  a  very  successful  departure  from  the  usual  forms. 

The  new  Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  have  had  five  years 
experience  in  laboring  side  by  .side  for  the  advancement  of 
the  young  daughters  of  Zion;  and  if  any  one  thing  more  than 
another  has  marked  the  administration  of  President  Tingey, 
it  is  the  righteous  quality  within  her  that  helps  her  to  sink 
her  own  individuality,  as  far  as  possible,  in  the  great  work 
she  has  to  do.  She  has  no  personal  ambitions  that  find  out- 
ward expression.  She  goes  placidly  on  her  way,  supported  by 
her  two  conscientious  counselors,  and  together  they  form  a 
quorum  that  proves  invincible  to  the  evil  and  inviting  to  the 
good  influences  in  the  earth. 





Martha  Home  Tingey  is  the  daughter  of  Joseph  and 
Mary  Isabella  Home.  She  is  their  fourteenth  child,  and  was 
born  Oct.  15,  1857,  in  the  Fourteenth  ward  of  Salt  Lake  City. 
She  is  rather  small  in  stature,  with  the  same  gentle  but  firm 
voice  and  manner  which  were  so  much  a  part  of  her  mother. 
From  her  early  childhood,  Mattie  was  a  lover  of  books  and 
eagerly  devoured  everything  in  that  line  that  came  within  her 
reach.  It  must  be  remembered  that  all  kinds  of  books  could 
not  be  obtained  then  so  easily  as  now.  She  received  her 
education  in  private  schools  and  in  the  Deseret  University, 
now  the  University  of  Utah. 

She  was  gifted  in  music,  and  had  natural  elocutionary 
powers,  and  being  possessed  of  a  rare  memory,  was  in  con- 
stant demand  for  public  and  private  entertainments.  Her 
health  might  fail,  but  her  invincfible  determination  to  do  her 
duty  carried  her  over  every  obstacle.  She  was  of  spiritual 
longings;  and  often  her  mother  found  her  seated  quietly  in 
the  corner  listening  to  the  inspiring  testimonies  of  the  good 
and  great  men  and  women  gathered  in  that  hospitable  home. 

In  the  summer  of  1873,  half  a  dozen  girls,  through  the 
invitation  of  President  Brigham  Young  and  Apostle  George 
Q.  Cannon,  undertook  to  acquire  the  trade  of  type-setting. 
It  was  a  new  departure,  even  for  the  progressive  Mormons, 
and  much  was  said  to  discourage  the  innovation.  In  the 
published  list  of  these  girls,  the  name  of  Martha  Home  heads 
the  list. 

When  the  Central  Board,  as  it  was  first  called,  of  the 
Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  formed,  in  1880,  with  Sister  Elmina  S. 
Taylor  at  the  head,  she  chose  the  youthful,  modest,  and  yet 
fully  qualified  daughter  of  Sister  Home  for  her  second  coun- 
selor. Miss  Martha  had  very  grave  doubts  about  her  ability 
to  fill  this  honorable  position,  but  her  chief  had  not  the 
shadow  of  one.  The  girl  had  never  learned  to  say  "no"  to 
superior  authority,  so  she  meekly  took  her  place  beside  her 
file  leader. 

On  the  30th  of  September,  1884,  Martha  was  married  to 
Joseph  S.  Tingey,  son  of  Bishop  John  Tingey  of  the  Seven- 

288  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

teenthward.  The  union  has  been  very  congenial  and  one  of 
mutual  helpfulness.  Brother  Tingey 's  liberal  character  is  an 
example  of  what  a  man  can  do,  as  a  husband,  father  and  Elder 
in  Israel,  without  in  any  way  hindering-  the  development  of  a 
gifted  wife. 

The  public  labors  of  Mrs.  Tingey  have  been  before  the 
people  for  thirty  years;  for  in  her  very  childhood,  she  joined 
the  first  Retrenchment  Association.  She  has  never  departed 
from  the  spirit  of  those  early  resolutions.  In  spite  of  example, 
friendship,  and  every  degenerating  influence,  she  has  held 
steadily  the  path  which  God  and  her  own  integrity  marked 
out  for  her  to  follow.  She  was  counselor  in  the  ward  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.  and  also  in  the  Primary  Association  for  several  years, 
and  secretary  and  teacher  of  the  Sunday  School. 

It  would  be  unfair  to  write  anything  about  Mrs.  Tingey 
which  did  not  speak  of  her  qualities  of  house-wife  and  home- 
maker.  It  might  be  inferred  that  so  much  public  work  would 
militate  against  her  family  duties;  but  the  fact  is  that  even  in 
her  early  youth  while  engaged  as  a  type-setter,  she  still  found 
time  to  engage  in  household  arts,  and  especially  to  become 
an  accomplished  seamstress.  And  now,  notwithstanding  that 
she  is  at  the  head  of  the  girls  in  all  Zion,  she  is  still  devoted 
to  her  home  and  family  and  is  known  among  her  associates 
as  a  good  wife  and  mother.  She  has  the  unusual  quality  of 
system  and  order,  so  that  all  her  tasks  fall  into  line  as  well- 
drilled  soldiers.  She  is  the  mother  of  seven  children. 

Mrs.  Tingey  has  traveled  much  in  the  interest  of  M.  I. 
work.  She  was  one  of  the  principal  speakers  on  Utah  day  at 
the  great  congress  of  women  at  the  World's  Fair  in  Chicago 
in  1893.  In  1899,  she  attended  the  Triennial  session  of  the 
National  Council  of  Women  in  Washington,  acting  as  proxy 
for  the  president  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  and  also  represented 
that  organization  at  the  Triennial  session  held  in  Seattle  in 
1909.  Mrs.  Tingey  is  always  a  convincing  speaker,  and  at 
times  pours  forth  her  soul  in  the  true  language  of  eloquence. 
She  has  a  dignified  manner,  and  is  quiet  in  speech,  though 
aggressive  in  her  opinions.  She  has  the  prudence  to  restrain 
speech,  when  silence  is  golden.  If  asked  to  name  the  most 
marked  trait  in  Mrs.  Tingey 's  character,  the  answer  would 
be,  sincerity,  genuineness. 

When  Mrs.   Tingey  was  asked  to  assume  the  presidency 


of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  in  April,  1905,  she  did  so  with  the  same 
earnestness, modesty  and  zeal  which  have  always  characterized 
her  public  labors. 

Perhaps  the  most  remarkable  circumstance  attached  to 
the  work  done  by  Sister  Tingey  during  the  five  years  of  her 
administration  has  been  the  fulfillment  of  the  prophecy  uttered 
upon  her  head  by  her  own  mother,  and  reiterated  in  the 
blessing  which  was  pronounced  upon  her  when  she  was  set 
apart  to  preside  over  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  by  President  Joseph 
F.  Smith,  that  she  should  have  health  and  strength  to  per- 
form her  labors .  For  years  her  health  had  been  of  the  most 
precarious  nature,  but  from  the  day  when  she  came  by  faith 
and  will-power  to  take  her  place  at  the  funeral  of  her  leader 
Sister  Taylor,  Sister  Tingey  has  rarely  been  absent  at  any  of 
the  many  and  taxing  councils  of  her  Board.  She  has  traveled 
through  Oregon,  Wyoming,  and  Idaho  stakes;  she  has  jour- 
neyed to  Canada  on  the  north  and  to  far  Mexico  on  the  south 
in  the  labors  of  her  calling,  and  her  desire  is  to  visit  every 
stake  in  the  Church  and  to  look  upon  the  inspiring  faces  of 
the  girls  wherever  they  are  gathered  under  the  Mutual  ban- 
ners. She  has  never  doubted  the  outcome  in  any  difficulty 
or  obstacle.  Her  quiet  power  of  self-control  is  one  mark  of 
her  greatness,  and  promises  better  and  still  better  things 
from  her  as  time  goes  on. 

New  conditions  which  constantly  come  to  any  enlarging 
growth  or  community,  have  crowded  themselves  upon  her 
careful  attention;  but  she  has  met  each  new  development,  has 
solved  all  fresh  problems  with  the  united  assistance  of  her 
counselors  and  her  Board.  She  has  so  much  deliberation,  is 
so  careful  of  results  in  her  own  conception  of  things  material 
and  spiritual,  that  her  calm  judicial  example  greatly  influences 
her  co-workers  to  their  own  decided  benefit. 

If  Sister  Tingey  could  voice  in  one  sentence  the  greatest 
wish  of  her  motherly  heart,  it  would  be  "that  every  daughter 
of  Zion  might  be  helped  to  get  a  testimony  of  the  truth  of  the 
mission  of  Jesus  Christ  and  of  the  new  witness  borne  of  that 
Savior  by  the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith  through  the  labors  of 
the  Mutual  Improvement  Associations." 


290  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


At  the  age  of  sixteen  months  Ruth  May  was  left  mother- 
less. An  evidence  of  the  power  of  heredity  may  be  seen  in 
her  case,  for  while  her  father  loved  her  devotedly,  and  cared 
for  her  as  best  he  could,  the  child,  unknown  to  him,  was  often 
exposed  to  the  evil  influences  of  coarse  and  vulgar  people. 
That  she  remained  singularly  fine  and  pure  is  due  to  the  in- 
nocence and  strength  of  her  own  character,  and  to  the  bless- 
ing of  God. 

Shortly  after  her  birth  her  parents  joined  the  Church 
of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  At  every  opportunity, 
her  father  sought  to  teach  her  the  principles  of  the  gospel 
which  he  and  her  mother  loved.  He  taught  her  to  rely 
implicitly  upon  God,  which  gave  her  an  unwavering  faith. 
He  taught  her  the  Word  of  Wisdom  so  effectively  that  she 
has  never  been  tempted  to  disobey  it.  He  taught  her  to  be 
truthful  and  honest;  to  share  with  another  and  to  give  that 
other  first  choice;  to  suffer  wrong  rather  than  to  do  wrong. 

Upon  first  meeting  her,  one  notices  the  independent  poise 
of  her  head,  the  brightness  of  her  smile,  the  sparkle  of  her 
dark  eyes.  Listening  to  her  conversation  one  is  impressed  by 
the  keenness  of  her  wit.  Wit  does  not  always  attract,  though 
it  does  interest;  but  when,  as  in  this  case,  the  stranger  sees 
underneath  it  the  spirit  of  love  and  kindness,  he  draws  near 
and  becomes  one  of  a  circle  of  admirers.  Gradually  under- 
neath the  brilliant  repartee  he  recognizes  the  warmth  of  her 
generous  heart,  the  strength  of  her  courage,  and  the  depth 
of  her  humility;  he  sees  the  strong  will ,  which  yet  yields  to 
the  will  of  her  Maker;  the  honest  pride  which  might  have 
been  haughtiness  had  it  not  learned  to  bend  through  obedi- 
ence to  the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ.  Above  all,  he  recognizes 
her  faith,  a  principle  so  dominating  her  actions  that  even 
against  his  will  he  is  compelled  to  pause  and  wonder  at  the 
beauty,  joy  and  power  of  such  an  element  in  life. 

Ruth  May  was  born  November  16th,  1853,  in  Wiltshire, 
England.  She  is  the  daughter  of  James  and  Mary  Ann  May. 
After  her  mother's  death,  until  nearly  eight  years  of  age,  she 
was  moved  from  town  to  town  that  she  might  be  near  her 
father  in  his  journeying,  as  he  was  during  that  time  a  travel- 



ing  elder.  The  next  four  years  father  and  daughter  lived  in 
Yorkshire,  whence  he  sailed  for  America,  going-  to  Philadel- 
phia, where  she  joined  him  after  a  few  months.  Shortly 
afterward  Mr.  May  married  an  English  widow  who  had  a 
daughter  about  Ruth's  own  age,  with  the  two  of  whom  Ruth 
had  crossed  the  ocean .  The  union  proved  a  very  happy  one , 
and  Ruth  gained  the  companionship  and  love  of  a  mother  as 
well  as  of  a  sister. 

Mr.  May  was  an  expert  carder  and  readily  secured  em- 
ployment in  Philadelphia .  Since  the  entire  family  was  anxious 
to  emigrate  to  Utah,  they  worked  unitedly  to  raise  means  for 
their  traveling  expenses.  Ruth  worked  first  with  her  father 
in  a  cotton  factory;  later  she  was  employed  at  dress-making. 
In  1867, they  started  by  ox  team  for  Salt  Lake  City;  but  most 
of  the  distance  across  the  plains  was  traveled  by  foot.  After 
arriving  in  Salt  Lake  valley,  Ruth  worked  with  her  father  in 
the  woolen  mills. 

Her  marriage  to  Jesse  W.  Fox,  Jun.,  took  place  May  8th, 
1872.  She  is  the  mother  of  six  sons  and  six  daughters,  all 
living  except  the  eldest  daughter. 

Mrs.  Fox  began  her  public  work  in  the  Primary  Asso- 
ciation of  the  Fourteenth  ward,  Salt  Lake  City, when  called  to 
act  as  second  counselor  to  Prest.  Clara  C.  Cannon,  which 
position  she  held  for  nineteen  years.  In  1895,  she  became 
president  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  the  same  ward,  and  acted 
in  that  capacity  until  the  autumn  of  1904.  Mrs.  Fox  has 
taken  an  active  interest  in  the  Woman's  Suffrage  association 
in  the  county,  territorial  and  state  organizations,  of  which 
she  held  office.  She  was  also  a  member  of  the  committee 
which  drafted  the  memorial  asking  the  constitutional  conven- 
tion that  the  franchise  for  women  be  placed  in  the  constitu- 
tion for  the  state  of  Utah.  She  was  a  charter  member  of  the 
Woman's  Press  Club,  and  became  the  first  treasurer  of  that 
organization;  later,  in  1897,  she  was  elected  president  for  the 
ensuing  year.  In  the  Reapers'  Club,  Mrs.  Fox  was  also  a 
charter  member.  She  was  a  director  of  the  Deseret  Agricul- 
tural and  Manufacturing  Society  for  eight  years,  having  been 
appointed  to  that  position  by  Governor  Heber  M.  Wells. 
Ever  since  the  organization  of  the  Bureau  of  Information  in 
1902,  Mrs.  Fox  has  acted  as  one  of  the  guides  who  give  their 
time  free  of  charge  for  the  benefit  of  tourists.  As  a  rule,  she 

292  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

has  spent,  at  this  far  reaching-  work,  a  portion  of  two  days  in 
each  week. 

In  1898,  Sister  Fox  was  set  apart  as  an  aid  in  the 
General  Board  of  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  and  it  is  in  this  organization 
that  she  has,  perhaps,  given  her  most  untiring-  effort  and 
found  her  most  congenial  public  work.  It  was  Sister  Fox 
who  first  suggested  and  who  took  the  initiative  in  establishing 
the  traveling-  libraries  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  acting  as  first 
chairman  of  the  committee  to  whom  that  work  was  entrusted. 
In  J  903  she  represented  the  Young  Ladies  at  the  Executive 
session  of  the  National  Council  of  Women  of  the  U.  S.  held  in 
New  Orleans.  Sister  Fox  has  made  many  of  the  longest  and 
hardest  trips  in  visiting  the  outlying  stake  organizations  of 
the  Young  Ladies;  and  on  more  than  one  occasion  she  has, 
on  very  short  notice,  gone  to  fill  appointments  assigned  to 
others  when  illness  or  other  misfortune  prevented  their  going; 
to  her  husband  and  children  belong;s  some  of  the  credit  for 
having  assisted  in  making  this  possible.  Mrs.  Fox  has  given 
excellent  service  on  the  Journal,  conference,  and  many  special 
committees.  In  her  labors  on  the  Executive  Board,  as  first 
counselor,  she  has  worked  intelligently  and  faithfully, 
forming,  with  President  Tingey  and  Counselor  Nystrom,  a 
presidency  of  excellent  poise  and  balance,  able  to  see  and 
understand  fully  the  varying  needs  of  the  girls. 

In  education  Mrs.  Fox  is  the  peer  of  many  women  who 
have  had  greater  advantages .  She  attended  school  in  Eng- 
land till  eleven  years  of  age,  after  which  she  had  no  further 
opportunity  until  her  arrival  in  Utah,  when  she  attended  the 
district  school  for  six  months  and  Morgan  College  for  four 
months.  After  having  been  married  about  fifteen  years,  she 
awoke  to  the  fact  that  she  could  find  time  for  study  in  her 
own  home  and  immediately  began.  She  has  kept  in  touch 
with  the  studies  of  her  children  and  in  addition  taken  a  course 
in  English  through  the  Scran  ton  School  of  Correspondence. 
Her  natural  gift  of  poesy  is  very  fine,  and  her  technical 
knowledge  is  constantly  growing,  for  she  is,  in  regard  to  this, 
as  to  everything  else,  an  indefatigable  worker.  Her  poems 
appear  frequently  in  the  Young  Woman's  Journal  and  the 
Era.  Her  song  "Galilee,"  set  to  music  by  Professor  George 
Careless,  is  sung  frequently  by  girls'  voices. 

With  such  a  record  for  public  work  and  study  one  might 



easily  wonder,  What  of  her  home?  That  is  best  answered 
by  the  fineness  of  her  children,  whose  characters  speak  a 
volume  for  a  mother's  love  and  training-.  Excellent  health, 
coupled  with  a  thirst  for  knowledge  and  a  determination  to 
achieve  things,  has  made  this  record  possible.  Then,  too, 
Mrs.  Fox  has  believed  in  the  promise,  "The  Lord  shall  make 
thee  equal  unto  every  task;"  and  it  has  been  fulfilled. 


Mae  Taylor  Nystrom,  second  counselor  to  President 
Martha  Home  Tingey,  is  the  daughter  of  the  late  Bishop 
George  H.  Taylor  and  Elmina  Shepherd  Taylor,  beloved  first 
president  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  She  was  born  at  the  Taylor 
homestead  in  the  Fourteenth  ward,  Salt  Lake  City,  and  grew 
to  womanhood  in  the  light  of  the  home  wherein  she  was  nurtured 
and  loved  by  a  wise  father,  a  tender  mother,  and  three 
brothers  who  watched  over  her  with  pride.  In  the  shelter  of 
this  family  where  love  and  peace  ruled  she  was  guarded  from 
every  ill  of  life  and  borne  upon  the  wings  of  joy  through 
childhood,  girlhood  and  young  womanhood,  knowing  little  of 
trial  or  sorrow.  By  nature  serene  and  sunshiny,  it  is  in  her 
home  that  these  qualities  are  most  quickly  felt.  She  ap- 
preciated deeply  the  obligations  of  affection  due  her  parents 
and  served  them  with  devotion. 

When  a  girl  Mae  Taylor  attended  the  public  school  in 
Salt  Lake  City,  later  spent  one  year  at  the  University  of 
Utah,  and  at  the  founding  of  the  Latter-day  Saints'  College, 
entered  that  institution  and  completed  a  course  of  study. 

The  idtal  of  her  girlhood  was  to  become  a  perfect  home- 
maker.  With  this  in  view  she  quietly  set  about  its  ac- 
complishment. Under  her  mother's  direction  she  studied  the 
varying  phases  of  domestic  science — cooking,  sewing,  sani- 
tation, the  care  of  the  sick, — and  rounded  out  her  home- 
making  preparations  by  the  oft  repeated  entertainment  of  her 
friends.  Home,  as  Mae  Taylor  grew  to  understand  it, "was 
the  place  where  her  family  was  loved  and  made  happy ;**and 
it  was  also  the  place  where  friends  should  most  surely*find 
welcome,  hospitality  and  peace.  Today  the  ideal\>f  her  girl- 
hood is  the  ideal  ol  her  life — in  her  heart  home  holds 
first  place. 

294  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

One  phase  of  education  that  early  attracted  her  was 
physical  culture.  After  some  study  in  Salt  Lake  City  she 
spent  the  summer  of  1893  at  Harvard  in  advanced  work,  and 
upon  her  return  taught  two  years  in  the  Utah  School  for 
Physical  Culture  under  the  direction  of  Maud  May  Babcock. 
She  also  took  charge  of  the  school  as  director  for  two  years. 
With  the  hope  of  carrying-  the  benefits  of  physical  culture 
to  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  the  nearby  wards,  she  at  this  time 
conducted  drills  in  the  monthly  officers'  meetings,  held  in  the 
Fourteenth  ward. 

In  the  character  development  of  Mae  Taylor  Nystrom 
the  influence  of  the  M.  I.  A.  has  been  great.  Indeed,  as 
counselor  to  President  Tin  gey,  she  might  well  be  said  to  rep- 
resent the  girls  of  the  M.  I.  A.  for  she  has  advanced,  by 
interest,  earnest  work  and  faithful  service,  from  the  first  step 
of  simple  membership  through  various  offices  in  the  local 
association  and  upon  the  General  Board,  to  her  present  po- 
sition. She  typifies  what  development  brings  in  the  M.  I.  A. 

When  but  seventeen  years  of  age  Mae  Taylor  was  made 
assistant  secretary  of  the  Fourteenth  ward  association. 
Three  years  later  she  became  second  counselor  and  four  years 
afterward  was  made  treasurer.  Two  traits  of  Mae  Taylor's 
character  marked  her  work — unfailing  attendance  at  meetings 
and  most  careful  attention  to  the  detail  work  of  the  office. 
These  traits  show  where  Mrs.  Nystrom  obtained  the  broad 
understanding  of  the  M.  I.  A.  that  today  makes  her  counsel 
valuable . 

October  9th,  1892,  she  was  elected  corresponding  secretary 
of  the  General  Board  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  and  became  familiar 
with  many  departments  of  the  general  work  under  the  direct 
tuition  of  her  mother. 

Into  the  performance  of  this  duty  she  put  the  faithfulness 
of  a  secretary  and  the  devotion  of  a  daughter. 

June  21,  1900,  Mae  Taylor  became  the  wife  of  Theodore 
Nystrom.  After  spending  two  years  in  Montpelier,  Idaho, 
where  Mr.  Nystrom  was  manager  of  a  large  implement 
business,  they  came  back  to  live  at  the  Taylor  homestead. 
On  her  return  Mrs.  Nystrom  was  called  to  act  as  treasurer  of 
the  General  Board  Y.  L.  M.  L  A.  Resuming  her  place  as 
daughter  in  her  childhood  home,  to  Mrs.  Nystrom  was  given 
the  joy  of  devotedly  serving  her  loved  mother  and  father 



during:  their  remaining:  years.  In  December,  1904,  her  mother 
died.  In  April,  1907,  her  father  followed.  That  the  sunshine 
of  her  presence  came  back  to  them  for  those  last  years  was 
their  great  joy.  That  they  understood  and  appreciated  her 
devotion  was  the  blessing-  that  softened  her  grief. 

x  At  the  reorganization  of  the  General  Board  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 
in  April,  1905,  Mrs.  Nystrom  was  chosen  second  counselor  to 
President  Tingey.  She  would  rather  have  remained  an  aid; 
but  love  of  the  work  to  which  her  mother  had  given  so  much 
of  her  life's  best  energy,  faith  in  the  authority  that  called  her, 
and  the  unwavering  sense  of  duty  that  dominates  all  her 
actions  led  her  to  accept.  Into  this  new  field  of  activity  she 
has  brought  her  faithfulness  in  attendance  of  meetings;  her 
careful  attention  to  detail;  her  broad  attitude  of  mind  that 
seeks  information  on  all  sides  of  questions  before  rendering 
judgment;  her  love  of  the  gospel  and  desire  to  have  its  in- 
fluence directing  the  lives  of  the  girls  of  the  M.  I.  A. 

Especially  have  the  Young  Woman's  fournal,  stake  con- 
ferences, and  conventions  felt  her  interest.  Twice  she  has 
represented  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  at  the  National  Council  of 
Women:  at  the  Executive  session  held  in  Union  City,  Illinois, 
November,  1908,  and  with  President  Tingey,  at  the  Triennial 
session  in  Seattle,  July,  1909. 

In  the  active  service  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  Mrs.  Nystrom 
is  a  busy  woman.  With  the  pressing  duty  done  and  the 
shelter  of  her  home  reached,  she  finds  strength  and  rest  and 
encouragement  in  the  love  that  today  upholds  her  there. 


Born  with  the  soul  of  a  poet,  Alice  Kimball  came  into  a 
family  presided  over  by  one  of  the  greatest  of  modern  men — 
President  Heber  C.  Kimball.  She  had  no  time  and  less  op- 
portunity to  be  made  aware  of  anything  unusual  in  her  own 
nature  or  her  father's  powerful  family  administration.  If 
there  is  one  more  remarkable  fact  about  the  founders  of  this 
Church  than  another,  it  is  the  absolute  devotion  with  which 
they  have  inspired  each  and  all  of  their  children.  No  matter 
how  large  the  family,  or  how  indifferent  the  descendant 
might  become  to  the  faith  which  make  these  men  what  they 
were — the  child  and  the  children  have  retained  a  devotion 

296  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

that  amounts  in  most  instances  to  adoration  of  those  men  who 
staked  their  all  upon  the  divinity  of  the  mission  of  the  Prophet 
Joseph  Smith.  Such  fathers  could  not  have  been  aught  but 
great  and  noble  men.  No  daughter  in  all  this  kingdom  is 
more  passionately  devoted  to  the  memory  of  her  parents  than 
is  the  subject  of  this  sketch. 

To  be  the  daughter  of  one  president  and  prophet  and  the 
wife  of  another  president  and  prophet  is  a  distinction  rarely 
attained  even  by  a  Latter-day  Saint.  Yet,  as  the  daughter 
of  President  Heber  C.  Kimball,  and  the  wife  of  President 
Joseph  F.  Smith,  the  subject  of  this  brief  sketch  might  well 
be  endowed  with  unusual  gifts. 

Sister  Smith  is  a  twin.  Her  brother,  Andrew  Kimball, 
is  the  well-known  president  of  St.  Joseph  stake  of  Arizona. 
She,  or  they,  were  born  in  Salt  Lake  City,  in  the  Eighteenth 
ward,  September  6th,  1858,  just  after  the  return  of  the  people 
from  "The  Move"  to  Provo.  Her  father  passed  away  when 
she  was  nine  years  of  age  and  her  mother  eleven  years  after. 
Alice  was  ever  an  obedient  daughter.  Her  mother,  Ann 
Alice  Gheen,  was  a  descendant  of  the  old  Pennsylvania 
Quaker  stock.  She  was  for  many  years  an  invalid  and  Alice 
was  devoted  to  her.  During  the  last  few  weeks  of  her  life 
this  daughter  was  her  attendant  both  by  day  and  by  night. 
Her  mother's  last  words  are  treasured  lovingly  in  her  memory, 
"Alice,  you  have  been  a  joy  to  me  all  the  days  of  your  life." 

Her  education,  begun  in  the  day  school,  received  some 
rounding  out,  or  completion  (for  there  was  no  graduation  in 
the  pioneer  days  in  Utah),  at  the  Deseret  University,  under 
Dr.  Park. 

She  is  the  mother  of  seven  children,  all  of  whom  do  her 

Sister  Smith  has  acted  for  years  as  a  teacher  in  the 
Sunday  Schools,  was  a  counselor  to  Mrs.  Mary  Irvine  in  the 
Nineteenth  ward  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  and  was  for  a  time  president 
of  the  Primary  Association  of  that  ward. 

In  1896  she  was  chosen  by  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor 
to  act  as  an  aid  on  the  General  Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 
The  call  came  as  a  complete  surprise,  and  with  her  charac- 
teristic deliberation,  she  weighed  the  matter  long  and  care- 
fully, putting  to  herself  the  question  which  she  ever  asks 
when  public  duty  and  private  cares  are  in  the  balance — will 


this  position  have  a  tendency  to  defraud  my  children  of  a 
mother's  love  and  a  mother's  constant  watchcare,  or  can  I 
find  time  and  strength  to  do  both?  The  answer  took  her  into 
the  Board,  for  she  trusted  to  the  loving-  wisdom  of  her  hus- 
band and  to  the  assurance  of  her  own  prayerful  heart. 

Alice  Kimball  Smith  is  peculiarly  gifted  with  the  inheri- 
tance from  her  father — inspiration;  an  inspiration  which 
guides  her  daily  footsteps  and  which  gives  her  wise  answers 
that  are  like  "apples  of  gold  in  pictures  of  silver"  to  children 
and  friends  who  seek  her  counsel.  That  inspiration  also 
rests  upon  her  at  times  in  her  ministry  to  the  daughters  of 
Zion;  and  when  it  does,  her  tongue  is  tipped  with  the  fire 
from  the  altar  of  divine  eloquence.  Her  heart  is  ever  a- quiver 
with  the  suppressed  emotions  of  a  keenly  sensitive  spirit;  and 
when  she  is  forced  to  appear  before  an  audience,  she  forgets 
self  and  remembers  only  God  and  the  eager  girls  who  are 
listening  to  her  moving  appeals. 

Added  to  her  solicitous  motherhood  is  the  skill  of  the 
housewife  and  the  rarer  artistic  handling  of  the  needle,  which 
can  make  old  garments  look  like  new,  and  can  fashion  the 
new  into  robes  of  grace  and  beauty.  She  is  her  own  seamstress, 
and  does  not  shrink  even  from  the  difficult  art  of  tailoring  her 
own  outer  garments.  She  is  gifted  with  the  love  of  art  in  all 
its  manifold  expressions,  yet  for  lack  of  proper  cultivation, 
her  songs  have  gone  unsung,  her  poems  have  never  been 
written.  She  lacks  confidence  in  herself,  and  but  from  a 
stern  sense  of  duty  would  never  enter  into  public  enterprises. 
And  yet,  the  way  has  opened  for  many  journeys  to  be  taken, 
for  missions  to  be  filled.  Her  two  faithful  and  devoted 
daughters  could  tell  some  of  the  reasons  why  this  has  been 
made  possible. 

In  April,  1905,  when  the  Board  was  reorganized,  Mrs. 
Smith  was  chosen  to  act  as  general  treasurer,  to  take  the 
place  left  vacant  by  Mrs.  Mae  T.  Nystrom.  She  felt  the 
heavy  responsibility  of  such  a  calling.  To  half  do  her  duty 
would  be  impossible.  It  must  be  done  as  skillfully  and  as 
faithfully  as  would  be  possible  to  any  other  in  like  cir- 
cumstances. So  the  only  thing  to  do  she  did: — take  a  course 
in  bookkeeping  to  qualify  her  to  keep  her  books,  which  she 
has  since  been  able  to  do  most  successfully. 

Mrs.    Smith   was   chosen   to   act    as    counselor   to   the 

298  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Daughters  of  the  Pioneers  in  1905,  and  served  several  years 
in  that  position.  She  has  also  been  named  as  the  only  lady 
in  the  presidency  of  the  Sons  and  Daughters  of  the  Pioneers. 
Such  is  the  life  and  such  are  the  foundation  principles 
which  have  gone  into  the  making  of  this  beautiful  character. 
What  she  has  done  is  not  the  unusual  thing,  it  is  how  she 
has  done  it;  it  is  not  what  she  teaches  with  her  lips — eloquent 
as  they  may  be — that  makes  the  righteous  ensample  for  the 
girlhood  of  the  Church  to  pattern  after;  it  is  what  her  faith 
and  trust  have  fashioned  out  of  the  life  materials  at  her  hand. 
Beauty  is  not  of  our  making  or  altering;  but  integrity,  truth, 
loyalty  to  friends,  devotion  to  family  interests  and  duty — this 
it  is  which  makes  of  Mrs.  Smith  an  ideal  worthy  of  all 
emulation . 



Resume  of  the  nrst  forty  years'  work. — A  glimpse  at  a  local  Mutual 
Improvement  meeting;  at  a  stake  board  meeting;  at  a  General 
Board  meeting. — The  power  behind  them. — The  results. 

/CONTEMPLATE  for  a  moment  the  social  and  religious 
V>  conditions  of  today  without  Mutual  Improvement  As- 
sociations! What  would  we  do  if  they  were  suddenly  to 
dissolve;  what  and  where  would  we  be  if  they  had  never 
existed?  Fancy  if  you  can,  seventy  thousand  young:  people 
without  a  Mutual  Improvement  Association,  with  no  Era  or 
Young  Woman  s  Journal — no  Mutual  conferences  or  con- 
ventions— no  weekly  ward  Mutual  Improvement  meetings — 
no  Sunday  conjoint  evening  sessions — no  libraries—  no  or- 
ganized social  activities — no  proper  outlet  for  natural  gayety 
and  talents — no  training-school  for  future  missionaries  and 
future  home-makers!  The  young  men  might  not  be  in  the 
sorry  condition  of  the  girls,  even  then;  for  they  have  their 
quorums,  missions,  and  the  woven  web  of  offices  from  deacon 
to  the  president  of  the  Church.  But  the  girls  would  be  lost 
indeed.  Church  schools  and  Sunday  schools  might  employ 
some  of  their  time  and  develop  a  portion  of  their  talents,  yet 
both  would  be  wholly  inadequate  to  give  the  spiritual  and 
mental  equipment  so  necessary  for  the  ideal  woman  of  today . 
Mortality  has  no  scales  with  which  to  weigh ,  no  rule  by  which 
to  measure,  the  value  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  work  to 
the  young  women  of  Zion! 

Let  us  close  this  story  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  with  a 
glance  over  the  forty  years  of  achievement  since  their  or- 
ganization in  the  Lion  House  on  that  night  of  November 
28th,  1869. 

Out  of  that  preliminary  meeting  grew  the  Retrenchment 
work.  Ward  organizations  of  the  girls  followed,  and  in  ten 
years  there  were  Young  Ladies'  Retrenchment  Associations 

300  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

in  practically  every  ward  in  Zion.  Associated  with  this  work 
was  the  introduction  of  similar  societies  among-  the  young  men, 
which  were  christened  the  Young  Men's  Mutual  Improvement 
Associations.  The  name  of  the  girls'  societies  was  changed 
to  harmonize  with  the  newer  work,  and  these  societies  soon 
became  two  halves  of  a  great  whole.  Then  came  the  setting 
in  order  of  the  stakes  of  Zion.  Next  followed  the  grouping 
together  of  all  the  women's  organizations  with  General 
Boards.  The  Young  Woman 's  Journal  was  started  under 
the  auspices  of  the  General  Board  ot  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  Next 
was  chosen  a  corps  of  aids  for  the  General  Board,  followed  by 
a  regular  course  of  study  provided  in  Guides  prepared  and 
published  by  the  general  authorities.  The  historical  and 
financial  interests  of  the  Board  were  brought  up  to  the  highest 
standard  of  efficiency  by  the  general  secretary.  A  yearly 
Dime  Fund  was  inaugurated  successfully.  A  traveling 
library  movement  was  projected  and  later  the  ward  libraries 
were  greatly  increased  and  are  now  censored  wisely  and 
rigorously.  The  wards  and  stakes  blossomed  into  great 
centers  of  social  light  and  educational  activity.  Standing  com- 
mittees were  organized  to  facilitate  work  in  the  General  Board. 
The  girls  meanwhile  gave  freely  of  their  time  and  vitality  to 
raise  means  for  local,  educational,  and  charitable  causes. 
Joining  forces  with  their  brother  associations  in  certain  di- 
rections, conjoint  general  conferences  were  arranged  each 
June  in  Salt  Lake  City,  followed  by  the  grouping  of  stake 
interests  in  yearly  gatherings  of  a  similar  nature.  The  tenta- 
tive work  done  by  the  Mutual  Improvement  League  of  earlier 
years  in  physical  education  has  come  into  perfect  fulfillment 
through  the  erection  of  a  magnificent  gymnasium  in  Salt  Lake 
City,  and  other  smaller  ones  scattered  throughout  the  stakes. 
The  national  and  international  movements  of  women  in  all  the 
world  have  not  ignored  the  efforts  and  friendship  of  the 
Mutual  Improvement  girls  in  Zion,  but  have  given  their  loyal 


support  to  our  educational  and  social  achievements.  All  these, 
with  many  minor  developments,  marked  the  twenty-five  years 
of  the  labor  and  ministry  of  Elmina  S.  Taylor  and  her  asso- 
ciate workers.  After  her  death,  December  4th,  1904,  came 
the  reorganization  of  the  Board  with  Martha  H.  Tingey  as 
president,  and  her  associated  workers.  The  girls  contributed 
of  their  means  to  assist  in  erecting-  suitable  headquarters  for 
the  general  Y.  L.  M.  I.  offices,  which  funds  were  merged 
with  those  of  the  other  women's  auxiliary  organizations,  and 
given  to  the  Church,  receiving1  in  return  the  splendid  accom- 
modations now  theirs  in  the  Bishop's  building  opposite  the 
Salt  Lake  Temple. 

Contemplate  for  a  moment  some  of  the  results  of  these 
labors!  Imagine  the  effect  produced  on  the  impalpable  yet 
perfectly  organized  spiritual  atmosphere  about  us,  super- 
induced by  the  unity  of  purpose  and  labor  existing  among 
over  seventy  thousand  young  people!  Most  of  the  associations 
meet  on  the  same  evening  in  the  week,  study  the  same  lessons, 
from  Canada  to  Mexico,  from  New  York  to  San  Francisco; 
yes,  and  they  are  at  work  away  off  in  Honolulu,  in  Australia, 
and  in  most  of  the  countries  of  Europe.  Not  only  are  the 
studies  and  the  date  of  meeting  identical,  but  the  objects  and 
aims  of  all  are  alike;  there  is  present  no  motive  but  ''self  cul- 
ture" except  the  infinitely  higher  one  of  service  of  the  su~ 
perior  intelligence  to  the  inferior. 

There  is  no  coercion;  all  are  at  liberty,  to  come  and  to 
go.  The  only  test  of  membership  is  integrity,  purity  of 
character  and  faithfulness  in  labor.  There  are  no  distinctions 
in  class  or  caste;  intelligence  and  diligence  are  the  sole  re- 
quirements for  preferment  and  position.  While  the  re- 
sponsibility of  office  is  rather  avoided  than  otherwise,  the 
honor  of  being  selected  is  sensibly  appreciated  by  the  youth 
of  both  sexes.  As  a  rule  diligent  service  is  given.  Every 
office  is  filled,  each  study  is  undertaken,  entirely  as  an  indi- 

302  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

vidtial  affair.  The  whole  spirit  of  work  and  workers  is  per- 
missive, not  mandatory.  The  stimulus  to  members  and  offi- 
cers is  that  given  by  the  impetus  of  conscious  duty  done,  and 
hard  but  loving-  service  rendered. 

It  was  understood  by  the  leaders  of  the  movement  that 
the  element  of  popularity  must  be  counted  upon  as  a  strong- 
force  in  the  work.  For  this  reason  the  social  features  have 
ever  been  emphasized.  Efforts  have  been  made  to  induce 
the  social  leaders  among  both  sexes  to  lend  their  aid  in  car- 
rying- forward  the  plans  and  purposes  of  the  association.  Jf 
the  '  'pure  life' '  and  the  '  'proper  life' '  can  be  made  as  popular 
as  the  "strenuous  life,"  a  mig-hty  force  will  be  focussed  in  the 
ranks  of  Mutual  Improvement  work.  To  make  it  a  popular 
thing-  to  be  well-bred  and  intelligent,  while  increasing  the 
impulse  towards  spiritual  development,  has  been  the  aim  of 
the  Mutual  Improvement  Association;  and  results  prove  that 
the  mingling  of  spiritual,  social  and  educational  objects  has 
been  most  happy  and  desirable. 

Think  what  it  means  to  any  community  to  have  the 
amusements  of  the  young  controlled  or  guided  by  wise  and 
righteous  leaders!  Not  leaders  chosen  from  the  staid  and 
older  members  of  the  community  only,  but  also  the  wisest 
and  most  sympathetic  selected  from  among  the  young  people ! 
The  young  will  follow  the  young  more  quickly  than  they  will 
follow  the  old  and  sedate.  Above  all  the  influences  which 
have  contributed  to  make  this  work  the  success  which  it  has 
become,  is  the  fact,  and  it  marks  all  the  similar  work  done  in 
the  Church,  that  no  work  is  performed  for  a  monetary 
reward  but  is  offered  as  a  labor  of  love.  The  heart  grows 
sad  when  labor  is  misunderstood  and  purposes  misjudged. 
The  hands  grow  tired,  the  feet  weary,  with  the  strain  of 
continuous  and  unfruitful  labors.  The  brain  sometimes 
refuses  to  toil  when  injustice  and  sharpness  are  the  seeming 
reward  for  long  and  concentrated  struggle.  But  when  the 


hour  is  past,  and  the  time  is  struck,  the  soul  leaps  from  its 
sorrowing  couch  with  the  consciousness  of  pure  effort  made 
and  undivided  purpose  intended.  The  vision  of  hope  is 
opened  by  the  handclasp  of  a  friend,  or  the  unexpected  bless- 
ing- of  a  servant  of  God;  and,  for  a  season,  the  "legend 
beautiful"  is  a  veritable  reality  to  the  harrowed  mind  and 
the  tired  feet.  With  the  blessed  vision  of  what  has  been 
done  comes  power  and  determination  to  press  forward  to  other 
and  more  difficult  labors,  to  engage  in  higher  and  severer 
struggles  to  bless  and  benefit  mankind.  So  the  worker, 
whether  member  or  officer,  is  encouraged  to  go  on  and  on, 
up  and  up.  Is  not  this  a  cause  to  claim  the  deepest  devotion 
and  most  loving  fealty? 

Shall  we  close  this  narrative  history  with  a  pen-picture 
of  present  conditions,  a  word-photograph  of  Mutual  Improve- 
ment work  today?  The  dignified  historian  is  too  often  handi- 
capped by  the  seriousness  of  his  work;  he  escapes  the  flip- 
pancy of  the  modern  touch-and-go  descriptions  of  colossal 
events,  yet  does  he  also  miss  much  of  the  piquancy  and 
charm  which  invests  sober  facts  with  vivid  personality. 
Imagination  may  be  a  will-o'-the-wisp, but  its  light  spontaneity 
and  graceful  vagrancy  have  a  value  all  too  poignant  to  be 
lightly  ignored.  We  know  the  Church  was  organized  on  the 
sixth  day  of  April,  1830,  with  six  members;  but  the  bare  facts 
do  not  kindle  the  soul  unless  we  clothe  the  skeleton  with  the 
warmth  and  fullness  of  our  imaginations  and  endeavor  to  see 
it  as  it  really  occurred.  What  would  we  not  give  for  some 
light,  perchance,  but  truthful  account  of  that  event  given  .in 
the  breezy  language  of  the  modern  newspaper  reporter! 
Clothed  with  our  imagination  we  can  see  the  small,  low- 
ceiled  room,  the  group  of  earnest,  sober  men,  the  focussed 
figure  of  the  boy-prophet,  as  he  proceeded  with  the  prelimi- 
nary details  of  that  marvelous  work.  Ah,  if  an  imaginative 
historian  had  been  there,  how  rich  and  rare  had  been  that 

304  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

literary  inheritance!  So,  too,  in  twenty,  fifty,  or  numberless 
years  from  now — when,  it  may  well  be,  the  re-building  of 
the  Center  Stake  of  Zion  has  begun — when  the  greater  dis- 
coveries have  been  made,  the  mightier  earth-forces  have  been 
disclosed  and  utilized — when  the  head  of  this  organization 
may  be  1  Dcated  in  the  New  Jerusalem — do  you  "not  suppose 
that  the  young  girl-readers  of  that  day  will  be  glad  to  open 
the  ancient  lids  of  a  book  that  will  describe,  ever  so  haltingly, 
the  far-away  days  and  events  which  centered  around  the  be- 
ginnings of  Mutual  Improvement  work?  Will  they  not  be 
grateful  for  the  will-o'-the-wisp  touch  which  will  disclose  for 
them  the  scenes  as  well  as  the  facts,  clothing  events  with  a 
robe  of  imaginative  reality? 

Come  then,  thou  will-o'-the-wisp — Imagination — only  let 
thy  leading  strings  be  truth,  and  thy  path  be  horizoned  con- 
stantly with  the  blue  of  heaven's  own  inspiration! 

Here,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1910,  is  a  busy  hive  of 
young  girls,  living  in  any  one  of  the  700  wards  of  the  Church, 
and  grouped  in  a  ward  Mutual  Improvement  Association. 
Do  you  see  that  bevy  of  laughing,  jostling,  giddy,  fourteen - 
year-old  Junior  Mutual  girls,  chewing  gum — not  so  much  as 
they  used  to  do,  but  enough — strolling  along  this  Sunday  or 
Tuesday  night,  hair  combed  high  on  their  shapely  young 
heads  or  flowing  in  gay  disordered  braids  down  their  backs- 
eyes  on  the  watch  for  their  boy-companions,  also  some- 
where on  the  road  to  the  '  'meeting-house?"  Their  heads  are 
full  of  nonsense,  but  their  hearts  are  full  of  possibilities; 
puffs  are  in  their  hair,  and  silly  laughter  is  on  their  lips — 
for  human  nature  is  ever  the  same — and  youth  is  a  play-time 
and  a  laugh-time;  see  that  it  is  not  checked  too  rudely  or 
altered  too  sternly,  or  you  may  make  of  it  a  cheating-time 
and  a  sin -time!  These  laughing  Junior  girls  are  followed 
more  sedately  by  the  Senior  girls  who  have  lately  eschewed 
gum,  and  whose  pompadoured  hair  has  gained  much  in 


smoothness — and  size  -  through  superior  age  and  more  dig- 
nified ideals.  As  one  gazes  at  the  throngs  wending  their  way 
to  the  warmed  and  lighted  churches  all  over  the  land  —many 
of  the  little  groups  of  girls  joined  as  they  saunter  by  boys 
and  young  men,  all  of  them  full  of  the  fire  of  youth,  the  wine 
of  life — one  pauses  with  bated  breath  as  one  recalls  the  subtle 
temptations,  the  doubly  intensified  modern  pitfalls  for  the 
youth  of  both  sexes,  and  wonders  dimly  at  the  blind  con- 
fidence of  earthly  parents,  the  seeming  calm  indifference  of 
Providence,  in  thus  throwing  together  unprotected  girls  and 
boys.  Yet  as  we  linger,  doubting,  we  see  them  mount  the 
steps  of  the  churches  and  crowd  joyously  within.  There,  the 
sweet  seclusion,  the  hallowed  association,  begin  the  quelling 
influence,  which  is  supplemented  by  the  quiet  self-control  of 
the  officers.  True,  the  young  whisperers  of  both  sexes  will 
ever  be  there,  sitting  on  the  back  benches  and  ogling  each 
other  at  various  angles.  Hark,  the  deep  tones  of  the  organ 
voluntary  begin,  the  opening  hymn  is  announced,  in  which 
all  join,  standing  as  they  sing,  followed  by  the  heartfelt, 
earnest  prayer  for  grace  which  settles  upon  the  restless  young 
spirits  like  a  garment  and  completes  the  transformation.  Our 
anxieties  are  subdued,  our  confidence  is  established.  We  are 
ready  to  listen  to  the  preliminary  program,  and  to  watch  the 
orderly  marching  to  music  which  separates  the  young  men 
from  the  girls  and  which  finally  subdivides  the  Juniors  and 
the  Seniors  of  both  sexes.  We  are  attuned  to  the  time  and 
occasion,  and  are  prepared  to  take  up  the  lesson  of  the 
evening,  be  it  in  theology,  literature  or  ethics.  Reflection 
quiets  our  suspicions,  but  does  not  give  the  key  to  the  situ- 
ation. Schools,  clubs,  may  do  all  this;  what  more  is  there 
within  this  association  which  encourages  the  ideal  develop- 
ment of  spirit,  brain  and  body?  Come  again,  on  the  first 
Tuesday  in  the  month,  and  enter  the  girls'  department  after 
the  preliminary  exercises  are  over,  and  after  the  young  men 


306  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

have  adjourned  to  their  class  rooms.  It  is  " testimony  nig-ht." 
A  hush,  born  of  palpitating-  expectancy,  of  emotional  antic- 
ipation, pervades  the  atmosphere.  Every  tongue-tied  girl 
sits  dumbly  convinced  that  she  can  never  get  courage  or  faith 
to  rise  upon  her  feet  and  speak  to  others  about  her  own  spir- 
itual experiences.  Now  an  officer,  the  gentle  and  loving 
president  herself  perchance,  arises  and  says  a  few  simple, 
genuine  words  about  the  need  of  true  conversion,  giving,  it 
may  be ,  a  new  experience  of  her  own  in  this  spiritual  field  of 
mutual  endeavor;  then,  she  urges  each  girl  present  to  arise 
and  "say  something."  Stimulated  by  her  example,  one  after 
another  gets  up,  giving  tearful  utterance  to  the  "hope  that  is 
within  her,"  relates  some  case  of  healing  the  sick,  or  gives 
other  precious  experiences  which  have  come  to  her  knowledge. 
Eyes  wet  with  sympathy,  hearts  melted  by  fear  and  love — 
what  wonder  that  the  delicate  and  subtle  influence  of  the  good 
spirit  finds  fruitful  fields  in  which  to  plant  the  seeds  of  truth 
and  faith  in  God!  These  testimonies,  the  girls  discover,  are 
not  gained  through  any  process  of  reasoning — but  through 
the  pure  emotions  of  the  willing  human  heart.  Moreover, 
they  find  that  after  that  testimony  has  once  been  gained,  it  is 
lost  only  through  vanity  or  ambition,  neglect  or  sin.  We  may 
watch  the  effect  of  that  lesson  burned  into  the  heart  of  the 
Mormon  girl  that  the  standard  of  truth  is  forever  fixed  on  the 
life  and  mission  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ;  and  when  we  once 
see  that  standard  set  up  in  the  girl's  soul,  it  would  needs  be 
covered  fathoms  deep  with  sin  or  willful  deception  to  blot 
out  its  brightness.  We  sigh  for  the  careless  president  who 
seeks  to  lighten  her  spiritual  task  by  introducing  formal 
subjects  and  prepared  study  into  her  "testimony  meetings!" 
Out  of  the  fullness  of  her  own  heart,  the  richness  of  her  own 
testimony,  must  she  call  for  the  girls  to  follow  her  leadership. 
Add  now  to  this  scene  all  the  combined  social  and  edu- 
cational labors  of  the  two  ward  Mutual  boards;  visualize  the 


balls  and  the  parties,  the  suppers  and  the  home-prepared 
theatricals,  which  form  the  very  bulwark  of  society  in  the 
various  wards,  and  you  have  some  idea  of  the  present  activ- 
ities of  the  local  ward  Mutual  Improvement  Association; 
and  at  the  conclusion  we  are  filled  with  conviction  that  herein 
has  been  found  the  solution  for  the  problem  of  protecting  and 
developing-  the  youth  in  paths  of  pleasant  righteousness.  How 
good  is  the  Lord! 

Pay  we  now  a  visit  to  the  stake  officers,  who  preside  in 
their  precinct  with  the  same  authority  as  do  the  General  Board 
over  the  stakes.  This  young  lady  who  acts  as  president  over 
the  stake  we  are  just  now  visiting,  is  more  than  likely  one  of 
that  vast  corps  of  former  school-teachers  now  married  who  is 
trying  to  make  her  avocation  fit  easily  and  smoothly  in  with 
her  vocation.  She  is  wife  and  mother,  no  doubt, but  that  only 
makes  her  the  better  able  to  mother  the  ward  officials  who 
are  under  her  jurisdiction.  She  must  needs  move  with  celerity 
about  her  home,  for  beside  the  usual  washing  and  ironing, 
sweeping  and  dusting,  there  are  meetings  of  various  wards 
to  visit  each  week,  a  single  officers'  meeting  of  her  own 
board,  and  once  a  month  there  is  the  conjoint  officers'  meet- 
ings, followed  by  the  separate  general  ward  officers'  assembly. 
Besides,  there  are  always  vacancies  to  fill,  candidates  to  con- 
sider, plans  to  adopt  and  suggestions  to  offer  as  to  amuse- 
ments, or  fund-raising;  missionaries  to  select;  but  thanks  be 
to  the  kind  Father  who  presides  over  the  destinies  of  the 
Mutual  girls  in  Zion,  so  far  there  have  been  no  quarrels  to 
adjust  nor  bickerings  to  suppress.  This  president  is  assisted, 
you  note,  by  two  other  young  women,  one  chosen  perchance 
for  the  solid  dignity  of  her  character  and  the  burning  testi- 
mony of  her  soul -life;  another,  it  maybe,  is  gifted  in  language 
and  can  preach  the  word  in  power  to  the  girls  as  she  visits 
about.  Add  to  these  the  bright  little  secretary  of  the  stake, 
and  the  musical  and  Journal  officers,  with  the  librarian  and 

308  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

aids,  and  you  have  another  large  body  of  active  women,  each 
vieing  with  the  other  in  good  deeds,  unselfish  devotion  and 
active  service.  The  three  who  preside  in  this  stake  have 
passed  some  time  ago  the  giggling,  effervescent  age;  school- 
teaching  or  marriage  with  consequent  motherhood  have  stilled 
the  vague  temptations  of-  youth,  and  have  set  their  feet  on 
the  upward  ladder  of  progressive  life.  These  busy  young 
women  find  the  natural  womanly  ambition  to  help  in  the  mod- 
ern utilitarian  world's  work  fulfilled  in  the  Mutual  Improve- 
ment Associations.  '  Contrary  to  the  custom  of  the  world, 
these  girls  have  not  sought  nor  desired  position;  therefore, 
they  fulfill  their  public  duties  without  much  if  any  self- 
consciousness.  The  line  of  effort  is,  first, to  be  the  girl-woman- 
wife-mother,  and  then  if  possible  to  do  much  in  the  field  of 
mutual  improvement  endeavor.  They  find,  it  is  true,  a  larger 
sphere,  a  deeper  note  of  self -sacrifice,  in  the  work  of  the  associa- 
tions; yet  must  the  girl- woman  not  be  deprived  of  the  personal 
home  opportunities, nor  shall  she  stultify  her  growth  upward  in 
wifehood  and  motherhood.  You  would  doubtless  find,  if  you 
peeped  into  the  homes  of  these  girl  stake -officials,  either  a 
grandmother,  or  mother,  and  not  seldom  the  good-natured 
young  husband  of  the  house,  watching  the  sleeping  babies 
while  the  young  mother  is  away  Tuesday  evenings  or  Sunday 
mornings  at  her  work  in  the  Mutuals.  These  stake  officials 
find  their  duties  as  strenuous  and  as  complex  as  are  those  per- 
formed by  the  General  Board.  But  the  stakes  have  one  great 
advantage: all  work  is  mapped  out — lessons  prepared  and  print- 
ed, and  roll  and  record  books  are  given  them  by  the  general 
officers.  There  are  no  stake  headquarters,  although  there  are 
many  good  stake  libraries;  but  all  are  welcome  to  accommoda- 
tions in  the  various  ward  and  stake  houses  or  churches. 

Leaving  therefore  the  ward  and  stake  workers,  shall  we 
now  take  a  glimpse  at  the  labors  of  today  performed  by  the 


thirty  odd  women  whose  names  appear  on  the  roster  of  the 
General  Board  of  the  M.  I.  A.? 

Come  into  the  Bishop's  building- — north  entrance,  please 
— take  the  elevator  past  the  second  floor  where  are  the  Relief 
Society  rooms,  and  Young-  Men's  Mutual  Improvement  As- 
sociation rooms,  and  get  off  at  the  third  floor.  Half  way  down 
the  long  hall  are  the  sumptuous  quarters  of  the  Primary  As- 
sociation on  the  north  and  the  place  we  are  seeking  is  on  the 
south  side.  The  first  door  leads  to  the  editorial  office  of  the 
Young  Woman '  s  Journal.  When  you  turn  the  heavy  bronze 
knob,  and  swing  the  massive  oaken  door  inward,  you  see  the 
editor  surrounded  with  her  luxurious  desk,  tables  and  book- 
cases. She  may  be  another  personality  by  and  by,  but  ever 
will  go  on  the  good  work  done  there.  You  are  somewhat  so- 
bered by  the  thought  that  a  cause  swallows  up  individuality 
and  stifles  personality;  yet  the  knowledge  of  a  divine  balance 
to  be  daily  struck  in  the  adjustment  of  God's  plan  comforts 
you,  and  you  shake  hands  with  the  clear-eyed  young  woman 
sitting  at  the  editorial  desk  and  then  turn  to  the  hall  again 
and  enter  the  larger  doors  which  lead  to  the  general  offices. 

What  a  jovial,  restless,  active  atmosphere  blows  upon 
you  at  this  threshold!  Well,  what  would  you?  The  young 
woman  who  greets  you  in  these  business  offices  of  the  Journal 
is  the  business  manager  of  that  prosperous  magazine.  There 
are  15,000  magazines  to  mail  monthly,  accounts  to  keep, 
complaints  to  hear,  rights  to  adjust,  letters  to  answer,  and 
visitors  to  greet.  Hands  and  feet  are  always  busy,  tongue  is 
seldom  rested,  brain  is  never  idle.  But  you  are  welcome, — 
whoever  you  are,  come  right  in.  The  general  secretary,  did 
you  say?  Yes,  she  is  in  the  inner  rooms.  And  herein  you 
pass,  greeting  the  secretary  with  the  respect  her  dignified 
composure  demands.  She  has  her  hundreds,  nay  thousands, 
of  letters  to  answer,  records  to  keep,  tickets  for  visiting  Board 
members  to  purchase,  routes  to  look  up,  instructions  to  pre- 

310  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

pare,  minutes  to  keep  and  record,  appointments  to  make,  and 
telephone  messages  to  send  and  receive  every  hour  in  the  day. 

The  General  Board?  Yes.  They  are  all  in  the  assembly 
hall — you  are  welcome  within!  The  beautiful  room  with  its 
elegant  furnishings  escapes  your  attention,  for  your  eyes  are 
drawn  to  the  circle  of  women  about  the  long  table,  headed  by 
their  dignified  president.  The  opening  song  and  the  prayer 
are  over,  the  roll  is  called,  minutes  are  read,  and  then  fol- 
lows the  day's  regular  business.  It  is  Thursday  afternoon, 
you  remember,  the  day  so  long  set  apart  as  Board  meeting 
day,  and  you  sit  down  prepared  to  listen  with  quiet  attention. 
The  Guide  committee  may  report;  discussion  and  suggestion 
follow.  Or  there  may  be  letters  from  the  National  Council 
of  Women  of  the  U.  S.  There  may  be  plans  for  the  summer 
conventions,  or  the  June  conference.  The  library  committee 
may  bring  in  new  lists  of  books  for  revisal  and  correction. 
Reports  from  the  various  conferences  visited  take  much  time 
and  patience.  There  may  be  letters  and  changes  in  stake 
appointments  or  officers.  All  these,  or  a  portion  of  them, 
require  much  consideration  and  discussion.  You  could  wish 
at  times  that  there  was  a  touch  of  humor,  a  gleam  of  wit,  to 
lighten  the  seriousness  of  this  weekly  conclave.  It  is  never 
a  crime,  however — albeit  it  sometimes  is  a  great  strain — to 
take  ourselves  and  our  duties  always  with  profound  serious- 
ness. Y7et  as  you  listen  to  the  composed  discussions,  the 
respectful  suggestions,  and  note  the  absence  of  personal  am- 
bition, envy  and  intrigue,  you  are  compelled  to  a  greater  or 
less  meed  of  admiration  for  the  women  and  the  methods  which 
can  produce  these  results. 

Some  unusual  force  has  been  at  work  here;  you  can  find 
nothing  to  parallel  it  in  the  conduct  of  women's  clubs  and 
societies  in  the  world  today.  What  is  that  power?  What  are 
the  causes  that  have  brought  about  these  results?  This  rec- 
ord has  endeavored  to  answer  that  question,  to  set  forth  the 


causes  which  have  operated  to  produce  the  successful  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.  of  this  people.  The  past  is  spread  before  you,  the 
future  is  hid  in  eternity.  But  as  the  corn  follows  the  plant- 
ing- of  the  seed,  so  love,  unity,  and  self-control  follow  the 
planting-  of  righteousness  in  the  human  heart. 

Here,  then,  we  may  close  this  imperfect  record  of  an 
almost  perfect  organization — an  organization  with  a  wonder- 
ful history  behind  it  and  with  an  unlimited  future  ahead  of  it. 
In  leaving  this  portion  of  God's  work,  there  is  one  over- 
mastering thought  which  fills  the  mind:  how  perfectly  our 
Father  understands  the  possibilities  of  growth  and  progress! 
No  creeping  moss  gathers  about  the  roots  of  the  tree  of  life; 
but  activity,  growth,  and  motion  beget  change,  evolution  and 
development;  all  these  are  the  attributes  of  the  work  of  God. 
Around  this  thought  g-athers  another  akin  to  it:  our  Father 
does  all  His  work  through  natural  and  simple  means;  the 
weakness  and  strength  of  men  are  weighed  in  His  hands,  and 
made  to  contribute  to  the  final  sum  of  progress;  men,  having- 
their  agency,  can  go  constantly  forward  or  constantly  back- 
ward; or  they  can  take  that  zig-zag  course  so  often  taken  by 
weak  mortality;  but  the  great  Arbiter  of  all  our  destinies  will 
bring  every  foot  within  the  pale  of  truth,  soon  or  late,  now  or 
then.  What  the  Mutual  Improvement  Associations  of  Zion 
have  meant  to  the  girls  cannot  be  told  in  words.  What  are 
the  results?  Look  you  at  the  individuals;  let  them  tell  the 
tale.  Not  one  soul  in  Zion  has  failed  to  feel  either  the  direct 
or  indirect  effects  of  this  powerful  factor  among  the  youth  of 
our  people.  All  have  been  mutually  helped,  mutually 
blessed,  and  mutually  improved — what  more  can  be  added? 
Only  a  song  of  gratitude  and  praise  to  that  Father,  who,  in 
blessing  and  remembering  His  sons,  forgot  not  to  bless  and 
remember  His  daughters. 


i-lISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


One  of  the*  famous  family  which  gave  to  the  world 
the  Prophet  Joseph  Smith,  her  grandfather  being  Judge 
Elias  Smith,  and  being  likewise  a  granddaughter  of 


President  Wilford  Woodruff,  it  is  not  strange  that  Lucy 
Woodruff  Smith  is  molded  to  noblest  forms  of  spiritual  worth. 
She  first  saw  the  light  away  down  on  the  Muddy  Mission, 
where  her  parents  were  suffering  and  struggling  with  that 


handful  of  refugees  sent  by  President  Brig-ham  Young  and 
Apostle  Erastus  Snow  to  create  a  civilization  in  the  hot  wil- 
derness of  that  then  forbidding  country.  But  she  inherited 
the  pluck  and  patience  of  her  parents,  and  after  all,  what  do 
environments  matter,  if  the  soul  be  true  and  the  body  be 
strong?  Lucy  was  born  on  the  10th  of  January,  1869,  and 
was  the  daughter  of  Wilford  Woodruff,  Jr.,  and  of  Emily  J. 
Smith.  All  her  life  she  has  kept  the  Word  of  Wisdom. 
Since  she  was  ten  years  old  she  has  been  a  strict  tithepayer. 
She  has  never  owed  the  Lord  one  cent;  all  her  life  she  has 
loved  the  Lord;  all  her  life  she  has  served  her  kind.  And 
yet,  she,  too,  must  pass  through  the  fire  of  affliction. 

Lucy  recalls  with  peculiar  pleasure  the  organization  of  a 
Primary  Retrenchment  Association,  effected  through  her 
cousin  Alice  Merrill, in  the  prayer-room  of  the  old  Historian's 
Office  in  the  year  1876,  where  dwelt  Alice  with  her  grand- 
parents. Here  the  tiny  tots  met,  spoke  of  things  religious, 
or  listened  to  simple  exhortations  delivered  by  themselves 
and  an  occasional  invited  visitor.  This  society  antedates  the 
Primary  Associations,  and  yet  was  modeled  upon  the  same 

Lucy  married  her  distant  cousin,  George  Albert  Smith, 
grandson  and  namesake  of  President  George  A.  Smith, 
May  25th,  1892.  She  has  had  three  children  and  has  moth- 
ered eight  others.  Her  home  life  is  ideal;  for  the  only 
law  is  that  of  love  and  constant  kindness  between  parents 
and  children,  and  with  friends  and  acquaintances. 

Lucy  has  not  confined  her  labors  to  her  home,  but  like 
so  many  of  our  bright  young  matrons,  she  has  enlarged  her 
sphere,  and  the  call  of  the  priesthood  has  placed  many  public 
burdens  upon  her.  In  1887,  she  was  chosen  to  act  as  ward 
president  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  the  Seventeenth  ward. 
Then,  in  1894,  two  years  after  her  marriage,  she  was  elected 
treasurer  for  the  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  When  the  Salt  Lake 
stake  was  first  divided  Lucy  was  chosen  to  act  as  second 
counselor  to  Nellie  C.  Taylor  in  the  Salt  Lake  stake 
board.  Here  she  labored,  with  great  fidelity,  initia- 
tive and  resourcefulness,  until  the  further  division  of  the 
city  into  four  stakes,  when  she  was  selected  to  fill  the 
position  of  president  of  the  Salt  Lake  stake  Y.  L.  M. 
I.  A.  She  was  called  to  act  as  a  member  of  the  General 

314  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Board  of  the  whole  Association  in  October,  1908;  and  here 
she  still  labors.  In  every  one  of  these  positions  Lucy  Wood- 
ruff Smith  has  been  successful  and  energetic;  she  has  toiled 
with  heart  and  brain,  with  body  and  nerve;  and  what  she  has 
done  not  even  the  annals  of  the  society  may  betray.  For  she 
has  filled  full  to  'overflowing  every  measure  meted  out  to  her 
for  loving  service,  in  her  home,  in  her  ward  and  in  her  public 
duties.  That  she  is  now  near  breaking  down  under  the 
strain,  is  due  as  much  to  her  generous  and  lavish  serv- 
ice towards  her  own  family  as  to  that  same  measure  which 
she  has  meted  out  in  her  public  duties.  While  with  her  hus- 
band in  the  Southern  States,  she  assisted  him  in  his  duties 
as  the  secretary  of  the  mission.  Lucy  was  of  great  assistance 
in  clerical  labor;  and  but  for  her  another  clerk  would  have 
been  necessary  in  the  office. 

The  key-note  of  Lucy  Smith's  character  is  the  power 
to  hear  and  obey  the  promptings  of  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord.. 
This  was  her  grandfather  Wilford  Woodruff's  great  gift,  and 
it  is  her  own  in  large  degree.  In  her  family  life,  she  has 
always  been  guided  by  that  still  small  voice,  whose  decrees 
are  sometimes  inscrutable,  but  whose  dictates  never  fail.  It 
is  this  inner  light  which  makes  that  charm  and  radiance  about 
her  home  and  which  has  made  it  possible  for  both  parents  to 
fight  for  life  in  the  face  of  overwhelming  odds . 

It  would  be  unjust  to  close  this  sketch  without  adding  a 
tribute  to  the  young  Apostle,  George  A. Smith,  who  has  given 
not  only  his  wife  help,  encouragement  and  support  in  all  her 
home  and  public  duties,  but  who  has  been  generous  in  his 
assistance  and  spiritual  support  to  every  woman  in  this  Church. 
Surely  the  girls  of  the  Mutual  have  much  to  thank  George 
A.  Smith  for,  for  he  has  been  a  rod  and  a  staff  to  both 
wings  of  Mutual  endeavor;  and  especially,  in  all  public  and 
private  meetings  of  those  organizations,  his  voice  is  ever 
raised  to  advance  woman's  development  and  woman's  pos- 
sibilities. He  has  made  it  a  beautiful  thing  for  all  women  to 
work  by  his  side,  for  his  heartfelt  tributes  to  the  mothers 
and  daughters  of  his  people  are  founded  on  the  rock  of  his 
own  unselfish,  manly  dignity  and  the  purity  and  uprightness 
of  his  whole  life.  Of  such  indeed  we  have  all  too  few 
amongst  any  people.  God  lengthen  his  life  till  his  hair  is 
white  and  his  years  are  as  a  ripened  sheaf  of  corn! 




Jane  Ballantyne  Anderson  was  born  in  Salt  Lake  City, 
Utah,  February  10th,  1861.  Her  father  was  Richard  Ballan- 
tyne, founder  of  the  Latter-day  Saints'  Sunday  Schools,  who 


emigrated  from  Scotland,  in  1843.  Her  mother  was  Mary 
Pearce,  a  native  of  England,  who  came  to  Utah  in  1855.  The 
family  moved  to  Ogfden  when  Jane  was  yet  a  child,  and 
later  to  Ogden  Valley  where  Elder  Ballantyne  presided  over 
Eden,  a  little  settlement  in  the  north  end  of  the  valley. 

316  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

In  those  early  days  there  was  little  else  than  the  native 
wilderness  of  mountain  nature  surrounding  the  cabins  of  the 
pioneers.  The  voice  of  the  wolf  and  the  howl  of  -the  coyote 
were  the  only  sounds  that  broke  the  silence.  But  the  young 
girl  loved  to  roam  the  native  meadows,  wade  the  clear 
streams,  climb  the  hills,  and  to  divide  with  the  bear  and  the 
Indian  the  wild  cherry  and  the  service-berry.  In  these  early 
years  she  thus  imbibed  that  intense  love  for  the  mountains 
which  has  grown  to  a  passion  with  her.  These  wild  environ- 
ments, too,  and  the  need  to  shift  for  one's  self,  impressed  her 
with  a  love  of  nature  and  the  outdoor  life,  and  with  strength 
and  independence  of  character.  From  early  childhood  she 
received  strict  training  in  household  work,  and  hence  industry 
and  thrift  were  strongly  impressed  upon  her  life. 

She  attended  the  district  school  of  the  settlement,  where 
she  obtained  such  a  knowledge  of  the  three  R's  as  was  then 
common  in  the  villages  of  northern  Utah.  With  a  fondness 
for  education,  she  did  well  in  her  classes,  and  later  got  per- 
mission to  attend  a  higher  private  academy  in  Ogden,  con- 
ducted by  Prof.  L.  F.  Moench.  In  1879  she  taught  a  district 
school  in  Riverdale,  and  the  year  following  in  Uintah,  closing 
her  experience  in  the  schoolroom  in  Hooper,  in  1880. 
Wherever  she  taught  her  lovable  yet  firm  character  attracted 
the  admiration  of  parents  and  children  alike,  and  this  ex- 
perience gave  her  opportunity  to  exercise  her  pronounced 
natural  gift — ability  to  teach  and  govern  children.  A  number 
of  hitherto  ungovernable  youngsters  became  her  lasting 
friends,  and  among  her  best  students  were  boys  who  were 
generally  considered  hard  to  handle. 

In  1881 — June  29th — she  was  happily  married  to  Edward 
H.  Anderson.  They  have  an  interesting  family  of  six  sons 
and  one  daughter,  upon  all  of  whom  she  has  impressed  her 
lovable  nature.  With  true  love  she  has  devoted  her  life  to 
their  welfare  and  training  so  that  whatever  the  results  may 
be  no  fault  can  ever  be  laid  at  the  door  of  the  mother. 

Aside  from  her  arduous  family  duties  she  has  found  time 
to  keep  her  own  mind  in  touch  with  the  progress  of  the  world, 
and  to  devote  some  thought  and  action  to  public  duties. 
From  June  1,  1885,  till  the  division  of  the  ward,  she  acted  as 
second  counselor  to  Rose  Canfieldin  the  Fourth  ward, Ogden, 
Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.;  and  later  as  first  counselor  to  Mariana  Belnap 


in  the  same  ward.  She  also  acted  as  teacher  of  one  of  the 
classes  under  Presidents  Isabella  Foulger  and  Martha  Wright. 
In  a  tribute  of  love  and  esteem  tendered  to  her  by  her  fellow 
officers  on  her  departure  for  Salt  Lake  City,  they  commend 
her  for  her  "gentle  but  firm  manner  of  instruction,"  her 
"faith  and  devotion,"  her  "tender  watchcare  over  her  aged 
mother,"  her  "devotion  to  the  principles  of  the  gospel,"  and 
her  faithfulness  in  teaching  "our  girls."  She  also  took  part 
in  gathering  statistics  of  women's  work  and  conditions  for  the 
World's  Fair,  Chicago,  1893,  and  at  times  takes  some  interest 
in  political  matters. 

The  family  removed  to  Salt  Lake  City  in  1901;  and  two 
years  later  Mrs.  Anderson  was  appointed  teacher  in  the 
Junior  class  in  the  Sugar  ward,  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  under  Pres- 
ident Lois  Taylor,  in  which  position  she  succeeded  admirably. 
On  March  5,  1905,  she  was  chosen  as  president  of  the  Sugar 
ward  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  For  three  years  she  directed  the  as- 
sociation with  great  success,  but  in  September,  1908,  was 
compelled  to  resign  owing  to  her  mother's  ill  health  which 
required  her  services  at  home.  It  was  in  October  following 
that  she  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  General  Board  Y,  L. 
M.  I.  A.,  to  which  position  she  was  set  apart  by  President 
John  R.  Winder,  November  5.  In  this  position  she  has 
visited  a  number  of  stakes,  and  been  in  attendance  quite 
regularly  at  the  councils  of  the  Board. 


An  engaging  personality,  a  mingling  of  personal  and 
spiritual  beauty,  has  given  to  Sister  Edith  Rossiter  Lovesy 
the  power  to  attract.  Simple  and  sincere  devotion  to  pure 
ideals  makes  her  charm  all  the  more  a  precious  magnet  with 
which  to  draw  the  young. 

She  was  born  in  Salt  Lake  City,  January  29th,  1876,  of 
the  best  of  English  yeoman  stock,  her  father  being  the  well 
known  and  successful  business  man,  William  A.  Rossiter, 
and  her  mother,  Eliza  Crabtree,  daughter  of  that  sturdy 
English  pioneer,  Charles  Crabtree. 

Edith  was  a  worker  in  all  the  auxiliary  institutions  of 
the  Church.  She  was  given  a  class  in  Sunday  School  at  the  early 

318  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

age  of  fifteen  years,  and  was  enrolled  in  the  Mutual  as  soon 
as  her  age  would  permit. 

She  married,  at  the  age  of  twenty,  W.  H.  Lovesy,  a  young 
business  man  of  Salt  Lake  City.     She  moved  to  the  Second 


ward  at  the  time  of  her  marriage,  and  was  chosen  as  counselor 
in  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  Here  she  labored  until  her  husband 
took  her  with  him  to  Pocatello,  in  1901,  where  they  lived  for 
seven  years.  Sister  Lovesy  at  once  entered  into  the  life  and 
atmosphere  about  her,  determined  with  all  the  modest  energy 
of  her  unselfish  soul  to  help  the  girls  of  her  new  home. 


She  was  asked  to  serve  as  secretary  of  Pocatello  stake  Young- 
Ladies  Mutual  Improvement  Association,  and  while  holding 
this  position  she  also  labored  as  a  local  officer,  being-  president 
of  the  Pocatello  ward  association.  In  1906,  five  years  later, 
she  was  made  president  of  the  stake  Mutual  Improvement 
Association,  and  served  loyally  and  with  success  in  that  office 
until  her  return  to  Salt  Lake  City,  in  1908. 

She  made  a  deep  impression  on  the  girls  of  her  stake, 
and  news  of  her  success  was  carried  often  to  the  General  Board 
in  Salt  Lake  City,  so  that  when  she  returned  to  the  city  of 
her  birth  President  Martha  H.  Tingfey  was  desirous  of  adding: 
this  bright  young-  woman  to  those  already  on  the  General 
Board.  At  the  October  conference  of  1908,  Sister  Lovesy  was 
sustained  as  a  member  of  the  General  Board,  and  has  proved 
herself  efficient  and  adaptable  to  the  needs  of  her  new  position. 

Mrs.  Lovesy  is  a  reader  of  the  best  literature.  She  and 
her  husband  have  collected  a  library  of  choice  selection.  Her 
father  was  a  tender  supervisor  of  his  children's  daily  lives 
and  book  education. 

It  is  impossible  for  Edith  R.  Lovesy  to  retain  wounded 
feeling's,  or  blind  suspicions;  she  learned  at  her  mother's  knee, 
and  at  her  father's  council  table,  to  ask  and  receive,  as  also 
to  offer  and  to  bestow  that  full  pardon  for  mistakes  and 
wounds  which  carries  with  it  the  fuller  forgiveness  of  forget- 
fulness.  Her  own  heart  made  thus  tender,  Sister  Lovesy 
would  suffer  much  with  the  thoug-ht  that  perchance  she  had 
wounded  another.  One  other  deep  lesson  of  early  childhood 
was  the  love  of  truth;  to  tell  the  truth  was  part  of  her  very 
life  and  up-bringing-.  For  all  these  and  many  other  life 
lessons  she  lavishes  a  wealth  of  loving:  gratitude  upon  the 
faithful  father  and  mother  who  guided  her  early  youth . 


Letitia  Thomas  Teasdale  was  born  October  23d,  1876, 
in  Franklin,  Idaho.  Her  father  was  Preston  Thomas,  who 
came  of  American  stock.  Her  mother  was  Maria  Hadland, 
of  English  birth.  Letitia 's  father  died  when  she  was  a  babe 
of  eight  months,  but  she  was  reared  most  tenderly  and  care- 
fully by  her  mother,  who  was  a  remarkably  strong,  cour- 
ageous and  true  woman.  Mrs.  Thomas  reared  nine  children, 

320  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

six  girls  and  three  boys;  and  at  the  time  of  her  death  she  had 
seventy-two  descendents,  not  one  of  whom  had  lost  the  faith. 
The  following  beautiful  tribute  is  paid  to  this  mother  in  Israel 
by  her  daughter  Letitia: 


"I  never  heard  my  mother  complain  or  question  the 
purposes  of  the  Lord.  Her  faith  was  wonderful  and  she  so 
impressed  us  with  the  love  of  right  doing  and  loyalty  to  our 
religion  that  the  first  thought  of  her  children  has  been — what 
does  the  Lord  require  of  us?  She  was  the  third^  wife  of  my 


father,  and  through  all  her  trials  I  never  heard*  her  say  one 
word  which  would  weaken  the  faith  of  her  children.  While 
my  father  was  also  a  true,  faithful  Latter-day  Saint,  strong 
of  purpose  and  with  much  natural  refinement,  I  feel  that  it  is 
to  my  dear  mother  chiefly  that  we  owe  the  unyielding  faith 
which  we  all  more  or  less  possess.  Her  teachings  and  her 
example  have  been  my  life's  guiding  star." 

Letitia's  childhood  was  spent  on  a  farm.  At  the  age  of 
fourteen  she  entered  the  Brigham  Young  College  of  Logan, 
which  she  attended  three  years.  She  began  teaching  school  in 
Idaho  when  eighteen  years  of  age.  Removing  with  her  family 
to  Canada  next  year,  she  remained  there  two  years,  teaching 
school,  and  holding  the  position  of  aid  in  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 
of  Cardston,  and  of  kindergarten  teacher  in  the  Sunday 
Schools.  She  returned  to  Utah  in  1898,  and  taught  school 
in  Utah  county.  She  there  met  Apostle  George  Teasdale 
and  was  married  to  him  in  the  Logan  Temple  on  the  17th  of 
May,  1900.  This  girl- wife  assumed  the  care  of  five  children, 
the  youngest  being  but  four  years  old.  They  made  their 
home  in  Nephi  for  three  years,  and  while  there  Mrs.  Teasdale 
acted  as  stake  aid  in  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  one  year,  served  one 
year  as  second  counselor  in  the  stake  board  of  the  same  as- 
sociation and  one  year  as  first  counselor  to  the  president  of 
the  Relief  Society  of  Juab  stake.  Mrs.  Teasdale  left  Nephi 
in  1903  to  join  her  husband  who  had  gone  to  Mexico  to  regain 
his  shattered  health.  They  remained  there  two  years  and 
eight  months.  Returning  to  Salt  Lake  City  in  1906  they 
made  another  home.  This  time  the  change  was  to  be  partic- 
ularly sad;  for  a  year  later,  in  May,  1907,  Mrs.  Teasdale 
was  called  to  part  with  her  mother,  who  died  at  her  home. 
Just  one  week  from  the  day  her  mother  was  buried  she  saw 
her  noble  husband  laid  to  rest.  Who  can  measure  the  grief 
of  that  soul-stricken  wife  and  daughter! 

Mrs.  Teasdale  was  called  to  act  as  first  counselor  to  Mrs. 
Richards  of  the  Sugar  House  Relief  Society  in  the  spring  of 
1908;  and  in  October,  1908,  she  was  placed  upon  the  Gen- 
eral Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

The  young  widow  decided  to  further  prepare  herself  for 
teaching,  accordingly  in  1909  she  went  to  Chicago  to  take  a 
course  in  the  Columbia  College  of  Expression,  for  ever 
since  her  girlhood,  she  has  been  a  student  of  elocution  and 


322  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

literature.     She  has  traveled  into  almost  every  stake  of  Zion 
with  her  husband,  and  for  Mutual  Improvement  work. 

Letitia  Teasdale  is  of  commanding:  presence.  She  is 
possessed  of  a  natural  reserve  and  dignity  which  is  so  mel- 
lowed by  an  inner  spiritual  gflow  that  it  pleases  all  who  come 
to  know  her  well. 


When  President  Tinge  y  chose  Miss  Bennion  to  act  upon 
the  General  Board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  there  was  surely 
no  mistake  made.  That  young-  woman  was  not  at  home  at 
the  time, — which  was  during  the  October  conference  of  1908 
— she  was  acting  as  a  missionary  in  the  world,  and  was  thus 
making  wide  preparation  for  her  future  enlarged  sphere. 

Miss  Bennion  was  born  atTaylorsville,  Salt  Lake  county, 
Utah,  and  is  the  daughter  of  Samuel  R.  and  Mary  P.  Bennion. 
Her  parents  are  of  English  descent,  but  the  father  was  born 
in  Nauvoo.  He  followed  Brigham  Young  in  that  wonderful 
exodus  to  the  western  wilds,  in  1847,  and  finally  settled  in 
Taylorsville.  This  girl  has  had  splendid  chances  for  being 
directed  in  the  right  way  during  youth  and  childhood.  We 
are  often  reminded  of  the  saying  of  Nephi  in  the  opening 
words  of  the  Book  of  Mormon  when  contemplating  the  lives 
of  the  youth  of  Zion — "I  Nephi,  having  been  born  of  goodly 
parents."  Laura  Bennion  comes  in  this  class  by  right  of 
inheritance  on  both  sides.  She  early  showed  the  upright, 
devoted  traits  which  made  of  her  a  good  Sunday  School  child, 
a  faithful  Primary  pupil,  and  later,  a  devoted  Mutual  worker. 

Miss  Bennion  acted  as  secretary  of  the  Primary  As- 
sociation when  but  a  child;  then  she  was  chosen  as  counselor; 
next  came  her  advancement  to  the  position  of  counselor  in 
the  Mutual,  which  happened  November  7th,  1895.  She 
accepted  the  position  of  president  of  that  association 
January  19th,  1904,  and  there  acted  with  singular  success 
and  direct  results  till  called  upon  her  mission.  She 
was  also  active  for  seven  years  in  the  board  of  Granite  stake 
as  an  aid  to  Mrs.  Zina  B.  Cannon,  at  the  end  of  which  time 
she  received  her  missionary  call  and  went  out  into  the  world 
with  undaunted  faith  and  trust. 

Indeed,  it  may  be  said  of  Miss  Bennion  that  faith,   the 


genuine  old-fashioned  type  that  increases  joy,  makes  sorrow 
bearable,  that  sets  God  and  the  priesthood  before  the  learning: 
of  men,  is  a  dominant  note  in  her  character. 

It  is  good  to  study  the  lives  of  young-   women   who    are 


set  up  for  standards  in  Zion.  The  trifles  of  life  are  often  the 
milestones  which  point  the  way  onward.  When  a  child, Laura 
had  borrowed  her  mother's  earring's;  and  with  them  in  her 
ears,  she  went  to  bathe  in  the  river  Jordan  flowing-  by  her 
home.  Alas,  while  sporting-  in  the  water,  waist-deep,  one  of 
the  precious  jewels  fell  into  the  stream.  The  pain  and  con- 

324  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

sternation  of  the  child  can  be  imagined  by  girl-readers.  What 
was  to  be  done?  Without  hesitation,  the  little  Laura  begged 
her  girl-friends  to  join  with  her  in  an  earnest  prayer  to  God 
for  help  in  finding  the  lost  trinket.  Singular  as  it  may  seem, 
as  soon  as  the  children  arose,  Laura  went  to  the  stream  and 
found  her  earring  lying  at  the  bottom  of  the  river.  Such 
faith  was  hers,  and  such  she  retains  through  her  active 
religious  career. 

Miss  Bennion  was  sent  out  to  the  Northern  States  mission 
on  January  23d,  1907.  She  was  detailed  to  go  almost  at 
once  to  labor  with  Miss  Ida  Alleman,  of  Springville,  in  that 
city  of  vivid  and  never-dying  interest  to  the  Saints — Nauvoo 
the  Beautiful. 

It  was  the  month  of  February,  just  sixty-one  years  since 
that  historic  exodus  by  Brigham  Young  and  the  Saints,  and  as 
then,  the  river  was  a  churning  mass  of  ice-blocks  and  turbid 
water.  The  girls  were  obliged  to  cross  the  mighty  river — one 
mile  wide  at  this  point — in  a  small  skiff.  And  as  they  twisted 
and  turned  to  the  right  and  to  the  left,  the  biting  wind  in  their 
faces  and  their  bodies  numbed  with  the  freezing  cold — how 
clear  the  vision  of  that  other  crossing  rose  before  their  eyes 
and  the  quick  sob  of  sympathy  swelled  in  their  throats 
while  the  tears  coursed  down  their  cheeks. 

When  the  girls  reached  Nauvoo,  to  be  warmed  and  fed 
and  comforted  by  the  small  branch  now  raised  up  in  that 
place,  it  was  with  feelings  akin  to  awe  that  they  began  their 
own  modest  womanly  ministry  in  homes  builded  by  the  men 
and  women  who  had  known  and  associated  with  the  Prophet 
Joseph  Smith,  and  who  saw  him  in  life  and  mourned  him 
when  brought  back  from  cruel  Carthage  to  his  burial  in  the 
stricken  city  of  Nauvoo.  Here,  then,  they  labored  for  four 
months  assisting  to  build  the  little  branch  then  numbering 
seventeen  souls.  Laura  left  Nauvoo  to  work  in  Chicago,  then 
in  Joliet  and  Milwaukee,  working  in  the  organizations, 
visiting  the  Saints,  and  spending  much  time  in  visiting  those 
friends  which  the  elders  had  made  while  tracting.  Here  she 
labored  for  twenty-three  months,  and  then  was  released  to 
return  to  Zion. 

The  ideal  girl  character  must  hold  one  exquisite  germ 
for  future  perfect  development— that  of  maternal  tenderness 
and  pure  renunciation.  Such  a  trait  marks  indelibly  the 


soul  of  Laura  Bennion.  Not  long-  after  returning  home,  six 
children  of  her  sister,  Mrs.  Nora  Diamond,  were  left 
motherless.  With  the  instant  decision  of  character  which  is 
so  pronounced  a  part  of  her  character  she  took  upon  herself 
the  care  of  the  motherless  children — the  eldest  thirteen  and 
the  youngest  but  a  baby.  From  that  day  to  this,  Laura  has 
been  a  devoted  guardian  of  the  children;  and  her  sweet  self- 
effacement  could  find  no  better  expression  than  in  this  noble 
work.  Laura  is  entirely  without  egotism,  or  self-glorification. 
The  world  lies  outside  and  about  her,  and  is  too  big  in  its 
daily  demands  to  permit  of  selfish  introspection  or  narrow 
aims.  If  God  has  been  good  to  her,  she  will  "pass  it  on." 
Such  is  her  character,  such  her  happy  daily  legend.  Yet  is 
she  strong  and  vital  in  word  and  deed.  But  so  excellent  a 
regard  has  she  for  the  unities  of  life,  that  she  has  learned,  all 
unconsciously,  to  estimate  values  and  to  secure  the  womanly 
poise  which  makes  a  heaven  of  the  poorest  house,  and  gives 
one  glimpses  of  that  paradise  where  homes  will  be  eternal. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 



THE  organization  of  the  Cardston  Association  atCardston, 
Canada,  in  what  was  then  known  as  the  Canadian  mis- 
sion, was  the  be- 
ginning of  Mutual 
work  in  the  Al- 
berta stake.  This 
organization  was 
effected  Nov.  22d, 
1887,  by  the  pres- 
ident of  that  mis- 
sion, Charles  O. 
Card.  His  wife, 
Zina  Y.  Card, 
the  well-known 
daughter  of  Zina 
D.  Young,  was 
chosen  president. 
The  following 
year  she  chose  two 
counselors,  Katie 
Brown  and  Anne 
Cheney.  The  sec- 
retary was  Jane  S. 
Woolf.  These  sis- 
ters were  set  apart 
by  Apostles  F.  M. 
Lyman  and  John 
W.Taylor.  Atthat 
time,  Oct.  8,  1888, 
there  were  nine 
members  enrolled. 
The  scriptures  ZINA  Y'  CARD' 



formed  the  basis  of  their  studies,  and  the  meetings  were  a  great 
blessing  to  the  people.  The  work  of  Sister  Card  in  this  mis- 
sion can  never  be  properly  estimated.  She  was  the  social 
life,  soul,  and  mainspring  of  the  whole  colony.  Her  spiritual 
labors  were  so  closely  and  delicately  interwoven  with  her 
social  efforts,  that  the  most  skillful  observer  could  not  draw 
any  line  of  distinction.  She  was  hostess  to  every  homesick, 
longing  emigrant,  nurse  for  the  sick  and  dying,  provider  for 

the  destitute,  and  a  well- 
spring  of  comfort  and  sun- 
shine for  every  soul  in  Can- 
ada, of  every  class  and  creed. 
So  marked  an  impression  did 
she  make  upon  the  visiting 
Canadian  government  officials 
that  many  privileges  and 
concessions  of  great  impor- 
tance to  the  young  colonies 
were  given  by  the  Canadian 
authorities  because  of  their 
acquaintance  and  admiration 
for  this  splendid  pioneer. 

The  Alberta  Y.  L.  M. 
I.  A.,  as  a  stake  association, 
was  organized  Aug.  29th, 
1894,  atCardston,  by  Apostle 
John  W.  Taylor  with  Sister 
Card  a  s  stake  president. 
Nine  years  later,  after  her 
removal  to  Utah,  the  stake 
board  was  reorganized,  Sept. 
6,  1903,  at  Cardston,  by  President  Joseph  F.  Smith;  Sisters 
Alice  K.  Smith  and  Adella  W.  Eardley  of  the  General  Board 
of  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  were  in  attendance.  Sister  Annie  D.  Snow 
was  chosen  president,  and  she  is  still  acting,  her  efficiency 
and  faithfulness  having  endeared  her  to  all  her  associates. 

The  following  sisters  have  acted  as  officers  on  the  stake 
board:  presidents — Zina  Y.  Card,  Annie  D.  Snow;  as  coun- 
selors— Attena  Williams,  Rhoda  Duce,  and  Armenia  Lee;  as 
secretaries — Annie  D.  Snow,  Rose  Card,  Ethel  D.  Woolf  and 
Zina  C.  Brown;  as  treasurers — Sarah  Hinman,  Ella  Packer, 

ANNIE    D.     SNOW. 

328  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Belle  Duce,  Hattie  Woolf  and  Ethel  D.  Woolf;  as  librarians- 
Dora  Jacobs,  Mary  L.  Ibey;  as  aids — Susie  Winder  Hinman, 
Mary  A.  Harker,  Jennie  B.   Knight,    Armenia   Lee,    Virgie 
Jordan,  Eugenia  Rampton,  Zina  Woolf  and  Orrilla  Woolf. 

The  membership  of  this  stake  is  indicative  of  the  rapid 
growth  achieved  in  our  colonies.  In  1894,  the  membership 
of  the  whole  stake  association  was  only  83;  in  1899,  it  had 
increased  to  205;  while  in  1910  there  are  355— this,  too,  not- 
withstanding the  fact  that  in  1902  the  stake  was  divided,  the 
eastern  part  of  the  mission  being  called  the  Taylor  stake.  If 
there  had  been  no  division  the  membership  in  Alberta  would 
have  been  double  what  it  now  is. 

The  board  is  divided  into  committees,  who  take  charge 
of  special  lines  of  work.  Circumstances  have  compelled  many 
changes  in  the  personnel;  but  perfect  harmony  has  always 
existed  and  the  labors  of  the  board  members  have  been  greatly 
prospered;  especially  prized  are  the  faithfiil  labors  of  Presi- 
dent Annie  D.  Snow.  The  thirteen  towns  comprised  in  the 
stake  are  visited  mostly  by  team,  the  farthest  town  being  110 
miles  from  Cardston.  The  traveling  library  is  not  large;  it 
contains  only  208  books,  but  these  are  well  chosen,  and  put 
to  good  use.  The  board  has  adopted  the  plan  of  having  a  con- 
cert at  every  regular  conference,  in  which  all  the  ward  asso- 
ciations take  part.  There  is  also  a  concert  or  theater  given  in 
the  winter.  The  proceeds  of  these  several  entertainments  are 
used  for  stake  expenses.  The  concerts  are  also  useful  in  arous- 
ing interest  among  the  girls,  and  are  provocative  of  a  healthy 
spirit  of  emulation. 


The  organization  of  the  Alpine  stake  was  effected  Jan. 
20th,  1901,  at  American  Fork,  Utah  Co.,  under  the  direction 
of  Apostle  Heber  J.  Grant.  At  this  time,  the  stake  board  of 
the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  organized,  with  the  following  officers: 
Lydia  B.  Lund,  president;  Cordelia  P.  Thorne,  first  coun- 
selor; Liza  Chipman,  second  counselor;  Luella  E.  Thorne, 
secretary  and  treasurer;  Sarah  T.  Evans,  Pauline  E.  Brown, 
aids.  At  the  close  of  the  first  year  of  the  organization, 
there  were  thirteen  ward  associations  with  a  membership  of 
520  enrolled. 

This  stake  is  situated  in  the  north  end  of  Utah  valley, 



LYDIA    B.    LUND. 

and  was  for  many  years  a  part  of  the  Utah  stake.  The  pro- 
gressive and  active  people  who  compose  the  various  towns 
could  but  make  one  of  the  best  and  liveliest  stakes  in  the 
Church,  and  the  Y. L.M.I. A.  shares  in  the 
general  up-to-date  atmosphere.  The  girls 
are,  many  of  them,  graduates  of  the 
Brigham  Young  University,  and  possess 
in  addition  to  their  scholastic  training  the 
modest  virtues  of  comely  young  woman- 

When  the  original  Utah  stake  was  di- 
vided, the  funds  belonging  to  the  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.  were  distributed,  the  new  Alpine 
stake  receiving:  $15.00. 
The  first  purchase  was  a 
good  record  book,  and 
the  important  duty  of 
keeping  faithful  and  accurate  records  of 
all  work  done  and  meetings  held  was 
begun.  This  business-like  policy  has  been 
maintained  through  the  intervening  years. 
The  past  few  summers  the  M.  I.  girls 
have  organized  sewing  classes  in  the  wards, 
which  have  proved  very  successful,  and  the 
organization  looks  with  justifiable  hope 
into  a  future  where  there  is  naught  but 
good  works  and  prosperity. 
The  following  officers  have  acted  on  the  stake  board: 
presidents — Lydia  B.  Lund,  Emma  Larson  and  Louisa  R. 
Miller;  counselors — Cordelia  P.  Thorne,Liza  Chipman, Louisa 
R.  Miller,  Laura  Boley  and  Annie  M.  Stookey;  secretaries  and 
treasurers — Luella  E.  Thome  and  Pauline  E.  Brown;  aids — 
Louise  R.  Miller,  Sarah  Taylor  Evans,  Pauline  Brown, 
Hattie  Beck,  Emerett  Smith,  Laura  Boley,  Susie  Whipple, 
Eleonore  M.  Blackhurst,  Lucy  H.  Wright,  Amanda  Russon, 
Agnes  Huish  and  Iva  Adams. 


The  Bannock  stake  formerly  comprised  all  the  country 
within  the  limits  of  the  present  Bingham,  Pocatello,  Bannock, 
Fremont,  Rigby,  Yellowstone  and  Teton  stakes  of  Zion; 



HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

therefore  the  early  history  of  all  of  these    stakes   is   largely 
that  of  Bannock. 

jlpUJjtfrm  The  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  the 

Bannock  stake  was  organized 
^L  February  18,  1887,  with  the 

following-  officers:  Susie 
Poole,  president;  Mary  A. 
|k  Ricks  and  Mary  A.  Raymond, 
i||  counselors  ;SusieL.  Stephens, 
secretary;  and  Martha  Ricks, 
treasurer.  Before  this  time 
there  were  associations  in  a 
number  of  the  wards,  viz., 
Menan,  Rexburg,  Parker, 
Teton,  Lyman,  Louisville, 
Labelle,  and  Eagle  Rock. 
Sister  Poole  was  succeeded 
within  a  year's  time  by  Sister 
Mary  A.  Ricks,  who  presided 
for  four  years  with  her  asso- 
ciated officers.  In  1891,  Sis- 
ter Ellen  M .  Ricks  was  made 
president,  and  for  ten  years 
she  labored  in  season  and 
out  of  season  for  the  benefit  of  the  girls  in  her  scattered  stake, 
holding  jurisdiction  over  the  whole  stake  about  seven  years, 
and  then  over  Fremont  after  the  stakes  were  divided.  Her 
gentle  and  peace-loving  influence  was  felt  wherever  she 
went,  and  her  name  is  reverenced  as  much  today  as  it  ever 
was  in  her  active  incumbency  of  office. 

The  local  associations,  as  well  as  the  general  member- 
ship of  the  stake,  grew  during  this  period  of  ten  years,  until 
1898,  when  it  was  deemed  advisable  to  divide  the  stake  into 
two  portions.  Accordingly,  the  Fremont  stake  was  created 
out  of  the  northern  half  of  Bannock  stake.  The  former  stake 
board,  with  Pres.  Ellen  M.  Ricks, who  lived  in  Rexburg,  now 
the  chief  city  of  Fremont  stake,  took  up  the  divided  work  of 
the  newly  named  stake. 

A  new  organization  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  Bannock 
stake  was  effected  under  the  supervision  of  Apostles  Heber 
J. Grant, MarrinerW. Merrill  and  Matthias  F.Cowley,  July  25th 

ELLEN    M.    RICKS. 



1898.  Mrs.  Effie  P.  Eldredge  was  sustained  as  president  of 
the  board.  On  August  17th,  of  the  same  year,  Sisters  Dessie 
Andrus  and  Olive  Hale  werejchosen  as  her  counselors,  with 
Edna  M.  Smith  as  secretary 
and  treasurer.  Positions  on 
the  board  have  been  occupied 
as  follows:  as  presidents — 
Effie  P.  Eldredge,  Minnie 
Lau  Rose,  Louise  Horsley 
and  Mary  .  Bassett;  coun- 
selors— Dessie  Andrus,  Olive 
Hale,  Elizabeth  Larkins,  C. 
V.  Nelson,  Louise  Horsley, 
Sarah  Hatch,  Gertrude  Call, 
Flora  Pond,  Aletta  H.  Soren- 
sen.  Emma  Williams  and 
SarahMerrill ;  secretaries  and 
treasurers — Edna  M.  Smith, 
Amy  Larkins,  NervaL.  Rose, 
Beatrice  Lau,  Bergetta 
Hogan,  Mary  E.  Rodeback, 
Cora  Hale  and  Nellie  Fow- 
ler; as  aids — Dora  Barlow, 
Lutie  Bassett  Swenson,  Eliz- 
abeth Larkins,  Harriet  Chris- 
tensen,  Cora  Larkins,  Minnie 

Sterrett,  C.  V.  Nelson,  Emma  Williams  and  Sarah  Hatch; 
organists — Charlotte  Tohnan  Meekam,  Melfta  Pond;  libra- 
rian— Millie  Corbet. 

The  first  stake  enrollment  showed  150  members;  in 
1910  there  are  309  members. 

This  new  stake  was  not  organized  until  after  Guides  were 
issued,  and  therefore  their  work  has  gone  along  prescribed 
lines.  But  they  have  shown  their  originality  in  the  various 
excellent  written  and  printed  essays  read,  and  in  the  frequent 
musical  selections  interspersed  with  their  regular  programs. 
The  associations  started  out,  as  did  most  others,  with  an 
empty  treasury:  but  they  have  now  an  excellent  set  of  record 
books,  nearly  100  books  in  the  traveling  library,  and  a  good 
amount  of  cash  in  the  bank.  There  are  thirteen  wards  in  the 
stake,  all  of  them  within  25  miles  of  the  headquarters  at 



HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Thatcher.  The  stake  officers  visit  their  branches  frequently, 
but  their  chief  difficulty  lies  in  the  scarcity  of  young  women. 
A  treasured  memory  in  this  stake  is  the  visit  of  Pres- 
ident Elmina  S.  Taylor,  who  came  to  a  conference  held  in 
Soda  Spring's,  in  the  summer  of  1899.  Although  weak  in 
numbers,  this  stake  is  strong  in  activity  and  good  works. 


This  section  of  country  was  contained  for  a  long  time  in 
the   two    stakes,    Malad    and   Box    Elder,    seven    wards, — 

Thatcher,  Both  well,  Gar- 
land, East  Garland,  Beaver 
Dam ,  Dewey  ville  andElwood 
wards  being  taken  from  the 
Box  Elder  stake.  But  as 
settlers  began  to  elbow  each 
other  across  the  desert 
reaches,  and  farms  we/e  cut 
up  into  larger  and  larger 
towns,  the  long  winding 
valley  farms  and  towns  were 
gathered  into  a  stake  of  their 
own  by  the  Church  author- 
ities. This  was  done  on  the 
llth  of  October,  1908;  so 
that  we  have  now  a  full- 
fledged  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 
in  Bear  River.  At  the  pres- 
ent time  there  are  twelve 
associations  and  a  glance  at 
the  board  will  show  that 
ROSE  B.  VANFLEET.  every  detail  of  the  Mutual 

work   has   been   considered 

and  provided  for.  The  board  then  organized  was:  pres- 
ident— Rose  B.  Vanfleet;  counselors — Celia  M.  Grover  and 
Essie  E.  Folger;  secretary — La  Von  Smith;  treasurer — 
Hilda  Nordquist;  librarian — Pearl  Folger;  organist — Olive 
Hall;  chorister — Clara  C.  Mowery;  aids — Sarah  T.  Hansen, 
Minta  Garn,  Celestia  C.  Hunsaker  and  Meda  Johnson.  There 
have  been  a  few  changes,  even  in  this  short  time,  and  Violette 


T.  Wing-  is  now  secretary,  and  Elizabeth  M.  King-  is  the 
treasurer.  They  have  an  assistant  chorister,  Lavonnah 
Johnson  and  Senior  and  Junior  class  leaders  in  Hilda  Nord- 
quist  and  Maud  Sorensen. 

It  is  delightful  to  contemplate  the  readiness  with  which 
our  people  expand  and  adjust  themselves  to  new  and  ever 
progressing-  conditions;  new  workers  spring-ing-  up  to  take 
the  places  in  the  new  fields  of  labor,  and  each  equal  to  his  or 
her  task  under  the  blessing-  of  the  Lord. 


The  organization  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  this  stake  was 
effected  February  8,  1879,  by  the  late  Apostle  Charles  C. 
Rich,  whose  daughter,  Mrs.  Nancy  E.  Pugmire,  was  called 
to  preside.  Her  counselors  were  Amy  E.  Cook  and  Alice  M. 
Rich.  Mrs.  Elizabeth  M.  Hart  was  appointed  secretary, and 
Elizabeth  Pugmire  Rich,  treasurer.  The  stake  organization 
extended  into  Utah  on  the  south  and  Wyoming1  on  the  east. 
It  comprised  twenty -one  associations  until  Woodruff  stake 
was  organized,  which  took  place  in  1897.  This  reduction, 
with  that  of  the  organization  of  Star  Valley  stake  in  1892, 
brought  the  number  of  associations  down  to  sixteen.  Thus 
the  stake  was  made  more  compact,  and  it  is  more  convenient 
for  the  stake  officers  to  visit  the  local  associations.  Not- 
withstanding this  lightening  of  their  burden,  the  stake  board 
felt  most  deeply  the  severance  of  the  old  ties  which  had  bound 
them  so  strongly  to  the  separate  associations;  a  feeling  of 
mutual  love  and  confidence  had  sprung  up  between  them 
which  could  not  be  effaced. 

This  stake  board  has  always  been  very  prosperous  and 
prudent  in  the  gathering  and  disbursement  of  means.  As  an 
example  let  us  quote.  During  the  period  intervening  between 
the  organization  of  the  stake  board  and  the  year  1905,  the 
receipts  of  the  stake  amounted  to  the  comfortable  sum  of 
$3,090.75.  The  following  items  of  contribution  are  also 
interesting  and  substantial: 

For  Stake  Tabernacle  $  86.22 

For  Missionary  Purposes $325.38 

For  the  Women's  Building,  Salt  Lake  City $250.00 

For  the  Fielding  Academy,  Bear  Lake  Stake $400.00 

For  charitable  purposes   $200.00 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

For  the  Logan  Temple $212.00 

For  Emigration  $  60.00 

In  addition  to  these  amounts,  the  ward  associations  have 

disbursed  in  the  same  period  of  time,   for  home  enterprises, 

over  $10,000.00. 


The  stake  associations  have  issued  three  manuscript 
papers  called  the  "Literary  Garland."  Two  volumes  of  this 
paper  were  printed  in  pamphlet  form,  and  about  150  copies 
of  each  were  issued. 

The  membership  of  the  stake  is  reported  as  follows:  in 
1879  at  the  first  organization,  273;  in  1884,  423;  in  1900,  703; 
and  in  1910,  872. 

This  increase  certainly  speaks  well  for  the  efforts  of  both 
local  and  stake  authorities.  At  present,  there  are  23  asso- 
ciations in  the  stake. 

The  general  tone  and  spirit  of  this  stake  is  one  of  unity 
and  harmony;  in  all  the  years  of  its  existence  there  has  never 
been  a  word  of  discord  or  dissension  between  the  stake  officers . 
All  have  worked  as  a  unit  for  the  advancement  of  the  cause 


of  Mutual  Improvement.  Much  of  this  has  been  due  to  the 
splendid  executive  ability  of  the  woman  who  worked  for  years 
at  the  head  of  this  board — Mrs.  Nancy  Pug-mire.  Her  successor, 
Miss  Elizabeth  Winters,  has  taken  up  the  work  with  intelli- 
gence and  earnestness  and  is  adding  to  the  excellent  work 
done  by  her  predecessor. 

The  following'  sisters  have  acted  as  officers  in  the  stake 
board:  presidents — Nancy  E.  Pug-mire  and  Elizabeth  Winters; 
counselors — Amy  E.  Cook,  Alice  M.  Rich,  Sara  A.  Allred, 
Myra  ?  Hart,  Lizzie  Hoge  Welker,  Zelpha  B  ram  well  and 
Emma  Sutton;  secretaries  and  assistants — Elizabeth  M.  Hart, 
Lizzie  Hoge,  Sarah  Pendsey,  Sarah  Grimmet,  Elizabeth 
Pug-mire  Rich,  Leola  V.  Rich,  Mabel  Rich,  Effie  Perkins, 
Nellie  Pearce  Perkins,  Lillie  Grimmet;  treasurers — Lillias 
B.  Haywood,  Ellen  Budg-e  Pugmire;  aids— Ella  Rich,  Ida  Offi 
Dunford,  Elmira  B.  Hart,  Mattie  Cruikshank,  Pernecy 
Bag-by,  Mary  I.  Rich,  Libbie  Rich  Anderson,  Mary  Sutton, 
Louise  Rog-ers  Rich,  Nellie  Pearce,  Stella  Pugmire,  Sarah 
Grimmet,  Inger  M.  Welker,  Effie  Perkins  Hanson,  Ellen 
Athey,  Leonora  Weaver;  librarians — Lottie  I.  Price,  Lillie 
Grimmet;  music  directors  and  assistants — Adeline  Spencer, 
Laura  Richards,  Lottie  Shepherd,  Edna  Crowther;  org-anist — 
Mary  Roberts. 

A  unique  feature  of  recent  date  in  this  stake  has  been 
the  organization  of  a  stake  chorus,  composed  of  the  Y.  L.  M. 
LA.  ward  officers,  who  meet  on  regular  priesthood  meeting- 
day  for  practice.  The  director  and  her  assistants  visit  the 
wards  as  often  as  possible  to  assist  the  local  choristers. 


Beaver  stake  is  a  small  one,  being:  situated  in  the  middle 
district  of  Utah  where  water  is  exceedingly  scarce  and  vege- 
tation scanty.  Even  the  hills  about  Beaver  are  not  crowned 
with  the  verdure  common  to  the  more  northern  counties. 
There  are  great  possibilities  for  this  barren  region,  however, 
and  in  time  to  come  with  arid  farming  and  the  rich  mineral 
resources  of  the  county,  it  may  become  one  of  our  wealthy 
and  thickly  populated  centers.  Beaver  lay  on  the  road  to 
St.  George  in  the  old  wagon- traveling  days,  and  was  one  of 
the  best  and  liveliest  of  those  southern  towns;  that  was  in  the 
days  of  John  R.  Murdock,  with  his  big  brick  house,  his  bigger 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

religion  and  his  limitless  welcome.  But  Beaver  is  still  alive; 
and  her  citizens  are  justly  proud  of  the  record  they  have 
made  in  the  face  of  great  obstacles.  The  Murdock  Academy, 
formerly  the  Beaver  branch  of  the  Brigham  Young  University, 
is  located  in  the  old  government  fort,  which  once  sheltered 
United  States  soldiers  in  its  quaint  old  rock  walls  in  a  pretty 
little  valley  at  the  mouth  of  the  canyon  east  of  the  town. 



The  following  interesting  account  of  the  rise  and  history 
of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  this  stake  was  furnished  by  one  of 
its  former  presidents: 

The  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  this  stake  was  started  in  the  be- 
ginning of  the  first  Retrenchment  societies;  for  in  1873  this 
organization  was  put  into  active  operation.  Such  women  as 
Mary  Ash  worth,  then  Mary  Shepherd,  and  Julia  Murdock, 
now  Farnsworth,  were  active  workers  in  this  initial  Beaver 
Retrenchment  association.  The  other  towns  of  the  stake 
were  very  soon  organized;  and  in  these  preliminary  asso- 
ciations the  girls  first  began  to  take  their  intellectual  and 



spiritual  light  from  under  the  bushels  of  tradition  and  sex, 
and  to  let  that  light  shine  for  the  blessing  and  benefit  of  their 
associates.  The  programs  of  the  regular  weekly  meetings 
consisted  mainly  of  songs,  recitations,  select  readings,  essays 
and  the  "bearing  of  testimonies."  Rather  crude  and  un- 
systematic were  these  early  efforts,  but  there  was  one 

advantage — the  brains  of 
the  girls  were  constantly 
exercised  in  scheming  and 
planning  that  something 
suitable  should  be  provided 
for  entertainment  and  in- 
struction. Occasionally  sew- 
ing-bees, rag-bees  or  quilt- 
ings  were  held  to  aid  the 
Relief  Society  in  their  work 
of  charity.  Dancing  parties 
were  always  participated  in 
by  both  the  old  and  the 
young,  all  uniting  in  this 
favorite  pastime  of  the 
western  Saints.  The  girls 
of  the  association  considered 
it  highly  proper  on  these 
festive  occasions  to  appear  in 
dresses  fashioned  from  the 
honest  cloth  made  by  the 
Beaver  woolen  mills;  and 
very  neat  and  sensible  they 
looked,  with  their  trimmings,  made  by  nature's  own  hands,  of 
ripe  lips,  rosy  cheeks,  and  brilliant  eyes — no  fairer  girls  could 
be  found  in  the  land.  To  complete  the  thought  which 
originated  these  Retrenchment  societies,  these  parties  usually 
began  at  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  and  closed  at  an  early 
hour  in  the  evening;  and  when  refreshments  were  served, 
they  were  of  a  simple  and  wholesome  character.  Sometimes 
the  girls  arranged  theatrical  entertainments,  and  the  pro- 
ceeds of  these  were  invested  in  a  good  association  library  of 
Church  and  secular  standard  works.  Some  means  were  also 
donated  towards  the  building  of  temples,  and  other  worthy 
purposes . 


338  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

In  the  late  seventies  the  name  of  the  associations  was 
changed  to  the  Mutual  Improvement  associations.  In  1879, 
a  stake  board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  effected,  and  Mrs. 
Mary  E.  Ash  worth  was  chosen  as  stake  president,  with  Ida 
Hunt  and  Flora  Shipp  Hill,  formerly  of  Salt  Lake  City,  as 
counselors;  and  Sarah  C.  Shepherd  as  secretary  and  treasurer. 
With  this  board  there  went  a  new  impetus  towards  the  growth 
of  the  whole  cause.  Semi-annual  conferences  were  inaugu- 
rated for  the  stake,  in  March  and  September;  at  which  con- 
ferences the  four  wards  of  the  stake  were  liberally  represented, 
these  wards  being-  Beaver,  Greenville,  Minersville  and 
Adamsville .  The  members  of  the  stake  board  began  to  make 
regular  visits  to  the  ward  associations,  and  through  this 
interchange  of  ideas  and  union  of  effort  the  associations  be- 
came stronger,  and  better  work  was  done.  Not  until  the 
appearance  of  the  general  Guide  work,  however,  was  there 
any  radical  change  in  the  character  of  the  programs.  Then, 
all  united  in  a  systematic  effort  to  carry  out  the  plans  laid 
down  by  the  General  Board. 

At  the  present  time  there  are  seven  associations  in  this 
stake.  Since  the  stake  board  was  put  in  .operation,  quite 
large  sums  of  money  have  been  collected  though  parties, 
theatricals,  bazaars,  and  other  entertainments;  the  proceeds 
of  which  have  been  used  for  school,  missionary,  charitable, 
emigration,  and  library  purposes.  One  event  in  particular 
is  of  interest:  at  one  time  in  conjoint  history,  the  young  men 
were  so  '  'backward  in  coming  forward' '  that  after  rendering 
all  the  parts  in  two  so-called  conjoint  meetings,  the  girls 
concluded  to  move  on  alone.  They  therefore  gave  an  enter- 
tainment in  which  no  man  was  allowed  to  appear,  except  in 
the  audience;  even  the  orchestra  was  composed  entirely  of 
girls.  The  affair  was  original  and  unique,  and  was  a  success 
financially  and  artistically,  the  treasury  being  enriched 
about  fifty  dollars,  after  all  expenses  were  deducted. 

One  branch  of  work  done  by  this  stake  which  is  a  source 
of  pride  and  joy,  is  the  fine  organization  effected  in  the  Beaver 
branch  of  the  Brigham  Young  University,  now  the  Murdock 
Academy.  Regular  meetings  are  held  by  the  association  at 
the  Academy,  and  the  Guide  lessons  are  followed  with  credit; 
the  testimony  meetings  in  this  school  are  a  beautiful  and 
successful  feature;  while  the  conjoint  meetings  are  now  of  a 


high  order,  and  all  are  well  attended.  The  young  people  in 
the  school  are  from  all  parts  of  Southern  Utah,  and  the  in- 
fluence of  this  work  is  very  far-reaching. 

The  following  have  acted  as  presidents  of  this  stake  Y. 
L.  M.  I.  A.:  Mary  E.  Ash  worth,  Sadie  E.  Maeser,  Alice 
Gunn  White,  Jennie  Munford,  Gertrude  Gillies.  The  board 
was  reorganized  Jan.  13,  1909,  with  Mrs.  Alma  W.  McGregor 
as  president;  first  counselor  —Amelia  Dean;  second  counselor 
— Alice  M.  White;  secretary  and  treasurer — Mae  Crosby 
White;  traveling  librarian — Theresa  Maeser;  assistant  libra- 
rian— Myrtle  Farns worth;  aids — Dora  Williams  and  Belle 
Yardley.  A  traveling  library  with  one  hundred  good 
volumes  was  established  by  the  board. 

Conjoint  officers'  meetings  are  held  the  first  and  third 
Sundays  of  every  month  and  visiting  is  also  done  conjointly 
with  the  Young  Men's  board,  every  association  being  visited  at 
least  twice  each  quarter.  All  seven  of  the  associations  are 
fully  organized  and  are  in  good  running  order. 


At  the  time  of  its  organization,  in  1901,  Benson  stake 
consisted  of  six  towns  situated  in  the  northern  part  of  Cache 
valley,  all  formerly  a  part  of  Cache  stake.  The  stake  board 
of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  is,  therefore,  of  quite  recent  origin, 
but  there  was  a  Retrenchment  society  organized  in  the  town 
of  Smithfield  on  May  25,  1871,  which  is  of  historic  interest. 
This  pioneer  organization  had  for  its  president  a  woman  who 
has  since  helped  to  make  Church  history  in  several  directions, 
Louisa  L.  Greene.  To  her  we  owe  the  splendid  beginning 
made  in  this  work  in  Smithfield.  This  lady  married  Levi 
W.  Richards.  She  removed  to  Salt  Lake,  and  became  the 
first  editor  of  the  Woman's  Exponent.  Later  she  for  many 
years  had  charge  of  the  Children's  Department  in  the  Juve- 
nile Instructor.  This  Smithfield  association  was  among  the  first 
out  of  town  organizations  formed  in  the  Church.  The  meet- 
ings were  held  at  the  home  of  Evan  M.  Greene,  a  nephew  of 
Brigham  Young  and  the  father  of  Lula  Greene.  The  pro- 
grams rendered  were  of  the  same  character  as  those  given  in 
other  places:  essays,  talks  and  lectures,  of  a  primitive  yet 
sturdy  and  inspiring  character,  formed  the  basis  of  their 

340  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

work;  these  being  interspersed  with  music  and  recitations. 
But  the  chief  duty  was  to  help  every  girl  to  get  a  testimony 
of  the  gospel.  The  resolutions  which  they  adopted  are  as 

Resolved,  that  we,  as  daughters  and  as  wives  of  Elders 
in  Israel,  seek  to  fully  understand  our  true  positions,  and  to 
honor  and  make  honorable  the  same  before  our  Heavenly 
Father  and  all  good  people . 

Resolved,  that  we  are  young  and  liable  to  be  led  into 
error  if  we  trust  in  our  strength  and  judgment.  We  not 
only  solicit  aid  and  wisdom  from  the  heavens  at  all  times, 
but  will  also  hearken  to  the  counsel  and  instructions  of  our 
beloved  parents  and  those  who  are  called  of  God  to  preside 
over  us. 

Resolved,  that  we  cultivate  good  order,  good  taste,  neat- 
ness and  dispatch  in  all  domestic  duties  and  in  any  other  and 
all  branches  of  industry  which  it  may  be  necessary 
for  us  to  perform,  and  that  we  will  adopt  no  fash- 
ions in  dress,  manners  or  otherwise  which  are  inconsistent 
with  good  sense,  reason  and  modesty. 

Resolved,  that  we  earnestly  seek  to  establish  true  sister- 
ly confidence,  unity  and  affection  for  and  with  each  other; 
and  that  we  exercise  charity  and  overlook  the  infirmities  of 
others  as  we  wish  to  have  our  own  imperfections  put  by; 
realizing  that  we  are  all  children  of  the  same  great  Father, 
and  that  in  His  sight  one  is  as  precious  as  another,  where  all 
are  engaged  in  the  same  cause  with  like  determinations. 

Resolved,  that  we  will  treat  with  respect  and  reverence 
every  principle  pertaining  to  the  gospel  of  Christ  as  revealed 
to  the  servants  of  God  upon  the  earth  in  these  and  in  former 
days;  and  that  we  seek  diligently,  according  to  the  best  abil- 
ities given  unto  us,  to  improve  in  the  knowledge  of  those 
correct  and  holy  principles  which  embrace  all  that  is  ordained 
of  God  to  lead  to  truly  noble  and  refined  womanhood;  to 
learn  the  law  of  the  Lord,  the  Word  of  Wisdom  in  all  re- 
spects, and  to  be  guided  thereby  in  our  daily  walk. 

Resolved,  that  we  strive  henceforth  with  the  help  of  God 
to  live  by  every  word  that  proceedeth  from  His  mouth,  that 
we  may  be  worthy  to  see  His  face  and  dwell  in  His  presence. 

Louisa  L.  Greene,  president;  Melissa  G.  Homer,  Susie 
Greene,  Mary  A.  Scrowther,  Elizabeth  Moorehead,  Mary 



C.  Downs,  Julia  Collett,   counselors;  Katherine  E.   Brown, 

The  Benson  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  organized  Aug. 
5th,  1901,  by  Apostle  Rudger  Clawson.  Wilhelmina  M. 
Pond  was  chosen  president,  with  Margaret  Roskelly  and 
Ruey  Pond  as  her  cotinselors  and  Annie  Hyer  as  secretary. 
The  board  was  reorganized  on  Feb.  22,  1903,  with  Mary  R. 
Hendricks  as  president,  and  with  Sarah  Ann  Hyer  and  Hat- 
tie  C.  Larsen  as  counselors.  Hattie  C.  Larsen  was  released 



in  April,  1908,  and  Marietta  P.  Bergeson  was  sustained  in 
her  stead.  This  office  she  still  holds.  Since  that  time  these 
and  associate  sisters  have  labored  with  zeal  and  intelligence 
to  carry  forward  the  work  intrusted  to  them;  and  they  are  fully 
sustained  by  the  girls  under  their  care;  for  the  Benson  stake 
is  abreast  of  the  other  stakes  in  their  stake  and  local  work. 
The  following  sisters  have  acted  in  the  offices  named: 
presidents — Wilhelmina  M.  Pond,  Mary  R.  Hendricks;  coun- 
selors— Margaret  Roskelly,  Ruey  Pond,  Hattie  C.  Larsen, 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Marietta  P.  Bergeson  and  Sarah  Ann  Hyer;  secretaries  and 
treasurers — Annie  Hyer,  Estella  B.  Bell,  Ruey  P.  Bernhisel, 
Maud  L.  Spackman,  Emma  Burnham,  Martha  C.  Pond,  and 
Nellie  Thompson;  assistant  secretary — Amy  Shepherd; 
organists  and  choristers — Odessa  L.  Hendricks,  Orella  M. 
Jensen  and  Eliza  Monson;  librarians— Maud  L.  Spackman 
and  Elna  J.  Merrill;  aids — Mary  Peterson,  Nettie  Bernhisel, 
Hannah  Poulson,  Ida  H.  Merrill,  Katie  Crag-en,  Anna  V. 
Merrill,  Martha  C.  Pond,  Nellie  Hind,  and  Hannah  Hind. 


The  stake  organization  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  this 
stake  took  place  at  Lovell,  Wyoming,  May  26,  1901,  when  the 
following'  officers  were  chosen:  president — Mary  L.  Welch; 
first  counselor— Pattie  S.  Hatch;  second  counselor — Lenora 
Weaver;  secretary  and  treas- 
urer— Birdie  Graham;  aid 
—Rebecca  Taggart.  Later, 
the  secretary  moved  out  of 
the  stake,  and  Alfa  Grant 
was  chosen  to  fill  her  place, 
with  May  Maxwell  Tippits  as 
her  Assistant.  Additional 
officers  have  been  appointed 
as  follows:  librarian  —Lizzie 
Meeks;  aids — Laura  Bunting, 
Clara  Briggs,  Rebecca  Frost, 
Lizzie  Meeks,  'Lizzie  Egan, 
Laura  Bunting,  Rebecca  Jen- 
nings, Sylvia  Griffin,  Minnie 
Thorley;  with  Rebeca  Tag- 
gart as  chorister. 

During  the  first  year  of 
life  in  this  new  stake,  the 
local  meetings  were  held  in  a 
tent  in  camp  where  the  Sidon 
canal  was  building,  with 
President  Mary  L.  Welch  in 

charge.  There  was  another  local  ward  association  at  work 
during  this  pioneer  year:  in  Burlington,  which  was  then  a 
part  of  the  Woodruff  stake  of  Zion.  There  are  now  five 

MARY    L.    WELCH. 


ward  associations  in  the  Big  Horn  stake:  at  Byron,  Cowley, 
Lovell,  Burlington,  and  Otto.  This  young  stake  is  one  of 
the  most  zealous  and  thriving  in  all  the  Church.  The  modern 
vices  and  temptations  are  so  rare  as  to  be  almost  unknown, 
and  the  sweet  spirit  of  harmony  which  prevails  in  this  far- 
away branch,  shows  how  close  the  heavens  are  to  the  homes 
of  God-fearing  pioneers. 

In  1907  the  board  was  reorganized  as  follows:  presi- 
dent— Millie  B.  Egan;  first  counselor — Hattie  P.  Howard; 
second  counselor— Belva  Sessions;  secretary  and  treasurer — 
Norna  N.  Arnoldus;  corresponding  secretary — Eva  J.  Jen- 
son;  chorister — Fannie  L.  Wolz;  organist — Mamie  Carling; 
librarian — Clarissa  R.  Willey;  aids — Birdie  Tippits,  Clara 
Hobson,  Lizzie  Johnson,  Annie  Duncan,  Lizzie  Larson,  and 
Rachel  Snyder.  The  new  board  took  hold  of  their  work 
with  zeal  and  visited  the  organizations  of  the  stake  quarterly 
although  some  of  the  visits  require  a  three  days'  drive  with 
a  team  over  dusty  roads.  The  traveling  library  books  have 
been  exchanged  from  ward  to  ward  and  read  by  a  great 
many  members.  There  were  one  hundred  per  cent  of  offi- 
cers and  members  keeping  the  Word  of  Wisdom  and  paying 
tithing.  The  girls  of  the  stake  are  frequently  praised  for 
their  virtue,  and  the  majority  of  these  young  people  go  to  the 
temple  of  the  Lord  to  be  married,  notwithstanding  the  great 
distance  and  expense  of  travel.  Some  original  summer  work 
has  been  undertaken  in  literature,  ethics  and  physical  edu- 
cation and  whenever  tried  the  results  prove  very  satisfactory. 
Many  who  were  indifferent  to  religious  topics  have  taken 
other  subjects  and  pursued  them  with  good  results.  During 
the  labors  of  these  officers  a  new  organization  of  the  Penrose 
branch  was  effected  and  is  doing  a  good  work.  The  stake 
and  local  board  meetings  are  held  each  month  the  day  of 
priesthood  meeting,  and  this  is  proving  successful,  as  it  has 
been  very  difficult  hitherto  to  get  to  meetings  on  account  of 
the  inconvenience  of  travel .  A  large  per  cent  of  the  mothers 
attend  the  meetings  and  lend  encouragement  to  the  young. 
The  work  is  progressing  and  its  influence  is  felt  throughout 
the  stake. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


When  the  southern  end  of  the  Territory  of  Idaho 
first   invaded    by   the  thrifty  " Mormon"    settlers,    no 



dreamed  that  a  few  years  would  see  them  in  possession  of 
great  fields  and  farms,  stretching  over  hundreds  of  miles  of 
country,  or  that  they  would  settle  up  towns  and  villages, 
build  homes  and  school  houses  until  they  became  a  powerful 
factor  in  the  future  civil  and  political  history  of  the  Gem 
State  of  the  Union.  But  such  is  actually  the  case;  and  some 
of  those  vigorous  old  Idaho  pioneers,  with  bodies  of  iron  and 
spirits  of  gold,  lived  to  see  their  first  vast  "stake"  cut  into  a 
dozen  different  smaller  divisions.  The  old  Bannock  stake 
has  been  divided  and  subdivided  until  now  each  quorum  of 
the  stake  authorities  can  get  over  its  section  in  less  than  a 
month's  time  and  without  traveling  hundreds  of  miles  to  do  it. 
One  of  the  early  divisions  of  this  beautiful  Snake  River 
country  was  named  the  Bingham  stake  of  Zion;  but  even  this 
has  been  cut  up  and  cut  off  by  other  and  lesser  divisions, 
yet  each  is  now  more  populous  than  when  that  sturdy  and 
energetic  president,  James  E.  Steele,  proved  the  mettle  of 


every  Saint  in  his  charge  by  his  frequent  and  welcome  visits. 

The  Bannock  stake  of  Zion  was  divided  on  July  8th, 
1895,  and  the  Bingham  stake  was  made  from  the  eastern  por- 
tion. On  this  occasion  Apostle,  now  President,  John  Henry 
Smith  was  present,  and  under  his  direction  the  stake  Y.  L. 
M.  LA.  was  organized  with  the  following-  officers:  presi- 
dent—Emma  Molen;  counselors — Josephine  Thompson  and 
Emma  L.  Rounds;  secretary  Christie  Empey;  treasurer — 
Ann  I.  Andrus;  assistant  secretary— Geneva  Molen.  At  this 
time  there  were  fifteen  associations  in  the  stake,  with  an  en- 
rollment of  300  members. 

There  have  been  many  changes  in  the  board,  as  wras  nat- 
ural; for  the  exigencies  of  pioneer  life,  the  cares  of  mother- 
hood, and  the  removal  of  young  settlers  to  other  points 
create  a  condition  of  restless  activity.  But  in  and  through 
all  their  changes,  this  stake  has  kept  abreast  of  the  work  and 
has  labored  faithfully  and  well.  They  give  credit  in  their 
reports  to  the  great  assistance  which  has  been  received  from 
the  annual  visits  made  by  the  General  Board  to  their  stake; 
they  also 'record  the  blessings  received  from  proper  use  of 
the  Guide.  They  have  themselves  instituted  some  good  de- 
partures from  the  general  mode  of  procedure;  for  instance, 
the  officers  have  districted  off  their  labors,  and  the  various 
settlements  are  under  the  direct  supervision  of  one  or  more 
of  the  board  who  live  in  the  different  sections.  This  enables 
the  stake  board  at  its  monthly  sessions  to  come  into  immedi' 
ate  contact  with  the  conditions  in  the  various  wards,  helping 
all  to  keep  close  tally  upon  each  other  through  this  direct 

The  following  sisters  have  acted  upon  this  board:  pres- 
idents— Emma  Molen,  Josephine  Thompson;  counselors — 
Josephine  Thompson,  Emma  L.  Rounds,  Ann  I.  Andrus, 
Elizabeth  Poole,  Violet  Newman,  and  Elizabeth  Ossmen; 
secretaries  and  treasurers— Christie  Empey,  Ann  I.  Andrus, 
Geneva  Molen,  Laura  May  Bybee,  Minnie  Bybee,  Marie 
Jensen,  Emma  M.  Hurst,  Mary  L.  Hansen,  Cora  Chandler, 
Elizabeth  Gilchrist,  Charlotte  R.  Davis,  Bessie  Haycock  and 
Effie  Avery;  aids — Mary  Stevens,  Mary  A.  Southwick,  Marie 
Jensen,  Elizabeth  Ossmen,  Irene  Selks,  Pearl  Wilson,  Mary 
Lee,  Libbie  Poole,  Cora  Chandler,  Luetta  Hansen,  Ethel 
Poole,  Bertha  Benson,  Laura  Call,  Lucy  Din  woody,  Grace 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Harmon,  Anna  Jacobson,  Harriet  Holland,  Eliza  Boyce, 
Mary  Myler  Robinson,  Laura  Call,  Charlotte  R.  Davis,  Han- 
nah Steele,  Lillian  Hansen,  Martha  L.  Lee,  Elizabeth 
Hauis,  Alice  Jenkins  and  Fannie  Gudmansen;  librarians — 
Juletta  Andnis,  Hannah  Robinson,  Lovinia  Andrus,  Lucy 
Robinson  and  Emily  Cramer;  organists  and  choristers — Len- 
ora  Ossmen,  Elnora  Nixon  and  Lillie  Norton. 


The  Blackfoot  stake  of  Zion  was  formerly  a  part  of  Bing- 
ham  stake,  but  as  Bingham  was  so  very  large  it  was  deemed 
advisable  to  divide  it,  thus  on  the  31st  day  of  January,  1904, 
at  a  quarterly  conference  held  at  lona,  Idaho,  the  Blackfoot 
stake  of  Zion  was  created,  with  Elias  S.  Kimball  as  president. 
At  the  first  conference  of  the  new  stake,  held  at  Blackfoot, 
February  14,  1904,  a  stake  organization  of  the  Young  Ladies' 
Mutual  Improvement  Association  was  effected.  Mrs.  Juliette 
Blackburn,  a  woman  of  noble  characteristics  and  bright 

attainments,  was  made  pres- 
ident. The  other  officers 
sustained  at  this  time  were: 
first  counselor,  Mrs.  Maria 
K.  Buchanan;  second  coun- 
selor, Mrs.  Sarah  J.  Dalton; 
secretary  and  treasurer, Mrs. 
Sara  Hodson  Carruth;  aids, 
Mrs.  Catherine  Bennett, Mrs.. 
Anna  R.  Jacobson  and  Mrs. 
Pearl  Campbell.  All  were 
selected  by  the  stake  pres- 
idency, and  form  a  band  of 
zealous  and  efficient  workers. 
At  the  adjournment  of  con- 
ference they  were  set  apart 
by  Apostle  Hyrum  M. Smith, 
Elders  J.  Golden  Kimball, 
Elias  S.  Kimball,  Lorenzo  R. 
Thomas  and  Don  C.  Walker. 
Work  was  at  once  begun 
in  earnest.  The  entire  board 
JULIETTE  BLACKBURN.  made  a  visit  through  the 


stake  in  the  early  days  of  April  for  the  purpose  of  getting 
acquainted  and  more  fully  comprehending  the  work  before 
them.  Four  new  organizations  were  effected  on  this  trip. 

Since  that  time  circumstances  have  required  reorganiz- 
ation in  some  wards,  and  the  organizations  at  Rich  and  Tilden 
have  proved  impracticable  and  been  given  up  on  account  of 
there  being  so  few  girls  of  Mutual  Improvement  age  and 
those  few  living  in  a  widely  scattered  condition.  Five  new 
associations:  Lost  River,  Jameston,  Blackfoot  Second  ward, 
Shelley  Second  ward,  and  Wapello,  have  been  added.  At  this 
date  there  are  fifteen  fully  organized  associations,  and  each 
month  the  Young  Woman 's  Journal  is  welcomed  in  210  homes 
of  Blackfoot  stake. 

October  14,  1906,  Juliette  Blackburn  was  released  on 
account  of  sickness  and  Sara  Hod  son  Carruth  was  sustained 
as  stake  president  with  Lillian  E.  Thomas  and  Catherine 
Bennett  as  counselors  and  Alice  D.  Johnstone  as  secretary 
and  treasurer. 

Among  the  problems  confronting  the  organization  was 
the  establishing  of  traveling  libraries.  The  girls  must  have 
books — must  have  the  same  advantages  as  Z ion's  daughters 
have  in  other  stakes.  How  to  obtain  the  necessary  means 
was  the  question.  The  ward  organizations  were  new  and  of 
few  numbers.  The  stake  board  did  not  feel  at  this  time  to 
call  upon  them  for  aid,  so,  at  an  officers'  meeting  in  Decem- 
ber, it  was  decided  that  as  an  initial  step  in  the  establishment 
of  this  library  each  young  lady  stake  officer  should  contribute 
one  book  and  in  addition  that  the  stake  officers  living  in  Black- 
foot,  Shelley  and  Riverside,  should  give  an  entertainment  in 
their  respective  wards  and  contribute  the  entire  proceeds  to 
the  library  fund.  Their  plan  was  carried  out  with  energy; 
so  at  the  beginning  of  the  year  1905  they  had  a  library  con- 
sisting of  over  seventy  choice  volumes. 

The  stake  officers  count  the  annual  June  conference  as 
a  green  spot  in  their  history;  although  so  far  distant  from  the 
central  city  of  Zion  the  interest  taken  is  so  great  that  on  one 
occasion  Blackfoot  had  thirty-eight  present  during  the  entire 
conference,  the  largest  representation  of  any  stake  in  Zion. 

The  following  sisters  have  acted  on  this  board:  pres- 
idents— Juliette  Blackburn  and  Sarah  H.  Carruth;  coun- 
selors— Maria  K.  Buchanan,  Sarah  J.  Dalton,  Catherine 

348  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Bennett  and  Lillian  E.  Thomas;  secretaries  and  treasurers — 
Sara  H.  Carruth,  Alice  D.  Johnstone  and  Myrtle  S.  Gibbs; 
aids — Catherine  Bennett,  Anna  R.  Jacobson,  Pearl  Campbell, 
Leonora  Jensen,  Hulda  Mickelson,  Mary  E.  Freeman,  Alice 
Hale  and  Myrtle  S.  Gibbs;  musical .  director — Florence  J. 
Muir;  organist— Bertha  Y.  Jensen;  librarian— Juanita 
Rich;  class  leader — Josephine  Maughn. 

During-  the  last  two  summers,  while  the  regular  work 
was  discontinued,  reading-  classes  were  org-anized  and  some 
of  the  books  selected  for  the  young-  ladies'  reading-  course 
were  read. 

The  summer  work  done  by  this  stake  has  followed  along 
the  beaten  track;  but  the  boards  have  sought  to  improve  the 
general  amusement  conditions  by  introducing  lectures  and 
musical  programs  with  concerts  and  socials.  The  money 
thus  raised  has  been  used  to  enlarge  their  traveling  library 
of  which  they  are  justly  proud. 


Box  Elder  Stake,  situated  immediately  north  of  Weber, 
was  organized  by  President  Brigham  Young  in  1877.  This 
stake  was  for  many  years  blessed  with  the  genial  presence 
and  wise  counsel  of  one  of  Zion's  great  men,  Apostle  Loren- 
zo Snow.  His  pure  and  devoted  Christian  life  would  neces- 
sarily do  much  to  lift  to  a  higher  plane  the  community  in 
which  he  resided.  He  labored  among  the  people  with  untir- 
ing zeal,  ever  anxious  for  their  welfare,  spiritually  and  tem- 
porally. It  was  with  Lorenzo  Snow  and  in  this  stake  that 
the  first  movement  originated  in  Utah,  of  solidifying  the 
scattered  interests  of  the  people  into  one  common  interest  in 
what  was  called  the  United  Order,  which  later  spread  all 
through  Utah.  The  men  dedicated  their  property  and  the 
women  adjusted  their  labors  to  a  common  center  of  interest; 
and  for  some  years  the  people  struggled  nobly  to  establish 
a  perfect  system  of  communal  life.  That  the  movement  was 
not  altogether  a  financial  success  does  not  detract  from  the 
bravery  and  enterprising  qualities  of  the  people.  When  this 
great  industrial  movement  was  at  its  height,  when  mothers 
and  daughters,  with  little  time  for  fashion  and  frivolity,  were 
busily  engaged  in  helping  the  men  in  their  upward  struggle 
of  material  life,  the  necessity  for  a  spiritual  development  for 


the  young  women  was  recognized  and  resulted  in  the  calling- 
together  of  the  mothers  and  daughters  for  the  purpose  of  or- 
ganizing what  was  then  called  a  Retrenchment  association. 
On  July  30,  1875,  many  of  these  women  congregated  at  the 
court  house  and  were  met  by  some  of  Zion's  leading  women. 
Eliza  R.  Snow,  Jane  Richards,  Harriet  Snow  were  there, 
and  Apostle  Lorenzo  Snow  met  with  them.  Eliza  R.  Snow 
explained  the  motives  and  object  of  these  associations,  and 
subsequently  the  following  officers  were  chosen  and  sus- 
tained as  the  board  for  the  new  association:  president,  Min- 
nie J.  Snow;  first  counselor,  Emelia  D.  Madson;  second 
counselor,  Lottie  N.  Hunsaker;  third  counselor,  Ida  Snow; 
fourth  counselor,  Jane  Johnson;  fifth  counselor,  Lucy  N. 
Jensen;  sixth  counselor,  Esther  Smith;  secretary,  Eugenia 
Snow;  assistant  secretary,  Fannie  Graehl.  The  enrollment 
of  that  date  was  149  members,  with  an  increase  a  few  weeks 
later  of  102,  making  a  total  of  251  Retrenchment  members. 

On  Tuesday,  August  10th,  the  association  began  actual 
work.  The  exercises  consisted  of  testimonies,  with  select 
readings  from  the  Exponent,  /uvenile  Instructor  and  Millennial 
Star.  The  Relief  Society  sisters  took  great  interest  in  the 
new  organization,  visiting  it  often,  assisting  with  words  and 
influence.  Eliza  R.  Snow,  being  the  sister  of  Apostle  Snow, 
often  visited  Box  Elder  and  was  a  source  of  much  help  and 
direct  inspiration. 

In  early  days,  when  organized  effort  in  this  direction 
was  new  and  strange,  when  dormant  talent  was  just  awaken- 
ing, the  girls  bent  most  of  their  energies  in  the  practical  di- 
rection of  helping  to  build  up  the  new  community  in  gather- 
ing funds  through  various  activities  to  assist  in  erecting 
the  buildings,  such  as  the  woolen  mills  factory  and 
churches.  They  also  contributed  their  share  towards  erect- 
ing such  institutions  as  the  Deseret  Hospital  and  the  Salt 
Lake  and  Logan  Temples;  they  lent  a  helping  hand  to 
the  Relief  Society  to  store  wheat  for  coming  years.  Some 
of  the  straw  from  these  gleaning  expeditions  was  afterwards 
prepared  and  woven  into  the  stiff  hats  and  bonnets  in  vogue 
at  that  time,  and  worn  as  a  part  of  the  "Deseret  Costume." 

The  meetings  of  the  Y. L.M.I.  A.  were  at  first  held  weekly 
but  later  they  were  held  semi-weekly,  being  graded  into  a 
senior  and  junior  department.  This  did  not  prove  success- 

350  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

ful  and  the  first  plan  of  all  meeting  in  one  department  once  a 
week  was  again  resorted  to.  As  the  young-  ladies  gradually 
developed  in  many  ways,  they  began  to  realize  that  it  was 
necessary  to  have  something  besides  testimony  bearing  and 
extempore  programs  to  stimulate  and  develop  the  spiritual 
and  mental  powers;  so  it  was  decided  to  have  a  subject  or 
lectures  given  at  their  meetings.  Very  soon  the  girls  began 
to  lead  out  socially  as  well  as  spiritually  and  many  entertain- 
ments were  arranged  and  carried  out  as  a  means  of  gathering 
money  for  the  treasury.  As  early  as  1877  the  association 
decided  to  purchase  an  organ;  sufficient  money  was  raised 
and  an  organ  was  bought,  which  has  been  in  active  service 
for  some  thirty  years  and  is  said  to  be  good  still. 

In  1878,  the  three  organizations  of  women,  the  Primary, 
the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  and  the  Relief  Society,  were  divided  into 
four  wards  respectively.  Sister  Minnie  J.  Snow  was  ap- 
pointed superintendent  over  the  four  ward  Y.  L.  M.  I.  Asso- 
ciations of  Brigham  City,  and  she  labored  for  two  years  with- 
out assistants.  Soon  after  being  divided  into  two  wards,  the 
associations  began  to  hold  general  meetings.  The  secreta- 
ries would  read  reports,  and  members  and  officers  would  com- 
ment on  them.  These  meetings  were  held  quite  irregularly, 
until  they  gradually  developed  into  officers'  meetings  and 
were  held  semi-monthly. 

March  11,  1879,  the  young  ladies  of  the  Box  Elder  stake 
held  their  first  conference.  It  was  an  all  day  session.  From 
that  time  for  many  years  these  conferences  were  held  quar- 
terly, and  prominent  sisters  from  Salt  Lake  City  were 
invited  to  visit  the  conference  and  encourage  the  young  in 
their  work.  That  same  year  a  series  of  papers,  called  '  'Offi- 
cers' Contributor,"  edited  by  Armeda  Young,  was  started  and 
did  much  to  enliven  the  meetings  and  educate  the  girls. 

On  September  11,  1881,  the  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I. 
A.  was  organized  and  Minnie  J.  Snow  was  made 
president  over  the  stake  association,  with  Mary  A. 
Snow  as  first  counselor;  Freddie  Widerborg,  second  coun- 
selor; Lydia  Snow,  recording  secretary;  and  Armeda 
Snow  Young,  corresponding  secretary.  In  the  autumn  of 
'81,  a  movement  was  made  to  start  a  library  for  each  of  the 
associations  of  Brigham,  and  to  this  end  each  association 
gave  an  entertainment,  the  proceeds  of  which,  together  with 


some  donations,  went  to  buy  the  books,  and  the  libraries 
were  started,  naturally  on  a  small  scale,  but  books  of  a  high 
class  of  literature  were  procured.  Minnie  J.  Snow  origin- 
ated this  plan  for  securing-  books,  devoted  much  time  to 
the  success  of  the  undertaking-,  and  the  libraries  were  placed 
entirely  under  her  direction. 

In  1882,  President  Elmina  S.  Taylor  visited  the  Box 
Elder  stake  for  the  first  time,  in  company  with  Eliza  R. 
Snow,  Mattie  Home  and  Zina  D.  Young.  At  that  confer- 
ence President  Minnie  J .  Snow  reported  that  the  association 
up  to  that  time  had  handled  about  $2,000  which  had  been  col- 
lected by  donations,  entertainments  and  festivals  and  had  been 
disbursed  for  charitable  and  other  purposes.  Then  Box  Elder 
stake  took  in.  what  is  now  known  as  Maladand  Cassia  stakes, 
and  gradually  the  different  wards  had  a  Mutual  Improve- 
ment Association.  Among-  others,  a  Lamanite  village,  Wash- 
akie,  was  organized,  with  a  Lamanite  sister  as  second  coun- 
selor. To  make  the  yearly  visits  to  all  these  associations 
necessitated  not  a  little  planning,  energy,  and  sacrificing  of 
personal  interests;  especially  in  reaching  the  most  distant 
wards.  The  sisters  would  usually  visit  in  company  with 
the  brethren  and  it  took  about  three  weeks  to  make  one. trip, 
taking  in  Snowville  and  all  intermediate  points,  to  Cassia. 
The  wards  nearer  home  could  be  reached  with  more  ease. 
But  if  these  trips  were  trying  in  some  few  things,  they  were 
fraught  with  many  spiritual  blessings,  and  all  inconveniences 
were  forgotten.  Later  when  the  stake  was  divided  this  duty 
became  lighter;  it  then  took  fourteen  days  for  the  longest  trip. 

It  may  not  be  out  of  place  here  to  state,  what  must 
already  be  apparent,  that  President  Minnie  J.  Snow  was 
a  woman  of  marked  ability;  her  whole  heart  and  soul 
was  devoted  to  creating  new  fields  of  usefulness  for  the 
young  sisters  and  to  provide  new  forms  of  refined  and 
profitable  amusement  for  them.  Among  these  various  en- 
terprises were  many  beautiful  concerts  and  several  quite 
pretentious  musical  cantatas.  Money  was  raised  through 
these  festivities  which  was  used  to  help  different  kinds 
of  public  and  private 'philanthropies:  persons  were  emigrated 
from  the  old  countries,  missions  were  assisted,  and  means 
donated  to  building  ward  meetinghouses,  temples,  and  also 
the  tabernacle  in  Brigham  City.  The  first  great  fair 

352  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

attempted  by  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  held  in  1884,  June  llth 
and  12th,  and  the  proceeds  went  to  swell  the  treasury,  which 
was  always  heavily  drawn  upon.  It  was  followed  in  due 
time  by  others.  About  this  time  a  series  of  printed  circular 
letters  were  issued  to  the  different  associations,  outlining  and 
suggesting  what  would  be  best  for  the  girls  to  study. 

One  unique  effort  made  by  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  Box 
Elder  is  worthy  of  mention.  It  was  known  as  the  "pen 
dinner."  It  was  undertaken  on  Thanksgiving  day,  1886, 
when  the  young  ladies  of  the  four  wards  of  Brigham  City 
provided  a  dinner  for  all  the  inmates  of  the  Utah  peniten- 
tiary, where  their  beloved  brother  and  fatherly  friend,  Apos- 
tle Lorenzo  Snow,  who  had  been  such  a  source  of  help  and 
inspiration  to  them,  was  incarcerated  for  conscience  sake, 
together  with  many  others  of  Zion's  noble  men,  during  the 
trying  years  of  what  we  call  ''the  crusade."  This  idea  orig- 
inated with  Sister  Emelia  Madson,  then  president  of  the  Y. 
L.  M.  I.  A.  of  the  Third  ward,  an  enterprising  and  energetic 
woman,  who  spared  no  pains  to  accomplish  a  desired  object. 
Conferring  with  Marshal  Dyer,  Sister  Madson  learned  that 
there  would  be  no  objections  to  the  young  ladies  of  Brigham 
City  preparing  and  furnishing  a  Thanksgiving  dinner  for 
the  prisoners,  provided  they  all  fared  alike.  Up  to  that 
time  it  had  been  thought  that  only  our  brethren  should  share 
in  the  feast:  but  on  hearing  this  from  Mr.  Dyer,  the  sisters, 
nothing  daunted,  went  to  work  with  a  will  and  provided  the 
famous  dinner.  There  were  150 inmates  of  the  prison,  so  it 
was  quite  an  undertaking.  But  every  girl  was  willing  and 
eager  to  do  her  share ,  and  helped  the  project  to  a  successful 
end.  The  city  council  of  Brigham  City  presented  Sisters 
Minnie  J .  Snow  and  Emelia  Madson  with  railroad  tickets  to 
take  the  dinner  to  Salt  Lake  City  and  serve  it.  It  was  a  gala 
day  for  every  one  within  those  gloomy  walls — for  the  men 
who  were  there  for  their  religion's  sake,  as  well  as  for  those 
who  were  there  for  their  misdeeds.  Afterwards  followed  a 
grateful  letter  with  signatures  of  all  the  prisoners. 

In  '91,  Sister  Snow  trained  a  ladies'  quartet,  which  was 
a  great  help  in  entertainments.  A  ladies'  choir  likewise 
helped  the  singing  wonderfully  at  the  conferences. 

There  came  into  this  board  in  1893  a  worker  among  the 
young  ladies  of  Box  Elder,  a  sweet  and  gifted  woman,  of 



whom  there  had  been  many  during  the  years  of  their  exist- 
ence as  an  association  -  but  this  one  is  particularly  remem- 
bered for  her  sweet  refined  spirit;  one  who  became  well 
known  in  Utah  for  her  interesting  stories  in  the  Young  Wom- 
an's Journal  — Lillie  Stuart  Horsley.  Her  thoughtfulness  and 
love  of  mankind  made  her  a  favorite  with  all  classes;  and 
when,  in  1902,  in  the  flower  of  her  sweet  womanhood,  she 
was  taken  from  us  to  a  better 
world,  every  one  felt  the  loss 
of  a  personal  friend. 

In  1894,  President  Minnie 
J.  Snow,  who  had  presided 
over  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of 
Box  Elder  for  nearly  twenty 
years,  was  called  to  labor  in 
the  Salt  Lake  Temple,  where 
her  husband,  Apostle  Loren- 
zo Snow,  presided.  Sister 
Snow  had  been  an  untiring 
worker,  never  sparing  her- 
self in  any  way  and  also  ex- 
pecting much  of  her  officers. 
The  stake  was  then  reorgan- 
ized with  Minnie  Loveland 
Snow  at  its  head.  She  estab- 
lished the  nickel  fund,  re- 
quiring each  member  of  the 
associations  to  pay  annually 
a  nickel  to  the  stake  fund. 
To  her  also  belongs  the  credit 
of  improving  the  regular  officers'  meetings,  which  had 
been  held  semi-monthly  for  many  years,  in  making  them 
monthly  meetings,  held  on  the  day  of  the  priesthood 
meeting.  Thereby  it  was  made  possible  for  all,  or 
nearly  all,  the  outlying  ward  associations  to  be  represented. 
A  carriage  was  also  bought  by  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  to  accom- 
modate the  sisters  in  visiting  the  outlying  associations. 

In  1897,  the  two  Mutual  Improvement  Associations  of 
Box  Elder  joined  forces  and  began  a  movement  to  establish 
a  public  library  and  free  reading  room.  The  interest  soon 
spread  to  the  city  council,  county  teachers  and  all  public- 



HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

spirited  people,  and  today  there  is  quite  a  fine  collection  of 
books  in  the  library  and  more  are  being  added  every  year. 
The  building-  cost  between  $650  and  $700,  and  four  hundred 
books  were  partly  bought,  partly  donated,  and  furnished  a 
very  good  nucleus  for  a  library.  This  has  proved  a  source 
of  refinement  and  education  to  all  classes  of  people.  It  was 
dedicated  February  27,  1898.  In  1898  or  1899,  the  associa- 
tions were  graded,  and,  Guide  work  being  then  in  full  prog- 
ress, the  associations  advanced  rapidly  in  ''grace  and  knowl- 
edge" and  diffused,  as  they  have  done  ever  since  organized, 
sisterly  love,  pure  comradeship,  and  divine  intelligence. 

In  1901,  President  Minnie  Loveland  Snow  moved  to  Salt 
Lake  City  and  the  stake  was  once  more  reorganized.  Sister 

Snow    had   been   an    earnest    _ , 

worker,  and  did  much  good 
among  the  young.  She  was 
followed  by  the  gentle  and 
refined  Sister  Hattie  Wight. 
Conditions  changed,  but  the 
work  still  flourished  and  pro- 
gressed in  a  quiet,  systematic 
way.  Miss  Wight  was  a 
young  woman  of  sterling 
qualities  and  possessed  the 
undivided  confidence  and  sup- 
port of  all,  members  and  offi- 
cers alike,  laboring  with  un- 
tiring zeal  till  her  death, 
March  15,  1907. 

At  the  reorganization , 
May  12th,  1907,  Eliza  Thomp- 
son became  president;  the 
work  done  shows  her  to  be 
capable,  progressive  and  in- 

This  stake  was  the  first  to  hold  conjoint  officers'  meet- 
ings. In  1905,  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  the  stake  had  handled 
since  its  organization  $13,114.49  in  cash  alone,  not  men- 
tioning what  property,  merchandise,  etc.,  had  been  owned 
and  controlled. 



October  11,  1908,  seven  wards  were  taken  from  Box 
Elder  to  form  a  portion  of  the  Bear  River  stake,  leaving 
twelve  wards  in  Box  Elder. 

An  unusual  feature  of  the  summer's  work  in  this 
stake  was  the  convening-  of  the  stake  and  ward  Mutuals 
with  other  auxiliary  organizations  of  the  stake  in  the  va- 
rious stake  and  ward  meeting-houses  on  the  Sabbath  evening 
of  each  week,  under  the  auspices  of  the  presiding  priesthood; 
after  opening  exercises,  the  young  ladies  adjourned  to  their 
separate  departments  and  were  addressed  by  the  older  breth- 
ren and  sisters  on  suitable  topics,  chosen  by  the  priesthood. 
These  sessions  proved  very  successful  and  beneficial. 

In  addition  to  the  sisters  already  mentioned,  the  fol- 
lowing have  served  on  this  board  in  various  capaci- 
ties: Janie  Loveland,  Emma  Vance,  Sophy  Valentine, 
Maria  Forsgren,  Hattie  Jensen,  Minnie  H.  Jensen,  Alice 
M.  Johnson,  Nancy  H.  Nichols,  Maggie  R.  Wight,  Anna 
Bowring,  Alvira  Rees,  Rachel  Evans,  Lillie  Stuart  Hors- 
ley,  Lucinda  Wight,  Winnie  Boden,  Vinnie  R.  Stohl, 
Lydia  Forsgren,  Sarah  Mathias,  Vie  R.  Blackburn,  Edna 
Andersen,  Lulu  Blackburn,  Annie  J.  Peters,  Lottie  Cozier, 
Daisy  Madsen,  May  M.  Horsley,  Etta  Madsen,  Clara 
Jensen,  'Lizzie  Kelly,  Eugenia  S.  Pierce,  Phoebe  Mad- 
sen,  Sylvia  Mason. 

Three  brethren  from  the  high  council  were  added  to  this 
board  as  assistants  in  their  work:  Jacob  Jensen,  O.  C. 
Loveland  and  S.  N.  Cook. 

It  will  be  noted  that  three  of  the  women  who  have  la- 
bored as  presidents  of  the  young  ladies  of  the  stake  have  been 
taken  away  by  death;  they  were:  Minnie  J.  Snow,  Minnie  L. 
Snow,  and  Hattie  Wight.  The  first  two  removed  to  Salt 
Lake  City  before  their  demise,  but  the  latter  was  president 
at  the  time  of  her  death.  Special  services  were  held  over 
her  remains,  and  the  girls  contributed  sufficient  to  erect  a 
monument  over  her  grave.  The  dedicatory  services  of  this 
beautiful  monument  were  held  on  Decoration  Day,  1907. 
This  stake  is  still  far  advanced  in  good  and  gracious  things 
both  morally  and  spiritually. 

356  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


In  the  summer  of  the  year  1875  Apostle  Brigham  Young- 
advised  the  young-  ladies  of   Logan    to   org-anize   themselves 
into  a  society  for  mutually  improving- themselves;  and,  accord- 
ingly, a  number  of  young  ladies  met  on  the  evening-  of  Aug. 
23,    1875,    at   the  home  of  Ellen  Ricks 
(Nibley)  and  appointed  Mrs.  Phoebe  A. 
McNeil    as  chairman  of   the   meeting. 
jjji^m  An    orgranization    was    effected,     with 

Ellen  Ricks  as  president,  Isabell 
Davidson  and  Caroline  Olsen  as  coun- 
selors, Lydia  Crockett  as  secretary,  and 
Mattie  Blair  as  assistant  secretary.  At 
this  meeting  it  was  decided  to  hold  two 
sessions  weekly  for  the  purpose  of 
studying  the  Church  works  and  bearing 
testimony.  The  following  set  of  reg- 
ulations and  rules  was  drafted  and 


ART.    I. 

Sec.  1. — The  name  of  this  association  shall  be  The  Young- 
Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Society. 

Sec.  2. — The  officers  of  this  society  shall  consist  of  a 
president,  two  counselors,  secretary  and  assistant  secretary, 
who  may  be  elected  every  quarter. 

Sec.  3. — Any  young:  lady  over  the  age  of  fourteen  years 
may  become  a  member  of  this  society  by  signing-  and  obeying 
these  rules. 

ART.    II. 

Sec.  1. — Each  member  shall  be  required  to  pay  fifteen 
cents  per  quarter  to  buy  necessaries  for  the  society. 

Sec.  2. — No  laughing,  talking-  or  light  speeches  shall  be 
allowed  during  meeting. 

Sec.  3. — All  voting",  such  as  for  the  electing-  of  officers 
and  admitting  members,  shall  be  carried  by  a  majority  vote 
of  the  members  present. 



1. — Resolved,  that  we  always  try  to  do  unto  others  as  we 
would  have  others  do  unto  us. 

2. — Resolved,  that  we  cease  from  all  loud  laughter,  light 
speeches,  light-mindedness  and  pride,  and  all  evil  doings. 

3. — Resolved,  that  we  always  cultivate  a  kind,  pleas- 
ant and  cheerful  disposition  towards  all,  and  always  act 
charitably  towards  the  poor. 

4. — Resolved,  that  we  observe  strictly  the  principles  of 
virtue,  modesty,  sincerity  and  truth,  in  our  conversation  and 
deportment  towards  all  with  whom  we  are  associated. 

5. — Resolved,  that  we  cease  to  be  covetous,  cease  to  be 
idle,  cease  to  be  unclean,  and  cease  to  find  fault  with  each 

6. — Resolved,  that  we  cease  to  follow  or  pattern  after 
foolish  and  extravagant  fashions,  but  will  be  plain  and  simple 
in  our  manner  of  dress. 

7. — Resolved,  that  we  will  not  keep  the  company  of  nor 
associate  with  persons  who  are  not  of  this  Church. 

8. — Resolved,  that  we  strictly  obey  the  counsels  of  our 
parents  and  also  the  authorities  who  are  placed  over  us. 

9. — Resolved,  that  we  pray  to  God,  our  Heavenly  Father, 
for  His  care  and  protection,  that  we  may  endure  unto  the  end. 

10. — Resolved,  that  we  will  not  associate  with  nor  keep 
the  company  of  young  men  who  will  indulge  in  the  use  of 
intoxicating  liquors  or  tobacco. 

J 1 . — Resolved  that  we  will  cease  from  what  is  termed 
"round  dancing." 

The  young  men  of  Logan  met  with  the  Young  Ladies' 
society  Oct.  11,  1875,  and  it  was  then  determined  to  hold  con- 
joint testimony  meetings  the  first  Thursday  in  every  month. 

In  October,  1878,  a  number  of  sisters  from  Salt  Lake 
City,  appointed  to  labor  in  the  interest  of  Mutual  Improve- 
ment, visited  Logan  and  organized  associations  in  each  ward. 
Until  1881  the  history  of  the  Mutual  Improvement  Associ- 
ations was  local,  but  a  stake  organization  was  effected  in  the 
summer  of  that  year  with  the  following  officers:  Harriet  A. 
Preston,  president;  Ida  lone  Cook,  first  counselor;  KinnieB. 
Caine,  second  counselor;  Alley  Preston  Martineau,  secretary. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


At  that  time,  there  were  thirty-eight  local  associations 
with  a  member  ship  of  1,166.  Cache  stake  then  extended  190 
miles,  from  Box  Elder  on  the  south  to  Rexburg  on  the  north. 
Owing-  to  the  long  distances  to  be  traveled,  the  condition  of 
roads,  etc.,  frequent  visits  to  the  far- 
away associations  were  impracticable; 
but  they  were  not  neglected.  Circular 
letters  of  instruction,  carefully  and 
thoughtfully  prepared,  were  sent  out 
at  intervals,  and  bore  to  the  distant 
workers  messages  of  love  and  encour- 
agement. It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the 
same  instructions  on  proper  behavior, 
encouragement  to  ward  moral  and  intel- 
lectual development  and  a  knowledge 
of  the  principles  ol  the  gospel,  were 
impressed  then  as  at  the  present  time, 
accompanied  with  the  same  inspir- 
ation. Sewing  and  fancy-work  were 
taught,  and  also  lessons  on  hygiene 
and  cooking. 

President  Elmina  S.  Taylor  made  her  first  visit  to  the 
young  ladies  of  Cache  stake  in  June,  1883.  In  the  spring  of 
1884  President  Harriet  A.  Preston  removed  to  Salt  Lake  City 
with  her  husband,  who  had  been  called  to  act  as  Presiding 
Bishop  of  the  Church .  Her  much-appreciated  labors  among 
the  young  ladies  of  Cache  stake  came  to  an  end  with  many 
regrets  on  the  part  of  her  associates,  for,  as  is  always  the 
case  with  those  who  labor  with  divine  assistance,  her  efforts 
had  been  crowned  with  success,  and  her  memory  will  long 
live  in  the  hearts  of  those  whom  she  benefited. 

Cache  stake  was  divided  in  February,  1884,  fifteen  wards 
going  to  form  Oneida  stake.  June  7th,  1884,  Carrie  M.  C. 
Smith  was  chosen  to  succeed  Sister  Preston,  with  Ida  I. 
Cook  and  Ida  Thatcher  Langton  as  her  counselors,  Alley  P. 
Martineau  recording  secretary,  and  Ellen  Barber  correspond- 
ing secretary.  During  the  time  Sister  Smith  held  the  office 
of  president,  Sisters  Zina  Y.  Williams,  Maretta  Ormsby,  Eliz- 
abeth Townsend,  and  Rhoda  L.  Merrill  acted  as  her 
counselors.  The  interest  in  Mutual  Improvement  work  was 
greatly  increased  under  Sister  Smith's  able  guidance,  for  she 


and  her  co-workers  labored  assiduously  for  its  advancement. 
Special  prominence  was  given  to  the  spiritual  development  of 
the  girls,  and  rapid  growth  was  realized  along  this  as  well  as 
other  lines,  for  the  instructions  given  under  the  inspiration 
of  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  with  which  the  president  was  so  richly 
endowed,  were  as  seeds  sown  in  good  soil  which  yielded  a 
hundred  fold.  At  a  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  conference,  held  October 
20th,  1891,  after  more  than  seven  years  of  efficient  service, 
Sister  Smith  was  released,  and  Elizabeth  Townsend  was 
chosen  to  fill  the  vacancy,  with  Lucy  Hoving  and  Sarah  H. 


Taylor  as  counselors.  Ellen  Barber  as  recording-  secretary, 
and  Armenia  Parry  corresponding  secretary.  On  the  llth 
of  July,  1896,  Sarah  H.  Taylor  was  released  an  account  of 
illness,  and  Mary  D.  L.  Hendrickson  was  appointed  as  her 

The  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Associations  of 
Cache  stake  had  now  increased  to  such  an  extent  that  thoug-h 
there  were  but  twenty-three  associations,  there  was  an 
enrollment  of  1,300.  This  period  of  Mutual  Improvement 
work  was  characterized  by  unity  and  love  emanating  from 
the  head;  a  nearness  akin  to  motherly  affection  was  felt  for 
the  girls  and  was  reciprocated  by  them.  They  were  earnestly 
devoted  to  the  Mutual  Improvement  cause.  The  associations 
were  visited  often  and  a  strong-  impetus  was  given  to  the 
moral  and  intellectual  as  well  as  spiritual  part  ot  the  work. 

When,  on  the  12th  of  November,  1898,    it  became   nee- 

360  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L  M.  I.  A. 

essary  to  release  President  Townsend,  owing:  to  her  age  and 
declining-  health,  the  Mntuals  were  bereft  of  one  of  their  most 
faithful  and  energetic  workers.  Having  devoted  a  great 
portion  of  her  life  to  the  service  of  the  girls  of  Cache  stake, 
she  was  rewarded  by  a  depth  of  affection  rarely  experienced, 
but  fully  appreciated  even  to  her  death,  which  occurred  two 
years  after  her  release  from  duty.  But  as  is  usual  in  the 
work  of  the  Lord,  a  person  was  found  qualified  for  the  needs 
of  the  hour,  and  her  mantle  fell  upon  her  second  counselor, 
Mary  D.  L.  Hendrickson.  Lavinia  Maughan  and  Martha  W. 
Carlisle  were  selected  as  her  counselors.  Ellen  Barber,  who 
had  labored  so  faithfully  since  1884,  was  retained  as  secre- 
tary and  Armenia  Parry  as  corresponding  secretary.  In 
1899  Jennie  H.  Lloyd  was  appointed  corresponding  secretary 
to  succeed  Armenia  Parry.  From  the  beginning  of  1900  to 
the  close  of  1903,  Jean  C.  Thatcher  acted  as  assistant  record- 
ing secretary. 

After  the  division  of  the  stake  in  1901,  when  Hyrum  and 
Benson  stakes  were  organized,  there  remained  but  eleven 
associations  in  Cache  stake,  namely,  the  seven  wards  of 
Logan,  Benson,  Hyde  Park,  Providence,  and  Greenville, 
with  a  total  enrollment  of  670.  In  September,  1902,  First 
Counselor  Lavinia  Maughan  was  called  by  death  from 
her  work  in  the  Mutual,  a  work  to  which  she  had  given 
her  most  enthusiastic  efforts.  On  the  27th  of  October,  1902, 
Second  Counselor  Martha  W.  Carlisle  was  chosen  to  fill  her 
place  and  Leah  D.  Widtsoe  was  appointed  second  counselor 
to  President  Hendrickson.  After  two  years  of  capable  serv- 
ice in  this  capacity,  Sister  Widtsoe  removed  to  Provo,  and 
on  Oct.  31st,  1905, Margaret  Smith  was  chosen  to  fill  her  place. 

The  traveling  library,  started  in  1900,  now  contains  112 
choice  books  which  are  arranged  in  satchels  and  carried  to 
the  different  associations.  In  order  to  give  the  girls  a  better 
appreciation  of  the  books  and  increase  an  interest  in  reading, 
the  satchels  are  introduced  into  the  association  by  one  of  the 
librarians,  who  gives  a  brief  sketch  of  the  subject  matter 
contained  in  each  book. 

In  the  autumn  of  1900,  it  was  advised  by  the  stake 
board  that  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  members  be  invited  to  meet 
with  their  ward  officers  once  a  week  to  prepare  their  lesson 
for  the  following  meeting.  The  outgrowth  of  this  was  the 


study-classes  which  were  successfully  carried  on  in  nearly 
every  ward  in  the  stake  and  added  so  much  to  the  interest 
and  thoroughness  of  the  work.  Later,  in  1904,  when  special 
class-leaders  were  appointed,  a  stake  class  was  instituted  for 
them,  to  which  all  officers  and  members  were  invited.  Here 
special  instructions  were  given  in  regard  to  the  duties  and 
responsibility  of  class-leaders,  the  best  methods  of  present- 
ing lessons,  morals  to  be  deduced,  etc.  Each  lesson  was 
thoroughly  outlined  and  practical  demonstrations  were  made. 
This  class  continued  to  meet  regularly  two  evenings  each 
month.  Since  then  more  thorough  and  systematic  work  has 
been  realized  throughout  the  stake. 

In  order  to  systematize  and  properly  record  the  visiting 
done  by  the  stake  officers  to  the  different  associations,  each 
member  of  the  stake  board  was  provided  with  a  book  ruled 
and  printed  with  appropriate  headings,  wherein  was  recorded 
all  the  facts  desirable  to  be  retained.  Reports  from  these 
books  were  given  monthly  to  the  board.  Each  association 
was  also  provided  with  a  similar  book  in  which  the  stake  of- 
ficer records  any  suggestion  or  criticism  needful  to  the  asso- 
ciation. The  members  of  the  board  also  engaged  in  doing 
individual  work  among  the  careless  and  wayward  girls,  as 
well  as  visiting  the  organizations,  and  much  good  was  thus 

In  May,  1909,  Sister  Mary  D.  L.  Hendrickson,  after 
many  years  of  faithful  labor,  handed  in  her  resignation  and 
its  acceptance  by  the  stake  presidency  released  her  board 
of  workers  which  consisted  at  that  time  of  Martha  W.  Car- 
lisle as  first  counselor;  Ellen  Barber  as  second  counselor; 
Nellie  Page  as  secretary,  and  Jean  C.  Thatcher,  Sophia  W. 
Cardon,  Ray  Robinson,  Jemima  Campbell,  Ranghild  Bro- 
berg,  Zella  Smart,  Julia  N.  Howell,  Sarah  M.  Yeates  and 
Nettie  M.  Daines  as  aids.  The  new  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  board  of 
Cache  stake  accepted  the  same  month  was  as  follows:  Re- 
becca E.  Stewart,  president;  Leah  D.  Widtsoe,  first  coun- 
selor; Laura  R.  Merrill,  second  counselor;  Myrtle  Q.  Merk- 
ley,  secretary;  Pearl  C.  Sloan,  treasurer;  Alice  Kewley,  li- 
brarian; Louise  W.  Skidmore,  Lizzie  O.  McKay,  Hilda 
Eliason,  Lydia  B.  Hogansen,  Emily  A.  Mecham,  and  Dian- 
tha  Hammond,  aids.  During  the  same  year  the  following 
sisters  were  added  to  the  board:  Mamie  Brown,  organist: 

362  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Anna  Nibley,  Clara  Carlisle,  Fannie  M.  Vernon,  Rozina 
Skidmore,  Hazel  Love,  Nettie  M.  Daines,  Blanche  Cooper, 
Diana  B.  Thatcher,  aids.  The  resignations  of  Hilda  Eliason 
Dollar,  Diantha  Hammond,  Emily  A.  Mecham,  Hazel  Love, 
Lizzie  O.  McKay  and  Alice  Kewley  have  been  accepted,  and 
Viola  H.  Gardner,  Charlotte  Stewart,  Alberta  S.  Porter,  Mar- 
garet Call  Morris  and  Abbie  Groesbeck  have  been  added. 

The  stake  board  was  very  successful  in  the  line  of  spe- 
cial work  taken  up  in  the  summer  of  1909.  After  careful 
thought  the  sisters  decided  to  hold  sewing  meetings  in  each 
ward  to  prepare  for  bazaars  to  be  held  in  the  fall.  The  pro- 
ceeds of  the  bazaars  were  to  be  used  in  fitting  up  a  M.  I.  A. 
home,  the  need  of  which  had  been  long  felt.  In  the  June 
officers'  meeting  there  were  offered  to  the  wards  carefully  ar- 
ranged outlines  for  the  summer's  sewing  work.  The  testi- 
mony meetings  were  held  regularly  each  month,  and  special 
effort  was  made  to  keep  them  the  largest  and  best  of  the 
sessions;  the  other  three  nights  were  given  to  sewing  by  all 
the  girls  but  one  who  read  aloud  from  one  of  the  books  of  the 
literary  course.  Each  ward  was  canvassed  and  contributions 
of  any  material  which  might  be  made  up  into  articles  to  be 
sold  were  gladly  accepted.  This  helped  to  make  the  people 
in  general  interested  in  the  undertaking.  In  the  fall  the 
young  men  asked  permission  to  join  in  the  work  and  they 
added  greatly  to  the  success  of  the  bazaars.  Each  ward  had 
some  kind  of  program,  in  connection  with  the  selling  of  the 
hand-made  articles,  for  their  evening's  entertainment.  The 
result  was  a  feeling  of  unity  among  the  different  Mutual 
workers  while  more  than  one  thousand  dollars  stood  to  the 
credit  of  the  two  boards  after  one  tenth  of  its  earnings  was 
returned  to  each  ward.  Some  time  before,  the  Church  au- 
thorities had  given  the  Preston  block,  a  large  building  near 
the  corner  of  Main  and  First  North  streets,  to  the  Mutual  Im- 
provement Association.  From  the  funds  thus  raised  this 
building  was  fitted  up  with  reading  room,  gymnasium,  rest 
room  and  bath.  The  rooms  were  formally  opened  March  12, 
1910,  when  more  than  seven  hundred  persons  visited  them.  As 
a  whole  the  work  was  a  great  success  and  the  local  workers, 
who  had  labored  so  diligently,  felt  fully  repaid  for  their  ef- 
forts. Since  the  formal  opening  in  March,  1910,  a  large  por- 
tion of  the  upper  part  of  the  building  has  been  fitted  up  into  a 


very  convenient  social  hall,  and  a  great  many  of  the  Mutual 
parties  are  being-  held  here. 

In  planning-  work  for  the  summer  of  1910,  the  stake  board 
endeavored  to  exemplify  the  principle  that  development  must 
not  be  one  but  many  sided,  physical,  mental  and  spiritual. 
The  response  to  the  invitation  given,  for  a  series  of  lessons 
in  physical  education,  was  far  beyond  expectations,  so  that 
after  the  first  evening-  they  were  obliged  to  adjourn  from  the 
quarters  in  the  Preston  block  to  more  commodious  accom- 
modations, generously  afforded  by  the  officials  of  the  Brig-ham 
Young-  Colleg-e.  The  plan  for  the  summer  is  to  follow  the 
physical  work  each  evening"  with  a  literary  lesson  embracing" 
a  study  of  some  of  the  most  noted  of  the  American  Short 
Stories.  Talks  will  be  contributed  by  different  educators  of 
Logan.  The  regular  testimony  meeting-  will  be  held  once  a 
month  and  material  taken  from  the  biography  of  Heber  C. 
Kimball  and  the  autobiography  of  Parley  P.  Pratt  will  be 
used  as  an  inspiration  in  bearing"  testimony. 


In  May,  1910,  the  Carbon 
stake  was  organized  with 
several  towns  taken  from 
the  northern  and  western 
parts  of  Emery  stake,  and 
one  or  two  from  Utah 
county.  The  towns  in  this 
new  stake  are:  Price, 
Sunnyside,  Winter  Quar- 
ters, Pleasant  Valley, 
Castle  Gate,  Scofield,  and 
Spring  Glen.  In  most  of  the 
wards  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A's 
were  organized  before  the 
division  of  the  stake.  But 
a  new  stake  presidency  of 
the  Mutuals  was  effected 

and  the  officers  of  the  Y.  L.  ARABELLA  BRANCH 

M.  I.  A.  are:  president — 

Arabella  Branch;  counselors — Mary  Mathis  and  May  Smith; 
secretary — Enid  Harmon. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


This  stake,  situated  in  southern  Idaho  embracing 
Cassia,  Lincoln,  Twin  Falls  and  Elaine  counties  in  Idaho, 
and  a  part  of  Cache  county,  Utah,  was  organized  in  November, 
1887.  It  was,  prior  to  its  organization,  a  part  of  the  Box 
Elder  stake.  In  recent  years  the  territory  embraced  within 
this  stake  has  developed  into  one  of  the  most  important 
agricultural  and  stock-growing  districts  in  the  state, 

and  there  has  come  to  its 
sturdy  settlers  both  happi- 
ness and  prosperity.  Need- 
less to  say  that  the  Saints 
who  first  settled  that  part 
of  the  Gem  state,  and  others 
who  have  settled  there  in 
more  recent  years,  are  of 
very  best  type  of  Saint  and 
citizen,  willing  alike  to  suffer 
and  make  sacrifice  for  the 
reclaiming  of  the  desert,  the 
establishment  of  civilization 
in  the  wilderness,  and  the 
worship  of  God,  accord- 
ing to  the  dictates  of  con- 
science. The  love  of  God 
and  the  fellowship  with 
each  other  are  essential  ele- 
ments of  success.  The  girls 
of  the  Cassia  stake  are 
fortunate  in  that  they  are 
isolated  from  many  of  the 

allurements    and    follies    wThich     make     spiritual    progress 
difficult  in  the  more  populous  centers  of  civilization. 

The  stake  board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  organized 
Nov.  19,  1889,  by  Elder  John  W.  Taylor,  of  the  quorum  of 
the  Twelve,  assisted  by  Elder  Seymour  B.  Young,  of  the 
First  Council  of  Seventy.  RosabelA.  Brim  was  chosen  pres- 
ident, with  Sarah  E.  Bates  and  Urilda  J.  McBride  as  coun- 
selors, and  Louie  Mahoney  secretary  and  treasurer.  In  1895 



Sister  Mahoney  was  released,  and  Minnie  T.  Pickett  was 
selected  to  siicceed  her. 

For  nine  years  after  the  organization,  the  association 
held  quarterly  conferences,  and  in  1898  they  began  to  hold 
annual  conjoint  conferences  with  the  Y.  M.  M.  I.  A.  which 
were  supplemented  with  two  district  conferences  each  year. 

The  following  sisters  have  served  on  the  stake  board  as 
officers  in  the  following  positions:  presidents — Rosabel  A. 
Brim  and  Maud  A.  Thomas;  counselors — Sarah  E.  Bates, 
Urilda  J.  McBride,  Emma  Elison,  Effie  H.  Walker  and  Lula 
B.  Voyce;  secretaries  and  treasurers — Louie  Mahoney,  Minnie 
T.  Pickett,  Alice  M.  Peterson,  Luella  B.  Standfield,  Lilias 
M.  Meacham,  Emma  C.  Darrington  and  Maud  M.  T.  Clark; 
aids— Ray  L.  Ormsby,  Luella  B.  Standfield,  Sarah  E.  Rob- 
inson, Lucina  Beecher,  Helen  Edwards,  Alice  M.  Peterson, 
Lottie  Bach,  Ammer  Pickett,  Ida  L.  Belnap,  Abby  Ward, 
Mea  M.  Johnson,  Ella  Elison,  Jessie  S.  Merrill,  Maud 
Alexander,  Julia  S.  McBride,  Lois  H.  Richins,  Luella  F. 
Bulkley,  Lucynthia  Robbins  and  Rhoda  R.  Peterson. 

The  annual  report  from  this  stake  furnishes  the  following 
interesting  totals:  Twenty  associations,  with  an  enrollment 
of  568,  who  subscribe  for  329  Y.  L.  Journals,  for  the  year 
1910.  The  following  figures  show  that  the  young  ladies  of 
the  Cassia  stake  enjoy  the  reading  habit:  Fiction,  14,032 
chapters;  poetry,  3,803  pieces;  essays,  1,224;  history,  2,387 
chapters;  theology,  9,271  chapters;  miscellaneous,  18,317 
pieces;  testimonies  for  the  same  year  number  10,076. 

The  stake  is  spread  over  an  immense  area  of  country,  so 
that  it  requires  more  than  five  hundred  miles  travel  by  team , 
to  visit  the  nineteen  wards  and  associations.  Considering 
all  the  circumstances,  the  young  ladies  of  this  stake  are  ac- 
complishing a  marvelous  work,  and  are  entitled  to  the  highest 
commendation  for  their  labors. 


The  fruitful  and  beautiful  Davis  county,  lying  just  be- 
tween Salt  Lake  and  Weber  valleys,  a  part  of  both  it  might 
be  said,  has  many  advantages  both  of  climate  and  propin- 
quity to  the  two  great  centers  of  the  state.  There  are  a 
number  of  thriving  villages  lying  along  its  foothills,  and  great 

366  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

orchards  wave  fruitful  welcome  to  the  canyon  breezes,  while 
the  vegetable  gardens  are  rich  and  abundant.  This  stake 
was  under  the  charge  of  the  famous  pioneer  Christopher 
Lay  ton.  Many  other  strong  men  united  with  the  kindly  old 
patriarch  in  establishing  prosperity  and  peace  in  its  borders. 
Davis  stake  has  nurtured  as  many  sturdy  sons  and  as  many 
beautiful  daughters  within  its  confines  as  any  county  in  the 
west;  therefore,  good  things  are  expected  of  its  organiza- 

The  first  organization  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  in  this  stake 
was  formed  in  Bountiful  July  10,  1878,  by  Eliza  R.  Snow, 
assisted  by  EmmelineB.  Wells.  The  stake  president,  Wil- 
liam R.  Smith,  with  the  Relief  Society  officers,  Sarah  J. 
Holmes,  Mary  S.  Clark  and  Nancy  A.  Clark,  were  likewise 
present  at  this  locally  historic  meeting.  Sister  Nancy  A. 
Clark  was  made  president  of  the  new  association  with  Miss 
Wealthy  Richards  as  secretary.  Later  Sarah  Louise  Rob- 
erts and  Helen  Hyde  were  chosen  as  counselors  and  Phoebe 
A.  Peart  as  treasurer.  At  the  first  conference  of  this  organ- 
ization, held  in  Farmington,  October  17,  1878,  Sisters 
Elmina  S.  Taylor  and  M.  Isabella  Home  were  present.  The 
first  conjoint  conference  of  the  two  branches  of  the  M.  I.  A. 
was  held  in  this  stake  at  Farmington,  May  25th,  1879.  For 
ten  years  thereafter,  these  conferences  were  held  quarterly, 
and  after  that,  they  were  convened  semi- annually. 

At  a  M.  I.  A.  conference  held  in  Centre ville,  July  2, 
1882,  which  was  attended  by  Sisters  E.  S.  Taylor  and  Emme- 
line  B.  Wells,  President  Nancy  A.  Clark  was  honorably  re- 
leased from  her  position  in  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  as  she  had 
been  called  to  assume  the  presidency  of  the  Relief  Societies 
of  the  stake.  Margaret  E.  Leonard  was  appointed  president 
pro  tern,  with  Helen  M.  Miller  and  Wealthy  Richards  Clark, 
counselors,  which  constituted  the  presidency  of  the  stake 
until  June  17,  1883,  when,  at  a  young  people's  conference, 
held  in  Centreville,  Elizabeth  W.  Smith  was  chosen  as  presi- 
dent of  the  Young  Ladies  of  the  stake,  with  Wealthy  Rich- 
ards Clark  and  Emily  Porter  as  her  counselors. 

For  twenty- two  years,  Sister  Elizabeth  W.  Smith  car- 
ried the  presidency  of  this  stake  with  dignity  and  gentle 
firmness.  During  that  time,  the  Journal  was  started  in  Salt 
Lake  City,  the  Guides  were  issued  with  their  formal  pro- 



grams  and  difficult  studies;  other  officers  came  and  went 
upon  her  stake  board;  one  of  her  officers,  Emily  Porter  Par- 
rish,  filled  an  honorable  mission  to  Great  Britain;  conferences 
were  held,  officers'  meeting's  inaugurated,  and  finally,  study 
meetings  of  officers,  and  formal  class  leaders,  were  all  intro- 
duced by  this  capable  and  faithful  officer.  The  stake  records 
were  kept,  from  the  inception  of  the  work,  in  the  best  of  con- 
dition. The  traveling  library  was  also  made  a  successful 
feature  of  this  administration;  boxes  were  provided  and  the 
books  were  kept  in  circulation.  When  the  Women's  Build- 
ing in  Salt  Lake  City  was  projected,  this  stake  hastened  and 
sent  as  its  first  contribution  (in  1901)  $139.90.  In  every 
other  line  of  work,  these  sisters  labored  with  signal  success. 
So  active  were  the  labors  of  the  two  wings  of  the  Mutual 
Improvement  Associations  in  Davis  stake,  that  the  stake 
authorities  finally  decided  that  it  would  be  profitable  to  di- 
vide the  stake  into  a  north  district  and  a  south  district  for 
Mutual  Improvement  work.  So  this  was  done  on  October 
13,  1902.  Prior  to  the  division,  the  following  had  occupied 
positions  upon  the  stake  board:  presidents — Nancy  A.  Clark, 


368  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Margaret  E.  Leonard,  and  Elizabeth  W.  Smith;  counse- 
lors— Sarah  Louise  Roberts.  Helen  Hyde,  Wealthy  Richards 
Clark,  Helen  M.  Miller,  Emily  Porter  Parrish,  Clara  Saun- 
ders,  Caddie  Rich  Parrish,  and  Mary  Galbraith  Laycock;  sec- 
retaries and  treasurers — Wealthy  Richards  Clark,  Phoebe  H. 
Peart,  Mary  E.  Thornley,  Athalia  Miller  Steed,  Caddie 
Xnowlton,  Mary  Saunders  Leonard,  Nellie  Barton,  Rhoda 
Knowlton;  aids — Mary  G.  Laycock,  Caddie  Rich  Parrish, 
Eloise  Lewis  Burton,  Jane  Jennings  Eldredge,  Millie  Ben- 
son Egan,  Wealthy  Richards  Clark,  Rebecca  Angelina  Nal- 
der,  Comfort  E.  Flinders,  Annie  Cowley,  Mary  Randall 
Woolley,  Mary  Hyde  Mortenson,  Louie  Oviatt  Cotterill, 
Mary  Saunders  Leonard;  traveling  library  committee — Mary 
E.  Woolley,  Annie  S.  Neville. 

When  the  two  districts  were  formed,  Oct.  13,  1902,  the 
sisters  were  loath  to  part.  A  division  was  made  of  the  funds 
and  books  on  hand  and  each  new  board  started  to  work  ear- 
nestly. If  President  Elizabeth  W.  Smith  felt  disheartened  at 
losing  so  many  of  her  efficient  workers,  she  made  no  com- 
plaint, though  Sister  Eldredge,  the  new  president  of  the 
southern  part,  confessed  to  a  feeling  of  regret  that  she 
should  of  necessity  take  from  the  former  president  so  many 
faithful  women,  trained  by  her,  who  was  now  to  lose  their 
services,  and,  too,  that  her  part  of  the  stake  had  also  the 
advantage  of  being  now  compactly  settled  with  better  facili- 
ties for  travel.  The  officers  chosen  for  the 

North  Division 

were:  president — Elizabeth  W.  Smith;  counselors — Mary  A. 
Mortenson  and  Mildred  Thurgood;  secretary — Nellie  H.  Bar- 
ton; treasurer — Rebecca  Angelina  Nalder.  On  October  25th 
of  the  same  year,  the  following  were  added  to  the  board: 
assistant  secretary — Lola  M.  Smith;  chorister — Nettie  E. 
Stevenson;  aids — Comfort  E.  Flinders,  Annie  Phillips  Lay- 
ton.  May  17th,  1903,  the  first  counselor  resigned  and  was 
succeeded  by  Minnie  A.  Blood. 

In  1905,  August  31,  the  north  division  was  reorganized. 
Sister  Elizabeth  Smith,  who  had  acted  so  successfully  as 
stake  president  since  June,  1883,  was  released  but  retained 
on  the  board  as  an  honorary  member,  that  the  new  officers 
might  benefit  by  her  rich  experience.  The  new  president, 


Minnie  H.  Blood,  has  made  some  splendid  history  during  the 
five  years  of  her  incumbency.  As  one  feature  of  merit  we 
might  mention:  During-  the  last  three  years  they  have  pre- 
pared, conjointly  with  the  Young  Men's  Mutual  Improve- 
ment Association  stake  officers,  a  course  of  summer  work 
which  has  proved  to  be  an  inspiration  to  the  associations.  It 
has  consisted  of  regular  association  work  in  the  wards,  special 
lessons  and  exercises  appropriate  to  the  season  being  intro- 
duced. A  feature  of  the  work  has  been  an  interchange  of 
work  among  the  associations,  each  ward  conducting  a  pro- 
gram in  the  other  wards  of  the  stake  during  the  summer. 
The  public  has  shown  an  interest  by  a  large  attendance,  and 
the  members  have  been  enthusiastic  in  carrying  out  the  plan . 
The  stake  boards  have  prepared  special  programs  which  they 
themselves  have  presented  in  all  of  the  wards,  and  they  have 
been  welcomed  gladly  by  the  association  officers  and  mem- 
bers and  by  the  Saints  of  the  wards  when  their  visits  have 
been  made.  A  traveling  library  has  been  successfully  estab- 
lished. There  are  at  present  1904  carefully  selected  books  in 
use,  and  they  are  being  read  extensively.  The  volumes  are 
divided  into  seven  sections,  the  number  of  wards  in  the 
stake,  and  at  regular  intervals  the  sections  are  exchanged. 
Through  the  co-operation  of  the  Young  Men's  board,  who 
usually  furnish  transportation,  the  stake  board -has  been  able 
to  make  more  systematic  and  regular  visits  to  the  associa- 
tions, and  it  has  found  that  the  frequent  attendance  of  stake 
officers  at  the  local  meetings  is  a  source  of  encouragement 
and  inspiration.  Regular  monthly  stake  board  meetings  are 
held  with  good  attendance  and  interest,  and  monthly  meet- 
ings of  stake  and  local  officers  are  held  with  much  profit. 

The  two  divisions  of  the  stake,  as  is  the  history  in  every 
similar  case,  find  as  much  to  do  and  feel  as  loving  a  burden 
in  their  new  positions  as  in  the  old.  Each  division  is  busy, 
prosperous  and  full  of  zeal  and  good  works. 

Those  who  have  held  positions  on  the  board  of  the  north 
division  in  addition  to  the  ones  already  named,  are:  counse- 
lors— Nellie  H.  Barton,  Annie  Laura  Steed,  Mamie  Layton; 
secretaries  — Winnif red  Stevenson,  Rhoda  A.  Miller,  Annette 
E.  Stevenson;  librarians — Emily  C.  Barnes,  Elizabeth 
Barnes,  Kate  A.  Ellison,  Mary  Swan;  aids — Mildred  L. 
Thurgood,  Winnifred  S.  Evans;  organist  and  chorister  — 
Maud  Layton. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

South  Division. 

The  woman  chosen  to  act  as  president  of  the  south  divi- 
sion had  been  active  for  years  in  the  Davis  stake  Y.  L.  M.I.  A. 
It  was  Jane  J.  Eldredge,  a  daughter  of  that  famous  pioneer 
merchant,  William  Jennings,  herself  full  of  initiative  and  en- 
ergy for  the  work  laid  thus  upon  her  shoulders .  Her  counse  - 
lors  were  one  with  her;  and  for  a  number  of  years  they  made 

South  Davis  stake  a  familiar 
word   in  all   Mutual    circles. 
Mammoth  festivals  were  pro- 
jected,   reaching    down   into 
Salt  Lake  City  stakes,  doub- 
ling up  for  Saltair  or  Lagoon 
excursions.     The  presidency 
of  the  General  Board  of  both 
organizations  were  frequently 
entertained  by    South    Davis 
officers  and  their  happy  min- 
gling became  an  inspiration 
to  those  eager  workers  in  the 
nearby    stake.     The    atmos- 
phere of  the  work  done  dur- 
ing this  period   was    one    of 
peace  and  quiet  effort.  Strife 
was    not    known,    while   the 
supreme  effort  of  all  officers 
was  to  perpetuate  the   gold- 
en   legends    of    the    Mutual 
Improvement     work.      Such 
has  been  their  history. 
The  south  district  consisted  at  first  of  seven  local  associ- 
ations, later  increased  to  ten.     Finances    have   always   been 
of  the  most  satisfactory  character  and  much  effort   was    ex- 
pended to  facilitate  prompt  service   and  strict  accountings. 
The  women  who  have  worked  upon  the  board  are   then   and 
now  of  the  best  type.     Sister  Eldredge  resigned  in  1909,  but 
her  successor  has  carried  on  the  successful   work.     During 
the  last  three  years  the  girls  have  responded  freely  to  the  call 
of  the  Deseret  Hospital   to   furnish  fruit.     But  the  supreme 
emphasis  of  these  girls  has  been  placed  upon  the  control   of 
ward  amusements.     The  dances,  home  or  ward    theatricals, 



with  moving1- picture  shows  and  all  other  entertainments, 
were  placed  largely  in  their  keeping.  Out  of  this  has  grown 
through  the  initiative  of  one  of  their  brightest  officers,  Susie 
D.  Clark,  a  system  of  supplementary  evenings,  devoted  to 
"class  preparation."  The  officers  and  members  who  have 
been  placed  on  the  program  meet  once  or  twice  a  month  to 
prepare  lessons.  During  the  last  summer  these  classes  be- 
came so  popular  that  all  members  were  finally  allowed  to  en- 
ter the  ranks.  The  social  feature,  which  consisted  of  excel- 
lent but  simple  refreshments  served  after  lessons  were  over, 
and  the  accompanying  chat  and  good  comradeship,  added 
greatly  to  the  attractions.  The  classes  were  taken  from 
home  to  home,  thus  permitting:  each  girl  to  act  as  hostess; 
all  were  given  thus  an  opportunity  to  become  "popular,"  and 
to  develop  the  best  instincts  of  hospitality.  The  means 
raised  in  social  dances  and  other  public  entertainments  given 
by  these  busy  young  people  of  South  Davis  stake  are  used 
largely  to  help  missionaries  to  their  fields  of  labor.  The 
book  of  Life  is  thus  becoming  their  chief  asset. 

The  names  of  those  who  have  acted  on  this  board  are  as 
follows:  presidents — Jane  Jennings  Eldredge  and  Maria 
Clark:  counselors — Louisa  Coltrin,  Mary  E.  Woolley,  Maria 
Clark,  Maria  Coltrin,  Lizzie  Hatch,  Edith  Walsh  and  Mary 
Tuttle;  secretaries  and  treasurers — Annie  Cowley  Willey, 
Florence  E.  Barlow,  Rhoda  Knowlton,  Mary  E.  Argyle,  Orla 
Coltrin, Clara  Smith,  Gertrude  Arbuckle  and  Clara  Earl;  aids 
— Nellie  Moon,  Louie  Cottrell,  Caddie  R.  Parrish,  Mary  A. 
Willey,  Cora  Moss,  Eva  Grant,  Elizabeth  Moss,  Millie  Egan, 
Nellie  Wood,  Effie'P.  Eldredge,  Nettie  Taylor,  Lucy  Wool- 
slayer,  Fanny  Parrish,  Nellie  Moon, Clara  Rose,  Mabel  Barlow, 
Mabel  Randall,  Jessie  E.  Stringham,  Lizzie  Hatch,  Susie  D. 
Clark,  Rachel  Howard,  Sarah  Hogan,  Amy  Z.  Porter,  Thalia 
N.  Steed,  Joan  V.  Barlow,  Judith  Welling,  Eliza  N.  Barlow, 
Clara  Earl,  Afton  R.  Mabey,  Nellie  Randall,  May  C.  Burns 
and  Maud  Atkinson;  chorister — Lucy  Garrett;  organist — 
Fanny  Barlow. 


Emery  is  situated  in  the  middle  eastern  portion  of  Utah, 
with  great  stretches  of  land,  not  much  water,  but  with  quan- 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A 

titles  of  coal  in  her  big  mountain  heart.  The  people  of  this 
stake  have  met  with  like  scenes  and  incidents  attendant  upon 
settling-  new  regions,  and  have  conquered  in  like  brave 

The  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  organized  in  1882  with 
Emma  Seeley,  president;  Annie  Debs  and  Sarah  Jensen, 
counselors;  and  Emma  Bench,  secretary.  Since  that  time 

the  following  sisters  have 
acted  on  the  board:  pres- 
idents— Lodema  Cheney, 
Susannah  Jewkes,  Ivy  Hill 
and  Elsina  Petersen;  coun- 
selors— Maria  Wakefield, 
Persis  Roberts,  Amelia 
Jewkes,  May  Oliphant, 
Emma  Wakefield,  May 
Loveless,  Hettie  Me  Ar- 
thur, Zina  Larson,  Dag- 
mar  Williams,  Amy  Staker 
Howard  and  May  Elder; 
secretaries  and  treasurers 
—Hannah  M.  Larson, 
Susan  Wakefield,  Luella 
Wakefield,  Amelia  Larsen, 
Maria  Killian,  Maud  Bun- 
nel,  LileHill,  Pearl  Seeley, 
Stella  Seeley,  and  Venice 
Johansen;  librarian — Ethel 
Larsen;  aids  —  Mary  J. 
King,  Emma  Wakefield, 

May  Stewart,  Emma  Edwards,  Lillie  Smith,  Amelia  Jewkes, 
Mary  Brasher,  Clara  Wickman,  Nessie  Oliphant,  Laura 
Rasmussen,  Florence  Horsley,  Geneva  Oversen  Larsen, 
Ellen  B.  Johnson,  Emily  Jiidd,  Enid  Harmon,  Harriet 
Allred,  Pearl  Seeley,  Katie  Mathis,  Agnes  Liddell,  Emily 
Judd;  organists— Ruth  Fox  and  Hazel  Frandsen. 

There  were  but  few  wards  when  this  stake  was  organized, 
but  in  the  next  few  years  four  other  ward  associations  were 
added.  In  the  year  1885,  there  was  an  enrolled  membership 
of  115  members.  In  1887  various  sums  of  money  were  col- 
lected from  the  girls  in  various  ways,  and  $5.00  was  given 



to  the  Manti  Temple  and  $12.50  toother  charitable  purposes; 
later  $10.00  was  given  by  the  girls  to  the  domestic  science 
department  of  the  B.  Y.  U.  at  Provo. 

For  a  number  of  years  the  programs  were  confined  to 
musical  selections  and  readings;  but  after  1896,  the  Guide 
lessons  were  taken  up  and  found  to  be  instructive  and  prac- 
ticable. In  1904-5  a  traveling  library  was  established  con- 
taining 162  volumes. 

There  were  fourteen  wards  in  this  stake  up  to  May,  1910, 
when  the  stake  was  divided ,  and  Carbon  stake  was  organized 
out  of  the  towns  lying  in  Carbon  county.  The  girls  of  both 
these  stakes  are  earnest  workers  and  truly  desirous  of  ac- 
complishing all  that  is  set  before  them  to  do. 


This  stake  is  composed  of  the  northeastern  portion  of 
Salt  Lake  City,  and  was  organized  in  1904.  On  the  21st  of 
April  of  that  year,  a  special  conference  of  the  stake  was  called 
and  the  stake  boards  of  the  auxiliary  organizations  were 
appointed  and  set  apart.  The  officers  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I. 
Associations  were  as  follows:  president — Emma  Whitney 
Pyper;  first  counselor — Helena  M.  Walsh;  second  counselor — 
Lucy  Grant  Cannon;  secretary — Hattie  Whitnej^;  treasurer — 
Claire  Williams.  At  a  later  date,  Sisters  Mary  F.  Kelly, 
Phoebe  Scholes  and  Vilate  Clayton  Young  were  chosen  as  aids. 
It  was  to  be  expected  that  this  organization ,  composed  as  it 
was  of  a  class  of  young  women  who  had  had  all  the  advantages 
of  superior  schools  and  long  training  in  Mutual  work,  would 
excel  in  the  intellectual  features  of  the  work.  They  had 
another  advantage;  a  woman  was  placed  at  the  head  whose 
humility  was  equaled  only  by  the  sweetness  and  beauty  of 
her  character.  It  followed,  naturally,  that  the  spiritual  side 
of  the  work  would  be  kept  as  active  as  it  was  in  the  fine  old 
days  of  the  Salt  Lake  stake  history.  This  hope  has  been 
realized.  The  testimony  meetings  of  this  stake  excel  in  in- 
terest and  value  all  other  meetings,  good  as  the  others  are. 
The  intellectual  side  of  the  work  is  kept  at  a  high  standard; 
and  they  lead  off  in  the  matter  of  subscriptions  to  the  Journal. 
In  one  ward  where  there  are  forty- seven  members  enrolled, 
there  are  forty-seven  subscribers  to  the  Journal.  There  is  a 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

commendable  feeling  of 
unity  between  the  workers 
of  the  Young-  Men's  and 
Young:  Ladies'  Associations 
among-  the  local  and  stake 
officers.  The  atmosphere 
of  the  stake  is  pre-eminently 
that  of  modest  and  dignified 
earnestness.  The  officers 
feel  and  manifest  the  spirit 
of  companionship  and  com- 
radeship to  each  other  and 
to  every  girl  in  the  asso- 
.ciations,  and  it  is  safe  to 
predict  g-enuine  and  splendid 
results  from  their  labors. 

The  following-  officers 
have  served  on  this  board: 
president — Emma  Whitney 
Pyper;  counselors — Helena 
M.  Walsh,  Lucy  Grant  Can- 
non ,  Maud  May  Babcock  and 
Ann  D.  Groesbeck;  secre- 
taries and  treasurers-Hattie 
Whitney  Saville  and  Claire 
Williams;  choristers  and  or- 
ganists— Valeria  B.  Young 
and  Jennie  Romney;  aids — 
Mary  F.  Kelly,  Phoebe 
Scholes,  Vilate  Clayton 
Young-,  Alice  Duncomb, 
Mag-gie  Bassett,  Rachel 
Grant  Taylor,  Minnie  J. 
Whitney,  PriscillaL.  Evans, 
Birdie  S.  Harding,  Annie  S. 
Milne ,  Virginia  B .  Stephens , 
Laura  P.  Corey,  Elsie  J. 
Ward,  Blanch  Caine,  Ellen 
C.  Henderson  and  Sylvia 





The  stake  of  Fremont,  created  in  1898,  covered  those  dis- 
tricts again  divided  into  three  stakes  of  Fremont,  Yellowstone, 
and  Teton.  This  rapidly  growing-  section  of  the  rich  valleys 
lying  along  the  course  of  the  Snake  river  was  full  of  history- 
making  forces;  and  in  no  division  of  spiritual  labor  was 
there  a  more  marked  growth  and  development  than  in  the 
associations  devoted  especially  to  the  daughters  of  Zion. 


Sister  Ellen  M.  Ricks  who  had  been  president  of  the  Y. 
L.  M.  I.  A.  of  Bannock  stake,  was  retained  as  president  of 
Fremont  stake,  she  living  in  the  northern  half  and  therefore 
in  the  newly  created  stake.  She  had  for  her  counselors 
Kate  Paul  and  Sarah  J.  Tempest,  who  were  counselors  in 
very  deed.  Their  energetic  help  and  faithful  attention  to 
detail  work,  with  the  sympathetic  insight  into  girl  nature 
which  characterized  Sister  Paul  especially,  proved  of  the  ut- 
most value  in  laying  a  firm  foundation  for  the  future  growth 
of  this  important  work. 

Few  of  the  stakes  of  younger  years  realize  what  Y.    L. 

376  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

M.  I.  A.  meant  in  these  newly  settled  sections  of  country. 
It  meant  traveling-  hundreds  of  miles,  with  the  thermometer 
twenty  degrees  or  more  below  zero;  it  often  meant  traveling- 
thirty-five  miles  to  hold  three  meetings  (at  2,  4:30  and  6:30 
p.  m.)  then  thirty-five  miles  home  in  one  day;  meeting- young- 
mothers,  carrying-  their  babies  through  blistering-  sun  and 
tall  sagebrush,  to  the  distant  log-  schoolhouse  to  find 
perhaps  three  or  four  girls;  meetings  to  be  held, 
however,  encouragement  to  be  given,  and  then  [the  sis- 


ters  to  pass  on  to  the  next  primitive  town  of  a  few  log- 
houses.  They  would  meet  similar  conditions  in  each  locality 
but  each  of  the  isolated  young  matrons  was  willing-  to  sacri- 
fice much  and  travel  far  to  gfive  and  to  receive  inspiration  for 
her  duties. 

Hannah  Grover  was  chosen  Jan.  28th,  1901,  to  succeed 
Sister  Ricks  who  resigned  because  of  inability  to  travel  the 
long  and  difficult  journeys.  Miss  Grover  put  all  the  energies 
of  her  thoroughly  trained  and  intelligent  mind  to 'this  work, 
and  excellent  and  gratifying-  results  followed  her  three  years 
labors.  The  stake  was  districted  off,  and  two  district  offi- 


cers'  meetings  were  held  monthly  to  study  the  Guide  lessons 
and  consider  plans  for  work.  In  1910  there  were  1800  girls 
enrolled  in  the  Mutuals,  and  they  were  busy  collecting- books 
for  their  traveling-  library,  holding-  concerts  to  raise  funds, 
mingling  in  ward  and  stake  officers'  meetings,  as  well  asset- 
ting  apart  a  separate  night  in  some  of  the  wards  for  the  girls 
to  meet  weekly  and  prepare  their  lessons. 

The  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  again  reorganized  in 
October,  1904,  and  L.  Jane  Osborn  was  chosen  to  succeed 
Sister  Grover,  who  had  moved  away.  Miss  Osborn  has 
proved  herself  a  worthy  successor,  and  has  carried  on  the 
various  lines  of  work  with  vigor  and  intelligence.  In  addi- 
tion to  other  activities  noted,  the  girls  held  a  great  bazaar  in 
December,  }905,  from  which  they  realized  over  $300,  which 
was  used  to  defray  traveling  expenses.  At  this  time  there 
were  thirteen  associations,  and  each  association  was  visited 
by  the  stake  officers  every  two  months  or  oftener. 

Teton  and  Yellowstone  stakes  have  been  cut  out  from 
this  once  straggling  and  wide-distanced  stake.  But  the  good 
work  in  the  Mutuals  goes  steadily  on.  That  is  one  of  the 
most  gratifying  features  of  the  work  of  the  Lord.  No  mat- 
ter how  much  it  is  divided  up  into  sections  and  cross  sections, 
the  original  division  soon  seems  as  large  as  formerly,  and 
each  new  stake  appears  as  populous  and  important  as  when  all 
were  in  one. 

The  keynote  of  the  Fremont  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  is 
that  of  thoroughness  of  organization  and  depth  of  spiritual 
teachings;  a  truly  model  combination. 

The  officers  who  have  served  in  various  capacities  on 
this  board  are:  presidents — Ellen  M.  Ricks,  Hannah  Grover, 
and  L.  Jane  Osborn;  counselors — Kate  Paul,  Sarah  J.  Tem- 
pest, L.  Jane  Osborn,  Zilpha  Bramwell,  Hannah  Davis,  Re- 
becca Watson,  Martha  Lloyd,  Alverretta  Engar,  Mary  Gee; 
as  secretaries  and  treasurers — Ellen  R.  Archibald,  L.  Jane 
Osborn,  Mabel  Walker,  M.  May  Ricks, Lois  Archibald,  Rebec- 
ca Watson,  Mary  E.  Gee,  Edith  Hansen  and  Gladys  Bassett; 
aids — Lorena  Flamm,  Annie  Harris,  Mamie  Collett,  Emily 
Tonks,  Kate  Hamlin,  Martha  Lloyd,  Mary  Webster,  Ida  F. 
Reid,  Luna  Ordell  Paul,  Ray  L.  Ormsby,  Kate  Paul,  Mary 
A.  Farnsworth,  Sarah  Bramwell,  Lavina  Walker,  Emma 
Flamm,  Lucy  Harris  Salisbury,  Finnie  Hale,  Ella  Williams, 

378  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Delia  A.  Curtis,  Minnie  Hale,  Mary  Beckstead,  Bertha 
Kerr,  Francis  Dalby;  librarians  —  Minnie  Hinckley,  Mary 
Hill,  Libbie  Spori,  Ella  Williams,  Inga  Shurtliff,  Delia  Wai- 
dram  Rans;  choristers— Mae  Andrus  and  Eunice  Jacobson. 
As  an  evidence  of  the  minuteness  of  detail  which  is  so 
much  a  feature  of  this  stake's  work,  it  might  be  mentioned 
that  in  many  of  the  wards  the  girls  meet  on  Tuesday  after- 
noons to  sew  and  read ,  to  have  socials  and  to  prepare  their 
lesson  for  the  evening.  Another  item  of  interest;  the  stake 
board  itself  was  divided  up  into  three  general  study  commit- 
tees on  literature,  history  and  religious  work.  Suggestive 
programs  were  outlined  by  these  committees  for  the  summer's 
work,  and  for  the  conjoint  Sabbath  evenings.  They  also  took 
direct  charge  of  the  various  Guide  studies  which  came  under 
their  lines  of  study.  Again,  the  wards  purchased  separate 
roll  books  and  entered  therein  all  the  chapters  of  home  read- 
ings reported  by  each  member,  and  these  in  turn  are  re- 
ported to  the  stake  secretary  and  librarian.  With  the  fre- 
quent district  conferences  and  constant  active  visiting,  it 
may  be  seen  that  this  stake  is  very  active  and  full  of  spirit- 
ual zeal. 


This  stake  is  certainly  one  of  the  banner  stakes  of  the 
Church.  Each  quorum  of  stake  officers  is  in  the  lead  in  things 
spiritual  and  progressive.  Especially  is  this  true  of  the  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.  Alert,  resourceful  and  delicately  sensitive  to  the 
manifestations  of  the  good  spirit,  the  board,  presided  over  by 
Zina  Bennion  Cannon,  the  modest,  refined  wife  of  Elder  John 
M.  Cannon,  is  permeated  by  the  righteous  advancement 
which  marks  her  own  way  in  life.  The  stake  embraces  the 
southern  portion  of  Salt  Lake  City,  beginning  generally  at 
Tenth  South  street  and  extending  south  about  nine  miles, 
and  from  the  Wasatch  mountains  on  the  east  to  the  Oquirrhs 
on  the  west.  On  the  28th  of  January,  1900, the  Y.L. M.I. A.  was 
organized  in  a  stake  capacity,  and  Mrs.  Zina  Bennion  Cannon 
was  appointed  president.  Her  officers  have  changed  and  her 
family  has  increased  with  due  rapidity;  but  this  brave  little 
woman  has  carried  along  her  two-fold  heavy  burden  with 
remarkable  success  and  decision.  There  were  fourteen  as- 



sociations  when  the  stake  was  organized,  and  now  there  are 
twenty-one,  making-  this  one  of  the  most  populous  centers  in 
the  Church.  Those  who  live  in  the  country  may  think  it  a 
hardship  to  go  a  few  miles  by  team;  but  it  is  nearly  as  diffi- 
cult for  the  various  officers  of  this  stake  to  gather,  as  one 
must  sometimes  take  two  or  three  lines  of  cars,  coming  up 
into  the  heart  of  Salt  Lake  City  to  change  cars,  and  then 

going  back  four  miles  to  their 
tabernacle  on  Fourteenth  South 
and  State  streets.  However,  so 
general  is  the  spirit  of  enthusi- 
asm among  these  Saints  that 
there  is  always  a  record  attend- 
ance at  the  monthly  stake 
meetings  as  well  as  at  all  con- 

The  lessons  given  in  the 
Guide  have  been  studiously  and 
intelligently  followed  during 
the  winter  seasons,  and  they 
have  been  made  alive  with 
meaning.  To  do  this,  the 
stake  resources  have  been  taxed 
for  speakers,  for  material  of 
both  spiritual  and  ethical  kinds, 
so  that  a  constant  interchange 
of  speakers  and  workers  keeps 
the  life  fcood  of  the  body -re- 
ligious in  constant  and  healthy  motion.  The  summer's  work 
has  been  original  and  very  vahiable.  Much  of  it  has  lain 
along  physical  and  hygienic  lines.  The  Young  Ladies'  stake 
board  have  mapped  out  careful  lessons  for  the  summer,  and 
the  topics  have  passed  from  the  infant  and  its  care  to  the 
very  deepest  lessons  of  sex  development  and  sex-purity. 
Associated  with  this  have  been  excellent  lessons  in  the  ethics 
of  home,  of  social  intercourse,  and  of  the  dress  and  character 
of  the  ideal  girl.  The  dominant  note  of  the  work  has  been 
the  development  of  the  individual  along  simple  and  natural 
lines.  To  facilitate  this  work,  the  two  Mutual  Improvement 
local  boards  were  divided  into  committees  who  were  to  be 
placed  in  direct  charge  of  the  amusements  of  the  youth  of 

ZINA    B.    CANNON. 

380  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

this  stake.  These  ward  committees  were  under  the  super- 
vision of  a  general  committee  framed  from  the  two  stake 
boards.  The  value  of  the  intimate  relation  thus  established 
between  the  young  people  and  their  leaders  in  this  work  can 
scarcely  be  over-estimated.  The  last  Friday  of  the  month 
was  set  aside  by  the  stake  authorities  as  a  general  night  for 
all  to  mingle  in  some  form  of  general  amusement,  the  pro- 
ceeds to  be  divided  between  the  stake  auxiliary  organizations. 
The  most  unique  feature  growing  out  of  the  musical  censor- 
ship was  a  musical  contest,  which  has  obtained  during  the 
past  two  years  and  which  has  been  held  in  the  stake  taber- 
nacle. The  trophy  cup  is  the  prize  for  the  best  mixed  cho- 
rus, while  $175.00  has  been  distributed  in  various  cash  prizes 
for  musical  excellence  in  other  directions.  The  musical 
standard  of  this  stake  has  been  very  sensibly  raised  through 
these  delightful  contests. 

With  such  objects  and  such  officers  is  it  any  wonder  that 
this  stake  comes  close  to  being  the  leading  one  in  all  Israel? 

The  following  have  acted  as  officers  on  the  board:  pres- 
ident— Zina  Bennion  Cannon;  counselors — Mary  B.Hamilton, 
Anna  J.  Murphy,  Genevieve  R.  Pitt  Curtis,  Maggie  P. 
Cardall,  Elizabeth  S.  Pratt,  M.  May  Merrill  Fisher  and 
Jennie  H.  Lloyd;  secretary  and  treasurer — Emma  J.  Websttr; 
assistant  secretary— Elizabeth  Winder;  corresponding  secre- 
taries- Nell  Fowler,  Luella  Young;  aids— Agnes  M.  Merrill. 
Nellie  Spencer  Cornwall,  Leone  Home  Nowell,  Isabella  Erick- 
son,  Genevieve  R.  Pitt  (Curtis),  Louise  Mauss,  Laura 
Bennion,  Rena  Wheeler,  Elizabeth  Dickson  Miller,  Eunice 
McRae,  Letitia  Eldredge  Quist,  Mamie  Hill,  Alice  Neff, 
Leonora  Mackay,  Maggie  P.  Cardall,  Amelia  T.  Carlisle, 
M.  May  Merrill,  Alice  Richards,  Clarice  I.  Thatcher,  Annie 
C.  Kimball,  Nellie  C.  Romney,  Grace  I.  Frost,  Maud  E. 
Baggarley,  Rosabell  Hall,  Flora  D.  Home,  Margaret  T. 
Irvine,  Addie  Cannon,  Sarah  McLelland,  Jennie  H.  Lloyd, 
Minnie  Fairbanks,  Hope  Russell,  Helen  M.  Ellis;  librarian — 
Leone  H.  Nowell;  choristers — Catherine  Gabbott,  Lillie 
Shipp,  Lisle  Bradford. 


This  stake  comprises  ten  wards,  cutoff  from  the  south- 
ern portion  of  Cache  stake,  and  all  in  Cache  valley,  there- 


fore  its  history  is  not  of  a  long  period;  but,  like  others  of  the 
Cache  valley  towns,  this  stake  has  one  town  in  which  there 
was  a  pioneer  retrenchment  society. 

January  21,  1872.  Hyrum  ward  was  first  organized  as  a 
Young  Ladies'  Retrenchment  Society,  by  Bishop  O.  N.  Lil- 
jenqftst;  but  in  1876  the  name  of  the  society  was  changed  to 
the  Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  Association.  The 
society  adopted  the  following  resolutions  as  a  guide  of  con- 

Resolved,  that  we,  the  young  ladies  of  Hyrum,  will,  to 
the  best  of  our  ability,  obey  our  parents,  and  will  endeavor 
to  so  order  our  conduct  that  it  shall  meet  the  approval  of  our 
brethren  who  preside. 

Resolved ,  that  we  will  as  far  as  practicable ,  adorn  our 
persons  with  the  workmanship  of  our  own  hands,  and  en- 
courage home  manufactures  to  the  best  of  our  ability. 

Resolved,  that  in  our  dress,  we  will  be  neat  and  encour- 
age others  to  be  so;  and  by  our  example,  will  show  that,  by 
not  following  the  ridiculous  fashions  of  the  day,  we  hope  to 
bring  about  a  wholesome  reformation. 

Resolved,  that  in  our  conversation,  we  will  endeavor  to 
use  language  that  will  raise  us,  not  only  in  the  esteem  of  each 
other,  but  in  that  of  the  whole  community. 

Resolved,  that  we,  the  young  ladies  of  Hyrum,  will  en- 
deavor to  be  neat  in  our  homes,  and  assist  our  mothers  in  the 
household  duties  that  shall  fit  and  prepare  us  to  fulfill  the 
important  positions  that  lie  before  us. 

June  4,  1875,  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  Millville  ward  was 
organized  by  Brother  John  Jardine.  Beyond  this  fact  no  in- 
formation is  obtainable. 

The  stake  board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  Hyrum  stake 
was  partially  organized  in  May,  1901;  but  the  full  organiza- 
tion was  not  completed  until  August  26,  1901,  when  Anna 
May  Ralph  was  set  apart  as  president  by  Apostle  John  Hen- 
ry Smith.  The  following  sisters  were  selected  to  fill  their 
respective  positions:  Lovisa  H.  Allen  and  Rose  Liljenquist, 
counselors;  Ida  Allen,  secretary  and  treasurer;  Jennie  Thore- 
sen,  corresponding  secretary;  Harriet  Green,  organist;  and 
Lucy  Allen  and  Dora  Wright,  aids. 

The  membership  of  Hyrum  stake  in  November,  1901, 
was  476;  January  1,  1910,  it  was  515. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

In  addition  to  the  above  named,  the  following-  sisters 
have  occupied  positions  upon  the  stake  board  at  various 
times:  president— Mary  Eilertsen;  counselors  -Mary  O.  Hill, 
Louisa  Bradley,  Olive  Correy  and  Elva  Parkinson;  secre- 
taries and  treasurers — Dora 
Wright,  Birdie  Savage,  Lucy 
Allen,  Lauretta  Allen,  Lov- 
ina  A.  Rose,  Delia  Allen  and 
Elizabeth  Israelsen;  aids — 
Barbara  Nielsen, Emma  Jack- 
son, Cassia  Brenchley,  Ar- 
della  Johnson,  Lovina  A. 
Rose,  Lucy  E.  Christensen, 
Edith  J.  Israelsen,  Sarah  C. 
Mitton,  Alice  Ladle,  Grace 
King,  Minnie  Shaw;  choris- 
ters and  organists — Isabella 
Obray,  Jennie  Christiansen, 
Lillian  Fawseth,  Margery 
Olsen;  librarians — -Jennie 
Christiansen  and  Sylvia  Niel- 

For  the  summer  of  1908 
and  1909  the  conjoint  stake 
boards  of  Mutual  Improve- 
ment outlined  programs 
which  were  carried  out  con- 
jointly by  the  local  associations  on  Sunday  evenings;  the 
same  general  plan  will  be  followed  for  the  summer  of  1910. 
The  work  done  by  the  young  ladies  in  this  stake  has 
been  two-fold  in  its  character;  they  were  not  content  with  the 
mere  preparation  of  their  lessons;  but  realizing  that  the  de- 
velopment of  character  is  always  the  primary  object  of  every 
form  of  advancement  and  education,  the  officers  have  en- 
deavored to  enthuse  the  members  with  the  spirit  of  progress 
and  a  desire  to  make  an  eager  search  for  the  best  in 
literature  and  history.  The  results  are  satisfactory,  and  the 
associations  are  moving  forward  to  the  common  goal  with 
speed  tempered  with  right  ideals. 





This  stake  comprises  the  southern  portion  of  Salt  Lake 
valley.  It  was  organized  in  1900,  but  as  a  portion  of  the 
famous  old  Salt  Lake  stake  it  had  a  long-  and  interesting 
history,  some  of  its  wards  having-  had  organizations  of  the 
pioneer  society  for  young  women, — the  Retrenchment 

January  21,  1900,  the  stake 
organization  of  the  Y.  L.  M. 
I.  A.  was  effected,  with  Maria 
M.  Holt,  formerly  an  aid  on 
the  Salt  Lake  stake  board,  as 

The  following  sisters  have 
acted  on  the  stake  board: 
presidents — Maria  M .  Holt 
and  Delila  Gardner;  coun- 
selors-Marina Hansen,Delila 
Gardner,  Minnie  J.  Burgon, 
Emma  S.  Holt  and  Mabel  E. 
Nelson;  secretaries  and  treas- 
urers—Bertha Blake,  Edith 
Smith,  Emma  S.  Holt,  Ge- 
nevaGarside, Clara  F.Pearson 
and  Bertha  Wardle;  aids — 
Minnie  Burgon, Edith  Smith, 
Pearl  Mitchel,  Sebena  Lar- 
sen,  Marinda  Goff,  Lizzie 
Jensen,  Janet  Muir,  Mary 
Rasmussen ,  LeonoraHoward, 

Sophia  Gunderson,  Clara  F.  Pearson,  S.  Louisa  Gardner, 
Thora  Johnson,  Connie  M.  Garff,  Mary  G.  Westlund,  Lydia 
Otteson,  Delvora  Brady  and  Delila  Freeman. 

This  stake  was  presided  over  for  six  years  by  Maria  M. 
Holt  and  when  on  April  22,  1906,  she  was  called  to  a  higher- 
position,  that  of  first  counselor  of  the  Relief  Society  of  the 
stake,  the  girls  said  good  by  to  her  with  many  regrets  and 
much  love.  She  was  one  of  the  quiet  but  faithful  pillars  of 
the  work  among  women  in  this  Church,  and  she  trained  her 
girls  to  be,  as  she  was,  ready  at  any  minute  to  answer  to  the 
call  of  duty  or  affection.  This  stake  is  now  in  the  efficient 

MARIA    M.    HOLT. 

384  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

hands  of  Sister  Delila  Gardner,  and  the  girls  are  taking-  up 
the  new  and  improved  work  outlined  for  them  by  the  General 
Board  with  all  the  enthusiasm  which  marks  the  girls  of  all 
our  progressive  stakes. 

This  stake  is  in  excellent  condition.  They  have  an  ad- 
dition to  their  working  force  that  is  rather  unusual ,  in  the 
person  of  Elder  Niels  Lind,  as  one  of  their  aids,  who  is  also 
the  stake  clerk.  This  brother  was  introduced  to  the  stake 
officers  by  President  J.  W.  W.  Fitzgerald,  on  June  6,  1908, 
as  an  aid,  appointed  by  the  stake  presidency  to  advise  and 
counsel  with  them  on  their  work.  The  young  ladies  report 
that  great  good  has  resulted  from  the  kind  help  and  care 
offered  by  this  brother  in  his  ministrations  among  them. 
Each  stake  presents  and  endeavors  to  solve  its  own  individual 
problems,  and  thus  we  have  another  factor  for  good  intro- 
duced into  the  associations. 


This  stake  began  its  work  in  a  local  ward,  as  so  many 
others  of  the  older  stakes  did.  The  Young  Ladies'  Retrench- 
ment Society  was  organized  March  19,  1874,  at  Nephi,  by 
Amelia  Goldsbrough,  then  president  of  the  Relief  Society  of 
that  city.  Charlotte  H.  Evans  was  appointed  president; 
Alice  Evans  and  Matilda  Picton,  counselors;  Roxey  Bigler, 
secretary;  and  Lois  L.  Foote,  assistant  secretary.  The  society 
began  with  an  enrollment  of  only  six  members,  but  struggled 
bravely  for  fifteen  months — that  is, until  June  30,  1875 — when 
a  reorganization  was  effected  in  Nephi  by  Eliza  R.  Snow, 
and  the  name  of  the  society  was  changed  to  Young  Ladies' 
Mutual  Improvement  Association.  The  following  officers 
were  then  selected:  Hannah  Grover,  superintendent;  Ann 
M.  McCune,  assistant  superintendent;  Matilda  E.  Picton, 
local  president;  with  M.  A.  Parkes,  Elizabeth  E.  McCune, 
Emma  Bryan,  Mary  Udall,  Mary  Hoyt  and  Mary  E.  Harley 
as  counselors;  Roxey  L.  Blackburn,  secretary,  and  Lois  L. 
Foote,  assistant  secretary. 

For  some  time  the  meetings  were  held  in  the  north  school 
house,  semi-monthly,  on  Friday  afternoons,  until  word  was 
sent  by  Eliza  R.  Snow  that  meetings  should  convene  weekly, 
after  which  the  association  met  every  Monday.  The  exercises 
were  informal;  usually  some  one  present  read  aloud  from  the 



Woman  s  Exponent  and  other  publications,  and  occasionally 
the  members  bore  their  testimonies:  while  other  meeting's 
were  occupied  with  plain  and  fancy  sewing,  making  quilts 
and  carpets  for  the  poor,  or  in  braiding  straw  with  which  to 
make  ladies'  hats.  An  amusing-  incident  of  those  early 
struggles  is  related  of  the  first  local  meetings  in  Nephi.  For 
some  months  there  were  only  two  girls  who  put  in  an  appear- 
ance at  the  meeting's — the  president  and  her  secretary. 
But  they  two  opened  meet- 
ing1, called  the  roll,  had  a 
short  program — in  order  that 
no  break  should  be  made  in 
their  chain  of  meetings;  and 
the  secretary  in  recording 
her  minutes  always  added 
that  there  was  a  "large  and 
respectable  congregation 
present."  In  explanation 
she  said,  "the  president  was 
large,  and  I  surely  was  re- 
spectable;" so  there  was  no 
doubt  about  the  truthfulness 
of  her  statement. 

With  the  advent  of  Pres- 
ident, later  Apostle,  George 
Teasdale,  the  Mutual  Im- 
provement work  in  Juab 
stake  received  an  infusion  of 
strength,  so  much  so  that  in 
1880,  six  years  after  starting 

with  six  members,  in  the  face  of  predicted  failure  on  the  part 
of  the  people  of  little  faith,  there  were  three  associations— 
that  at  Nephi,  numbering  sixty- two  members,  with  Kate  Love 
as  its  president;  that  at  Mona,  comprising  thirty-five  mem- 
bers; and  that  at  Levan  with  twenty- two  members. 

In  1880  the  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  work  was  organized 
with  Matilda  E.  Picton  Teasdale  as  president,  which 
position  she  occupied  till  her  removal  to  Mexico,  when  a 
reorganization  became  necessary.  This  was  effected  October 
llth,  1892,  with  Elizabeth  Grace  McCune  as  president;  Addie 



386  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Cazier  and  Lottie  Rountree,  counselors;  Alice  Lin  ton,  secre- 
tary; Kate  Sorenson,  aid. 

"Lizzie"  McCtme,  as  she  was  lovingly  called,  labored  at 
the  head  of  this  stake  for  over  thirteen  years,  and  when  she 
removed  to  Ogden  she  left  many  sorrowful  hearts  behind  her. 
At  one  time  this  stake  held  the  mining  towns  of  Mammoth, 
Eureka,  Robinson,  and  Silver  City  in  its  borders.  In  all  these 
towns  there  are  thriving"  Mutual  Improvement  Associations 
organized  by  President  McCune  and  her  co-workers,  and  their 
influence  does  much  to  steady  the  girls,  supplying  proper 
ideals  and  modest  amusements  in  place  of  those  which  often 
prove  the  ruin  of  girls  in  such  places. 

April  29,  1906,  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  Juab  stake  was  re- 
organized with  Addie  Cazier  as  president;  Mary  May  Chase 
and  Delia  Kendall  as  counselors;  Bertha  McPherson, 

The  following  sisters  have  acted  on  the  stake  board  in 
the  capacities  named:  presidents — Matilda  E.  Teasdale, 
Elizabeth  G.  McCune  and  Lydia  Addie  Cazier;  counselors — 
Lydia  A.  Cazier,  Lottie  Rountree,  Helen  H.  Grace,  Etta 
Sid  well,  Letitia  T.  Teasdale,  Mary  May  Chase,  Delia  Ken- 
dall Wynders,  Margaret  J.  Paxman  and  Florence  M.  Lunt; 
secretaries  and  treasurers — Alice  Lin  ton,  Florence  M.  Lunt, 
Mary  May  Chase,  Jane  Stevenson,  Alice  Grover,  Myrtle  Big- 
ler,  Emma  Crawley,  Florence  Howell  and  Bertha  McPherson; 
aids — Kate  Sorenson,  Letitia  T.  Teasdale,  Mary  May  Chase, 
Etta  Sidwell,  Jennie  Belliston  and  Nellie  S.  Cowan;  librari- 
ans— Kate  Grover,  Louise  Chappell,  Kate  Wilson,  Mamie 
Pyper,  Ida  Potter  and  Lettie  Jenkins;  musical  director  and 
organist — Louise  Chappell. 

Changes  have  been  made  in  the  boundaries  of  the  stake 
so  that  it  now  comprises  only  four  associations,  but  the 
majority  of  the  members  are  energetic,  faithful  and  intelli- 
gent workers,  and  they  are  reaping  rich  harvests. 


When  the  "Mormon"  people  began  to  make  settlements 
in  Mexico,  it  was  as  old  pioneers,  or  the  sons  of  pioneers, 
with  the  resources  of  many  years  of  experience  in  the  diffi- 
cult art  of  making  the  desert  to  blossom  as  the  rose  that  they 
essayed  to  conquer  new  conditions  in  a  new,  old  country. 



Therefore,  with  their  own  rich  experiences  behind  them,  and 
with  the  Utah  ideals  ready  to  be  adjusted  to  any  need  or 
call,  these  Mexican  settlers  were  able  to  accomplish  more 
in  a  few  years,  in  spite  of  tremendous  difficulties,  than  their 
fathers  had  in  many  years,  under  less  favored  circumstances. 
These  pioneers  took  with  them  the  germs  of  every  organized 
force  in  Zion.  As  soon  as  a  few  crude  homes  were  planted 

in  the  Juarez  district,  schools 
and  auxiliary  associations 
were  at  once  organized.  It 
woiild  be  impossible  to  speak 
of  the  Mexican  mission  with- 
out making  reference  to  the 
devoted  labors  of  the  late 

;  Apostle  George  Teasdale,  and 

his  no  less  devoted  successor 
in  office,  Anthony  W.  Ivins. 
What  this  mission  is  today, 
is  largely  due  to  the  wise 
leadership,  far-seeing  policy 
and  tireless  activity  of  these 
men.  Though  Bro.  Ivins  has 
been  called  to  a  wider  sphere 
of  action  since  his  ordination 
as  a  member  of  the  quorum 
of  the  Apostles,  he  has  lost 
no  interest  in  his  friends  and 
associates  in  far-away  Mexico. 
The  beginning  in  the  Y. 
L.  M.  I.  A.  was  made  with  a 
local  association  in  Juarez,  with  Mrs.  Dora  Pratt  as  the  pres- 
ident. She  drew  around  her  a  corps  of  earnest  officers,  and 
they  plunged  at  once  into  active  work.  Settlements  mul- 
tiplied slowly,  for  the  country  was  far  away  from  ''home" 
and  native  land,  with  all  the  forbidding  features  of  a  semi- 
tropical  and  somewhat  sterile  country,  needing  much  labor 
and  prodigious  patience  to  plant  and  sow,  to  garner  and  reap. 
And  yet,  they  were  "Mormons;"  and  who  ever  heard  of 
"Mormons"  making  a  failure! 

In  1892,  there  were  three   settlements   in   the    Mexican 
country,  and  the  whole  were  then  gathered  into  one  head,  as 


388  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

a  mission.  Over  the  division  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  placed 
Mrs.  Matilda  E.  Teasdale,  wife  of  Apostle  George  Teasdale. 
She  chose  for  her  counselors  Fanny  C.  Harper  and  Libbie  A. 
Beck;  Sarah  Christoffersen  was  named  as  secretary,  with  Ida 
E.  Eyring  as  assistant  secretary.  These  labored  zealously 
till  the  death  of  their  beloved  president  broke  up  the  organiza- 
tion. Mrs.  Dora  Wilcken  Pratt  was  sustained  Feb.  27, 
1893,  as  her  successor.  She  chose  M.  L.  Teasdale  and  Sarah 
Christoffersen  as  her  counselors,  with  Ida  E.  Eyring  (Tur- 
ley),  as  secretary  and  treasurer,  and  Artemesia  Redd 
(Romney),  as  assistant.  Later,  Fannie  C.  Harper  and 
Nancy  E.  Durfee  became  the  counselors.  At  this  time 
the  mission  was  reorganized  as  a  stake,  and  the  same  officers 
were  chosen  to  preside  over  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  They  are 
still  in  active  service;  and  the  following  have  since  acted 
upon  the  board:  Ella  Romney,  Ella  Cardon,  Ada  Mor- 
tensen,  May  Done,  Florence  Ivins,  Lottie  Green- 
wood, Louise  Hansen,  Julia  Call,  Ella  Jones,  Pearl  Paine, aids. 
It  must  be  remembered  that  the  work  attendant  upon 
these  associations  is  exacting  and  peculiar  to  itself.  The  cost 
of  sending  two  representatives  around  the  stake  is  over  $65.00 
and  double  that  in  Mexican  money.  The  trip  takes  a  month, 
the  distance  between  the  central  point  and  the  farthest  settle- 
ment on  one  side  being  125  miles,  and  on  the  other  175.  It  is 
impossible  for  the  girls  to  make  this  trip  alone;  for  the  roads 
lie  through  dangerous  canyons,  and  the  skill  and  courage  of 
male  protectors  a/e  indispensable.  Therefore,  the  young 
men  and  young  women  put  their  dollars  and  dimes  together, 
and  make  the  circuit  once  a  year.  There  are  now 
nine  associations  to  visit,  and  most  of  them  can  be 
visited  but  yearly,  on  account  of  distance.  It  is  not  an  un- 
common thing  for  them  to  make  their  arrangements  to  visit 
a  certain  town,  during  their  quiet  season,  which  is  the  rainy 
season,  and  just  as  they  are  ready  to  start,  a  sudden  driving, 
tropical  rain  will  gorge  the  nearby  stream ,  and  passage  is  im- 
possible for  many  days.  If  the  stream  is  large,  there  is  some- 
times a  ferry  boat  kept  for  such  emergencies.  But  rain  or 
shine,  it  is  the  Church  and  Kingdom  of  God  or  nothing  to 
those  devoted  people  of  old  Mexico.  And  what  can  not  be 
done  today  will  surely  be  accomplished  tomorrow,  for  the 
thing  is  a  duty.  The  men  of  this  country  work  very 


hard,  and  are  out  in  the  fields  and  canyons  much  of  the  time; 
so  that  it  happens,  often,  that  while  the  girls  are  very  wel- 
come to  use  the  meetinghouses,  they  must  sometimes  act  as 
their  own  janitors,  and  clean  and  prepare  the  hall  before  the 
session  begins.  It  has  been  difficult  to  raise  means;  but  the 
girls  decided  upon  the  plan  of  having  each  ward  give  some 
kind  of  an  entertainment  once  each  year,  and  the  sum  thus 
raised  is  sent  to  the  stake  for  stake  expenses.  This  has  proved 
successful,  and  provides  sufficient  income. 

In  the  summer  of  1908,  some  wards  tried  holding  con- 
joint Sunday  evening  meetings.  They  were  so  successful 
that  in  1909  they  were  held  in  all  local  associations  and  will 
be  during  the  coming  summer.  For  many  years  the  girls 
have  held  weekly  afternoon  meetings  in  the  summer  at  which 
they  presented  work  specially  suited  to  local  conditions. 

With  all  its  discouragements,  this  stake  takes  its  full 
quota  of  Journals,  is  above  the  average  in  the  payment  of  the 
dime  fund,  and  altogether  it  is  an  organization  to  be  proud 
of,  both  because  of  the  things  done,  and  the  obstacles 


According  to  the  Kanab  stake  history,  the  first  stake  as- 
sociation was  conjoint  in  its  character,  and  was  presided  over 
by  William  D.  Johnson,  Jr.  This  association  was  organized 
some  time  in  1883.  Although  the  recorded  history  of  this 
movement  is  meager,  we  may  be  sure  there  were  some  ex- 
cellent times  enjoyed,  and  much  good  accomplished.  But  the 
association  was  rather  short-lived,  as  it  was  not  in  accord 
with  the  general  plan  marked  out  for  such  work.  In  Sep- 
tember, 18  84,  a  regular  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  board  was  formed, 
and  Malinda  Farnsworth  Mariger  was  made  president;  in 
June,  1886,  Christina  Nuttall  was  called  to  fill  her  place.  In 
October,  1886,  M.  Maria  Porter  succeeded  to  this  position,  with 
Katherine  Carpenter  and  Mary  A.  Stewart  as  her 
counselors.  The  experiment  in  practical  communism, 
known  among  the  Saints  as  the  United  Order,  had 
its  longest  and  best  trial  and  success  in  the  town 
of  Orderville  in  this  stake.  Here  grew  into  beauteous 
flower  most  of  the  virtues  and  blessings  promised  to  the 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Saints  who  will  enter  into  this  advanced  relation.  True,  it 
was  not  long  enough  in  existence  to  bear  much  fruit,  but  the 
blossoms  of  faith,  of  patience  and  of  true  fellowship  attained 
sufficient  growth  to  convince  all  who  took  part,  that  some 
day  there  will  be  a  delightful  life  for  those  who  travel  the 
road  heavenward. 

The  people  in  this  stake  are  situated  in  one  of  the  most 



forbidding  and  difficult  parts  of  the  state.  The  stake  covers 
miles  of  desert  country,  and  is  far  separated  from  railroads 
and  modern  improvements.  But  the  people  have  been  trained 
in  all  the  Christian  virtues,  and  the  faith  of  the  latter-day 
gospel.  The  Saints  here  have  fulfilled  the  prediction  made 
by  President  Brigham  Young  when  he  called  these  and  the 
Dixie  emigrants  to  fill  up  those  barren  wastes.  Some  one 
complained  to  him  that  the  people  could  never  raise  crops  in 
these  counties.  "Well,"  said  he,  "they  will  raise  men  and 
women."  And  such  has  been  the  case.  For  out  of  this 
small  and  struggling  stake  have  come  some  of  the  finest  men 


and  women  that  now  people  and  preside  over  the  growing 
commonwealths  of  our  surrounding-  states  and  territories. 

A  distinctive  feature  of  the  work  here  was  the  planning 
during  the  local  presidency  of  M.  Maria  Porter  in  Orderville 
of  one  meeting-  each  month  at  which  none  but  original  exercises 
were  presented.  They  consisted  of  songs, dialogues,  stories, 
and  essays.  The  idea  was  taken  up  by  some  of  the  other 
associations  and  has  done  much  to  foster  literary  work  among 
the  girls. 

M.  Maria  Porter  with  the  two  counselors  named, 
continued  faithfully  in  the  positions  to  which  they  had  been 
called,  until  September  16,  1900,  when  they  were  released  in 
order  to  have  the  presidency  reside  in  one  place. 

The  following  sisters  have  acted  upon  the  stake  board: 
presidents— Mai inda  Mariger,  Christina  Nuttall,  Mary  Maria 
Porter,  Mary  E.  Woolley,  Artemesia  Stewart,  Elsie  Chamber- 
lain, Abigail  Cox,  Josephine  Adair  and  Kezia  Esplin;  coun- 
selors— Katherine  Carpenter,  Mary  A.  Stewart,  Emma  Cut- 
ler, Wilma  Brown,  Harriet  Spencer,  Elsie  Chamberlain, 
Matilda  Baird,  Ida  Young,  Eleanor  Carroll, Mary  Chamber- 
lain, Emma  Seegmiller,  Louie  Lamb,  Lillian  Bowers  and 
Clara  Esplin;  secretaries — Ida  Young-,  Kezia  Esplin,  Kezia 
Lorene  Heaton,  Nabbie  Spencer,  Inez  Heaton;  organist — 
Pearl  Robertson;  chorister — Hester  Payne;  aids — Grace  Wool- 
ley,  Ida  Crosby. 


On  February  26th.  1904,  Liberty  stake  was  organized 
out  of  the  south-eastern  part  of  Salt  Lake  City.  The  new 
stake  included  that  part  of  the  city  east  of  Main  street 
between  Third  South  on  the  north  and  Tenth  South  on  the 
south,  with  the  following  eight  wards;  First,  Second,  Third, 
Eighth,  Ninth,  Tenth,  Thirty-first  and  Thirty-third.  It  re- 
ceived its  name  Liberty  on  account  of  Liberty  Park  being 
located  within  its  boundaries. 

The  first  stake  conference  was  held  March  20th,  1904. 
At  that  time  Lottie  Paul  Baxter,  Margaret  McKeever  (Can- 
non) and  Emily  H.  Higgs  were  sustained  as  the  presidency 
of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  and  the  following  sisters  were  added  as 
the  work  grew  and  required  their  help:  Myrtle  Cartwright 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

(Murdock),  secretary  and  treasurer;  Ella  McAllister  Ipson, 
assistant;  aids — Mary  E.  Irvine,  Anna  B.  Iverson,  Laura  L. 
Tanner,  Rena  B.  Maycock,  Villette  Eardley,  Edith  Woolley, 
Hilda  Standing",  Iretta  Woolley,  Gertrude  M.  Howard,  Ellen 
Shepherd,  Mae  Mortensen,  Ella  McAllister,  May  Cannon, 
Edna  Ridges,  Rose  J.  Badger,  Rosabella  Ashton  and  Louise 
Ashton;  chorister — Iretta  Woolley  Jackson. 

The  great  majority  of  the  people  of  Liberty  stake  belong- 
to  the  middle  class.  There  are  no  very  rich  and  no  very 
poor  among-  them.  Many  newly  married  people  settle  there, 
for  the  location  is  good  and  property  is  less  expensive  than 
in  some  other  parts  of  the  city.  The  majority  of  the  people 
own  and  live  in  their  own  comfortable,  attractive  homes.  It 
is  a  part  of  the  city  that  builds  up  rapidly  and  two  new  wards 
have  since  been  added:  Liberty,  adjoining  Liberty  Park  on 
the  west,  and  Emigration,  extending  east  from  Ninth  East 
and  including  Emigration  Canyon.  This  canyon  has  re- 
cently been  made  very  invit- 
ing, by  the  completion  of  an 
electric  car  line,  which  ex- 
tends through  the  same  and 
carries  many  of  the  people, 
with  their  families,  to  cool, 
refreshing,  resting  places 
during  the  hot  summer 

The  Y.  M.  andY.L.M.I. 
officers  appreciate  their  la- 
bors among  the  people.  Both 
Senior  and  Junior  classes 
are  large  and  many  mothers 
attend  the  associations  with 
their  growing  daughters. 
The  stake  board  begin  their 
work  five  weeks  before  the 
associations  open.  Each  of 
the  wards  holds  a  separate 
meeting  with  the  stake  offi- 
cers during  this  time.  This 
gives  a  chance  to  become  well 
acquainted  with  each  other  and  the  work.  Plans  for  the  com- 




ing  year  are  talked  over.  The  ward  officers  express  themselves 
as  to  their  feelings,  desires  and  expectations  for  the  coming 
year,  and  one  enthuses  the  other.  Where  possible,  the  bishop 
meets  with  the  girls  and  he  and  the  stake  officers  do  all  in 
their  power  to  encourage  and  bless  the  local  officers.  If  or- 
ganizations are  not  complete,  the  local  board  is  filled  up. 

Just  prior  to  the  fall  convention  the  stake  Y.  M.  and  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.  officers  give,  conjointly,  a  reception  to  all  the  local 
officers,  bishops  and  their  counselors,  stake  presidency, 
members  of  the  high  council  and  their  wives.  Light  re- 


EMILY    H.    HIGGS. 

freshments  are  served;  each  ward  furnishes  one  number  on 
the  program  and  a  social  time  is  enjoyed,  permitting  wide 
acquaintance  and  united  feelings  to  spring  up  as  the  result 
of  these  parties. 

During  the  nine  winter  months  of  lesson  work,  monthly 
meetings  are  held,  with  both  the  stake  Y.  M.  and  Y.  L.  M. 
LA.  officers,  where  conjoint  stake  business  is  attended  to; 
another  is  held  with  the  local  officers,  where  lessons  are 

394  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

studied,  lectures  are  given  or  testimony  meeting"  is  held.  The 
officers  of  this  stake  have  never  felt  justified  in  giving-  up 
stake  testimony  meeting,  for  these  meeting's  are  among  their 

The  stake  Y.  M.  and  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  officers  work  unit- 
edly together  with  g-ood  results.  They  believe  in  our  motto 
"Mutual  Improvement,"  and  as  early  as  January  are  plan- 
ning summer  work  for  the  boys  and  girls. 


The  Malad  stake  was  formed  from  portions  of  the  Oneida 
and  Box  Elder  stakes.  On  June  15th,  1888,  a  stake  board 


of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. was  organized  with  Elvira  A.  Harrison 
as  president,  Mary  Jane  Evans  and  Margaret  Clarkson  as 
counselors;  Catherine  Jones  Palmer  as  secretary.  There 
were  only  five  ward  Mutuals  at  that  time,  but  the  girls  went 
to  work  with  that  vigor  and  devotion  which  have  always  char- 
acterized the  young  women  of  this  Church. 


Previous  to  the  issuance  of  Guides,  the  girls  of  this  stake 
did  their  work  along  the  same  lines  as  other  stakes  had  done: 
programs  were  arranged  according  to  local  conditions,  with 
desultory  committees  in  charge,  and  a  general  miscellaneous 
program.  But  there  was  a  divine  peace  and  harmony  per- 
vading their  meetings  which  compensated  them  for  all  loss  of 
modern  cut-and-dried  outlines.  However,  the  Guide  work 
was  adopted  with  enthusiasm  when  it  came  and  has  proved 
a  real  help  to  these  outlying  wards.  With  the  officers  two 
special  lines  of  work  have  been  emphasized:  first,  the  girls 
must  be  ready  with  their  lessons,  and  second,  officers  must 
attend  to  the  duties  of  their  calling.  Especial  stress  has 
been  laid  on  Journal  subscriptions,  and  this  stake  is  very 
prompt  in  its  support  of  this  periodical.  Another  most  com- 
mendable feature  is  the  fact  that  the  records  and  minutes  of 
the  stake  and  the  wards  are  all  in  excellent  condition  and 
have  been  from  its  first  organization.  The  traveling  library 
has  been  a  boon  to  the  girls,  and  the  boxes  are  kept  con- 
stantly on  the  move. 

One  feature  of  their  past  and  present  condition  is  of 
vital  worth  to  them,  as  it  is  to  all  others  who  would  prosper 
in  this  Church:  the  boards  of  the  two  Mutuals  are  in  perfect 
harmony  with  each  other  and  with  the  presiding  priesthood. 
This  splendid  condition,  more  than  any  other,  has  given  to 
these  girls  in  this  somewhat  isolated  stake  a  congeniality  and 
comradeship  which  is  bred  of  such  heavenly  associations. 

Few  changes  have  been  made  in  the  stake  presidency  of 
Malad  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  Sister  Elvira  A.  Harrison  has  acted  as 
president  from  the  beginning.  In  addition  to  the  ones  al- 
ready mentioned  the  following  have  assisted  her:  counselors 
— Elizabeth  A.  Hughes,  Josephine  Deschamps  Jones,  Annie 
E.  Thomas  and  Mary  Bolingbroke;  as  secretaries — Margaret 
Jones,  Ella  Colton;  treasurers — Hettie  M.  Lusk,  Mary  E. 
Bolingbroke;  librarian  —  Mary  Ellen  Evans;  organist — 
Margaret  Morgan  Parry;  choristers — Jennie  Morgan  Evans, 
Marian  Monson  Talbot;  aids — Mary  Ellen  Evans,  Elizabeth 
C.  Davis,  Nellie  Morgan  Stocking,  Mary  E.  Morris,  Eliza- 
beth Thomas,  Elizabeth  Wight  Edwards,  Elsie  Merrill, 
Emma  Martin,  Nellie  Morgan,  Victoria  Davis,  and  Margaret 
Morgan  Parry. 

396  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  i.  A. 


The  Maricopa  stake  of  Zion,  located  in  the  central  por- 
tion of  the  southern  part  of  Arizona,  in  the  heart  of  the  Salt 
river  valley,  is  on  the  south  side  of  Salt  river,  a  torrential 
stream,  whose  waters,  together  with  those  of  the  Verdi  river, 
are  impounded,  60  miles  east  of  Mesa,  by  the  great  Roose- 
velt Dam,  making  one  of  the  largest  artificial  lakes  or  reser- 
voirs in  the  world. 

Before  the  reservoir  was  constructed  the  Salt  river  was 
a  dangerous  stream, at  times  doing  damage  to  railroad  bridges 
and  threatening  the  neighboring  towns  of  Lehi,  Tempe 
and  Phoenix.  The  town  of  Mesa,  however,  is  outside  of 
this  danger  zone,  being  located  on  a  mesa  overlooking  the 
natural  water  course  of  the  valley. 

The  " Mormon"  people  first  settled  in  what  is  now 
known  as  the  Lehi  ward.  In  1877,  "Uncle"  Henry  Rogers, 
famous  as  an  Indian  missionary  and  pioneer,  was  called  by 
President  Brigham  Young,  in  company  with  Daniel  W. 
Jones,  to  establish  an  Indian  mission  there.  It  is  said  Uncle 
Henry  Rogers,  before  leaving  Salt  Lake  City,  saw  in  vision 
the  identical  place  where  this  mission  was  to  be  established, 
and  when  the  little  travel- stained  company  reached  the 
banks  of  Salt  river,  he  recognized  the  exact  spot.  The  follow- 
ing year  a  larger  company  from  Idaho  and  Utah  reached  the 
valley,  located  the  present  town  of  Mesa,  and  built  the  Mesa 
canal.  Much  of  the  way  the  new  canal  runs  through  an  old 
channel ,  used  centuries  ago  by  the  Nephites  or  their  descend- 
ants, while  the  numerous  prehistoric  ruins  in  the  neighbor- 
hood have  furnished  many  relics  of  pottery,  stone  axes,  etc., 
which  indicate  a  very  ancient  origin. 

To  the  visitor  of  today  who  sees  this  favored  valley, 
filled  with  fenced  farms,  orange  groves,  olive  trees,  orchards 
of  luscious  fruit,  fields  of  grain  and  alfalfa,  as  well  as  ostrich 
farms,  waterways  and  handsome  public  and  private  build- 
ings, it  seems  almost  incredible  that  only  30  years  ago  this 
was  considered  a  forsaken  and  impossible  part  of  the  land  of 

The  four  principal  wards  of  the  Maricopa  stake  are  lo- 
cated close  together,  making  it  convenient  for  the  officers  to 
visit  them;  they  are  Mesa,  Alma,  Lehi,  and  Papago,  while 
the  Pine  ward  is  located  about  100  miles  under  the  rim  of  the 


Mogollon  mountains.  On  account  of  the  distance  and  diffi- 
culty of  reaching  the  latter  ward,  it  gets  but  one  visit  a  year, 
usually  in  the  summer  time,  when  ward  conferences  are 
held  of  all  of  the  auxiliary  organizations.  In  each  of 
these  wards  except  Papago,  there  is  a  thriving  Y.  L.  M.  I. 

The  Papago,  or  Indian  ward,  is  a  most  interesting  fea- 
ture of  this  stake.  It  is  presided  over  by  Bishop  Isaac  H. 
Rogers,  a  son  of  the  Arizona  pioneer,  who  is 
devoted  to  his  work  among  the  dusky  brethren,  who  number 
some  250  souls.  He  is  assisted  in  the  bishopric  by  two  of  the 
Lamanites,  Valensuela,  and  Juan  Baptiste.  The  former  was 
his  father's  companion  in  most  of  his  missionary  labors 
among  the  Pima,  Maricopa  and  Papago  Indians,  and  assist- 
ed in  baptizing  most  of  them  into  the  fold  of  Christ.  The 
latter  was  educated  at  the  Indian  school  at  Phoenix.  Prac- 
tically all  of  the  younger  people  of  this  ward  are  being  edu- 
cated at  this  Indian  school,  a  number  of  Valensuela 's  chil- 
dren holding  positions  there  after  their  graduation.  One  of 
his  daughters,  Catherine  Luni,  attended  the  B.  Y.  Academy 
at  Provo,  and  has  a  fine  voice,  which  she  used  to  distinct  ad- 
vantage at  the  World's  Fair  in  1904,  also  singing  in  New 
York  churches  following  the  Fair. 

There  have  been  many  changes  in  the  officers  of  the 
stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  and  all  have  labored  with  their  might, 
each  doing  her  full  share  in  bringing  the  organization  to  its 
present  standard  of  usefulness. 

The  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  the  Maricopa  stake  was  ef- 
fected soon  after  the  stake  was  organized  in  1878.  Addie 
Passey  became  president,  with  Emily  Pomeroy  and  Mary 
Jane  Spilsbury  as  counselors,  and  Emeline  Kimball  as  sec- 
retary. These  counselors  were  later  succeeded  by  Susie 
Wilcox  and  Sarah  B.  McDonald,  and  the  secretary  by  Leah 
M.  Peterson,  with  Emma^Ellsworth  as  assistant. 

In  June,  1894,  a  reorganization  took  place,  Ann  E.Leav- 
itt  becoming  president,  with  Jeanette  H.  Johnson  and  Lula 
C.  McDonald,  counselors;  Barbara  Phelps,  secretary,  and 
Amy  Robson,  assistant.  Later  Mary  L.  Hibbert  was  chosen 
assistant  secretary. 

Four  years  later  President  Leavitt  was  released,  and 
Jeanette  H.  Johnson  succeeded  her, with  Arthusa  Johnson  and 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Lula  C.  McDonald  as  counselors.  During-  President  John- 
son's time  the  traveling- library  was  established  and  conduct- 
ed successfully.  It  has  of  late  years  been  somewhat  super- 
seded by  the  local  libraries ,  which  have  grown  materially. 

After  three  years  Mary  L.  Hibbert  became  president, 
retaining-  the  same  counselors,  until  the  removal  of  Counse- 
lor Johnson  to  Canada,  when  Sister  McDonald  became  first 
, ,  counselor  and  Lavern  Rog- 
ers second  counselor.  During 
her  administration,  President 
Hibbert  called  to  her  assist- 
ance eight  aids;  they  were: 
Addie  S.  Johnson,  Luella 
Davis,  Clara  Allen,  Emma 
Hakes,  Fanna  A.  Dana,  Lou- 
isa H.  Rog-ers,  Tena  Mets, 
and  Rose  Lewis.  In  1900 
Mag-gie  Hawkins  became  an 
aid  and  Mrs.  Dana  succeeded 
Counselor  Rog-ers.  During 
the  time  of  the  two  last  men- 
tioned presidents,  Barbara 
Phelps  Allen  and  Belle  Pom- 
eroy  acted  as  secretary  and 
assistant  secretary  respec- 

In  September,  1905,  the 
board  was  reorganized  with 
Fanna  A.  Dana,  president: 
Etta  Pomeroy  and  Addie  S. 
Johnson,  counselors;  Barbara  P.  Allen,  secretary:  Effie 
Phelps,  assistant  secretary  and  treasurer;  Mary  Clark,  Mary 
Pomeroy,  Pearl  Allen,  Amy  LeBaron,  Lillian  Millett  and 
Inez  Earl,  aids.  Since  that  time  the  following  have  occu- 
pied positions  on  the  board:  Deborah  Allen,  Maggie  Haw- 
kins, Amy  LeBaron,  Mamie  Clark,  Eliza  Openshaw,  coun- 
selors; Ellice  Brizzie,  Leah  Peterson,  secretaries;  Emma  Rol- 
lins, treasurer;  Annie  Lesueur,  organist;  Janey  Standage, 
Ruth  Holdren,  Geneva  Lesueur,  aids. 

Great  credit  is  due  the  present  incumbent,  Sister  Fanna 
Dana,  for  the  very  efficient  work  now  being~done  by  this  or- 




ganization.  Building  on  the  experiences  of  the  past,  the 
summer  work  as  well  as  "Field  Day"  festivity  have  been 
inaugurated  under  her  presidency.  For  the  past  two  sum- 
mers the  M.  I.  Associations  of  the  stake  were  given  Sunday 
evenings  for  their  meetings.  They  lighted  the  tabernacle 
ground^  by  electricity,  provided  comfortable  seats  and  dec- 
orations, and  planned  summer  programs,  with  the  view  of 
inculcating  the  best  ideals  in  literature  and  art,  as  well 

as  of  questions  in  which  both 

^^^|  old  and  young  would   be   in- 

terested, thus  making  the 
summer  season's  work  no  less 
pleasant  and  profitable  than 
the  winter's; this  plan  brought 
the  attendance  up  to  between 
400  and  500. 

•««  ^v-  While  much  of  the  win- 

j^Jm  ter's  work  as  well  as  the  sum- 

,~-*3  mer's     is      done     conjointly 

by   the  Y.   M.  and  the  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.,  yet  the  finances  are 
^|^^^          maintained  separately.     Ow- 
^fe     ing  to  the  great  distance   to 

M          m   ~^|PJ  m      Salt  Lake  City,  the  Y.  L.    M. 

^13  I.  A.  have  quite  a  large  sum 

to  raise  to  send  their  delegate 
to  the  June  conference;  but 
by  instituting  bazaars, socials, 
parlor  and  other  public  func- 
tions, to  raise  the  means, 
they  never  fail  to  be  repre- 
sented at  these  important  and  necessary  conventions. 

FANNA    A.    DANA. 


Millard  stake  embraces  a  large  desert  area.  Only  two 
towns  in  the  western  portion  of  it  are  touched  by  the  rail- 
road; the  others  lie  across  the  desert  at  distances  varying 
from  five  to  fifty  miles.  On  account  of  these  long  distances, 
and  the  difficulty  of  traveling  through  the  fine  sand  in  fair 
weather  and  the  soft  mud  in  wet  weather,  the  local  officers 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

have  been  under  the  necessity  of  depending  much  upon  their 
own  efforts  and  the  help  given  them  through  the  Journal.  Many 
capable  women  have  been  at  the  head  of  the  ward  associa- 
tions, however,  and  the  local  work  done  has  been  of  a  high 
grade.  The  stake  officers  have  been  beloved  by  the  girls 
and  their  visits  have  been  a  source  of  inspiration,  even  though 
circumstances  prevented  their  giving  much  assistance  to  the 
local  officers  in  the  detail  work.  .  In  1903  an  effort  was  made 
to  establish  monthly  officers' 
meetings,  at  the  same  time 
and  place  as  the  meetings  of 
the  stake  priesthood,  thus 
enabling  the  girls  to  travel 
the  long  distances  with  their 
fathers  and  brothers.  The 
meeting  would  be  held  one 
month  on  the  east  side  of  the 
stake  and  the  next  on  the 
west  side;  the  girls  in  either 
side  being  expected  to  attend 
the  meeting  when  held  in 
that  division.  The  stake  was 
also  districted  and  aids  chosen 
from  each  district,  who  were 
given  care  of  that  particular 
section.  The  members  of  the 
stake  board  were  expected  to 
attend  every  monthly  meet- 
ing. The  stake  officers  have 
made  it  a  rule  to  visit  the 
eleven  ward  associations  at 
least  once  a  year,  usually  immediately  before  the  general 
Mutual  Improvement  Association  June  conference.  Such  a 
trip  requires  something  over  two  weeks  of  constant  traveling 
and  covers  a  distance  of  186  miles  through  fine  sand. 

The  stake  board  of  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  organized  in 
August,  1883,  with  Isabella  E.  Robison,  president;  Lizzie 
Henry  and  E.  J.  Bennett,  counselors;  Carrie  Henry,  sec- 
retary. Later  Annie  Stringham  was  chosen  to  fill  the  po- 
sition of  Sister  Bennett  who  had  moved  away. 

In  August,  1888,  Susannah  T.  Robison  succeeded  to  the 



presidency.  At  various  times  the  following  assisted  her: 
counselors — Susan  Lyman,  Mary  Harmon,  Mary  M.  Badger. 
Ella  Bishop,  Albertina  Fisher;  secretaries — Angfie  Hinckley, 
Nora  Bishop,  Anna  Stephenson. 

The  new  stake  board,  organized  September  19,  1909, 
consists  of :  president — Maggie  M.  Hatch;  counselors — Alber- 
tina Fisher,  Rose  V.  Jensen;  secretary  and  treasurer — Addie 
E.  Hansen;  aids— Lois  Robinson,  Lula  Johnson,  Elizabeth 
Stewart,  Alice  Rappleye. 

For  summer  work  of  1910  this  stake  plans  to  use  the 
Granite  stake  outlines,  finding  them  exactly  suited  to  its 

Millard  stake  has  labored  under  great  difficulties,  but  it 
is  coming  forward  by  "leaps  and  bounds."  Its  resources  are 
being  conserved,  reservoirs  are  being  built,  and  it  is  claimed 
that  it  will  yet  become  the  granary  of  Utah. 


High  up  in  the  mountains,  Weber  canyon  widens  out 
into  a  beautiful  valley  about  one  and  a  half  miles  wide  and 
ten  miles  long.  It  is  a  most  fertile  section,  filled  with  well- 
cultivated  farms  and  orchards  which  surprise  and  delight  the 
traveler  on  the  Union  Pacific  train  who  has  been  absorbed 
in  the  grandeur  of  the  mountains.  This  valley  makes  up  the 
Morgan  stake.  In  the  early  days  of  Mutual  Improvement, 
in  fact  before  Mutual  Improvement  history  proper  began, 
Eliza  R.  Snow  visited  some  of  these  towns  and  organized 
branches  of  the  Retrenchment  association .  Morgan  was  the 
first  organized,  this  occurring  in  the  spring  of  1876;  later,  in 
1878,  another  branch  in  the  same  town  was  organized. 

The  first  organization  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  this  stake 
was  effected  August  18,  1878,  and  had  for  its  president 
Sarah  A.  Rawle.  She  had  no  counselors.  Her  resignation, 
on  account  of  ill  health,  took  place  on  October  25,  1879,  when 
Sister  Mary  Jane  Toomer  was  appointed  president,  with  Jane 
Crouch  and  Priscilla  Tucker  as  counselors,  and  Flora  Rawle 
as  secretary.  These  appointments  were  made  at  a  conference, 
Sister  Eliza  R.  Snow  being  present. 

August  3rd,  1884,  Sister  Toomer  resigned,  and  her  suc- 
cessor was  Susannah  Catherine  Heiner,  the  third  president 
of  the  association.  Her  counselors  were  Mary  L.  Welch  and 



HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Elizabeth  Turner.     Flora  R.  Rich  was  secretary  and  Nettie 
Hogg  assistant  secretary. 

At  a  conference  held  August  6,  1893,  Sister  Heiner  was 
honorably  released.  Her  successor  was  Mary  L.  Welch,  with 
Emma  White  and  Mary  A.  Eddington  as  counselors;  Nettie 
H.  Durrant,  secretary;  Emma  W.  Clark,  assistant  secretary; 
Martha  Jane  Welch,  treasurer;  and  Elizabeth  Turner, Hannah 
Grover  and  Jessie  Tag-gart,  aids. 

On  December  16,  1900,  Sarah  L.  Eddington  was  appoint- 
ed president  of  the  Morg-an  stake  organization;  Emma 
White  and  Evelyn  Harding,  counselors;  Nettie  Durrant,  sec- 
retary; Annie  Wells,  corresponding"  secretary;  Lizzie  Camp- 
bell, treasurer  and  librarian;  and  Mary  Turner,  Inez  Grover 
Toone,  Esther  Stewart,  Jennie  Rich,  and  Adria  R.  Porter, 

In  1902,  Nettie  Durrant  was  made  first  counselor,  and 
Annie  Wells  was  selected  as  secretary.  In  two  years  another 
complete  change  was  made  in  the  board,  because  of  the 
removal  of  Sister  Eddington  to  Idaho.  July  10th,  1905, 


Nettie  Durrant  was  set  apart  as  president,  with  Mary  Ann 
Eddington  and  Eva  Robison  as  counselors;  Sylvia  Compton, 
secretary;  Elizabeth  Campbell,  treasurer  and  librarian;  Fan- 
nie Croft  and  Fannie  Francis,  aids. 

Another  complete  change  was  made  June  7th,  1908,  with 
the  following-  officers:  president — Annie  S.  Dickson;  coun- 
selors— Fannie  Croft  and  Selma  Francis;  secretary — Lillie 
Clark;  treasurer  and  librarian — Elizabeth  Campbell;  aids — 
May  Porter,  Nettie  Durrant,  Rosetta  Grover,  Maggie  Porter, 
Hahna  Francis,  Vera  Meacham,  Sarah  Giles,  Bertha  Rich 
and  Lovina  Stewart. 

It  may  be  said  with  truth  that  each  officer  and  set  of 
officers  in  this  stake  has  labored  faithfully  and  lovingly  for 
the  cause  of  Mutual  Improvement.  There  is  a  very  united 
spirit  among  the  girls,  therefore  their  work  is  indeed  a  labor 
of  love. 

There  are  six  local  associations  in  the  stake.  The  mem- 
bership during  the  year  1883  was  226,  but  it  fell  until,  at  the 
close  of  1909,  the  number  reached  only  175.  The  principal 
reason  for  this  falling  off  is  probably  that  as  the  young  people 
grew  up  they  felt  that  there  was  not  room  for  them;  accord- 
ingly they  moved  into  new  country  where  they  could  take  up 
farms  and  have  room  to  grow.  Many  portions  of  Idaho  and 
Wyoming  were  settled  by  these  sturdy,  industrious  youths 
and  maidens,  and  some  of  the  best  workers  in  the  Mutual 
Improvement  Associations  of  those  states  had  their  early 
training  in  Morgan  stake. 


The  Nebo  stake  was  a  part  of  Utah  stake  until  the  year 
1901,  when  the  towns  of  Payson,  Spanish  Fork,  Goshen  and 
Santaquin,  with  small  outlying  wards,  were  formed  into  the 
new  stake.  Most  of  these  towns  are  beautifully  situated, 
with  magnificent  scenery,  plenty  of  good  water  and  excel- 
lent soil  facilities.  Many  of  the  girls  living  in  these  Utah 
county  towns  have  been  able  to  get  more  or  less  of  the  inspir- 
ational training  given  at  the  Brigham  Young  University  in 
Provo.  This  of  itself  is  sufficient  guarantee  of  the  class  of 
mental  and  spiritual  work  done  by  these  favored  young  wom- 
en; and  they  have  taken  advantage  of  most  of  their  oppor- 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

The  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of  the  Nebo  stake  was  partially  or- 
ganized on  January  20,  1901,  at  a  conference  held  at  the 
tabernacle  in  Payson,  simultaneously  with  the  organization 
of  that  stake  of  Zion.  Anna  Nebeker  was  then  set  apart  as 
the  president  of  the  board;  but  the  full  organization  was  not 
completed  until  February  17,  1901,  when  Lillie  M.  Fairbanks 
and  Emma  Page  were  chosen  as  counselors;  Ann  Loveless 
as  recording  secretary;  Ida  Hinkley  as  corresponding  secre- 
tary; and  Erdine  Cushing  as  treasurer.  The  officers  held 

regular  meetings  on  the  last 
Thursday  of  each  month; 
and  the  stake  and  local  offi- 

^•j     B^  cers'  meetings  were  convened 

the    first   Saturday  of   every 

M  K  month.     In  March,  1901,  the 

stake   comprised  fourteen  lo- 

'  cal    associations   with   about 

624  members,  94  of  whom 
were  officers.  Two  visits 
were  made  to  most  of  the 
associations  during  the  year 
1901.  At  these  visits  the  of- 
ficers received  much  joy  in 
mingling  with  those  whom 
to  know  is  to  love.  The  les- 
son that  some  have  learned, 
in  their  association  work,  is 
that  to  give  the  best  they  have 
to  the  work  will  bring  the 
best  back  to  them.  September 
16,  1906,  a  reorganization 
was  effected  with  Lillie  M.  Fairbanks  as  president. 

In  addition  to  the  ones  already  named,  the  following  sis- 
ters have  acted  on  the  stake  board:  counselors,  Mary  J.  Dixon 
Hickman,  Ann  J.  Loveless,  Clara  Barnett  Bean,  Clarissa 
Wimmer  Huish;  secretaries  and  treasurers — Jennie  Dixon, 
Lydia  Schramm,  Clarissa  Wimmer,  Harriet  V.  Jones,  Ev- 
elyn J.  Hawkins,  Anna  Tanner;  aids  —  Elizabeth  Gardner, 
Sarah  Jane  Brockbank,  Mary  E.  Ercanbrack,  Alice  Price 
Poulson,  Kate  Okelberry,  Nettie  Lewis,  Elizabeth  A.  Adams, 
Lydia  Soeffner,  Anna  Tanner,  Lucy  E.  M.  Dixon,  Ev- 



elyn  J.  Hawkins,  Lelia  Moore;  chorister — Grace  Brockbank; 
organist — Martha  H.  Douglas. 

The  traveling-  library  was  established  in  1903,  with  59 
volumes,  and  frequent  additions  have 
since  been  made.  The  two  mining  towns 
of  Mammoth  and  Eureka  were  added 
to  this  stake  in  1905.  There  are  some 
excellent  girls  living  in  these  far-away 
mining  towns  situated  in  the  tops  of  our 
mountains,  and  there  is  a  good  spirit 
manifested  in  their  work  and  associa- 
tion together. 

It    is  the  aim   of   the    stake  board 
ULLIE  M.  FAIRBANKS,    members  to  visit  some  ward  association 
each  week  when   convenient;   and  once 

a  year  the  board,  as  a  body,  visits  each  ward  and 
holds  a  special  meeting,  in  the  nature  of  a  ward  conference 
of  M.  I.  A.  work.  This  was  begun  in  1903,  and  the  meet- 
ings have  proved  very  effectual  and  inspiring. 


When,  in  1908,  it  was  deemed  advisable  to  separate  the 
populous  Weber  stake  into  three  portions,  calling  one  the 
North  Weber,  one  the  Ogden,  and  one  the  Weber  stake,  there 
was  given  an  opportunity  for  many  new  people  to  act  in 
public  positions,  which  meant  that  many  able  but  hitherto 
quiescent  individuals  were  to  be  set  in  places  where  respon- 
sibility would  develop  the  best  that  was  in  them.  So  it  was, 
in  a  measure,  with  Ogden  stake.  However,  the  former  pres- 
ident of  all  Weber  stake  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  Jennette  McKay 
Morrell,  was  chosen  to  fill  the  position  of  president  for  this 
new  division.  She  chose  Helen  Maycock  and  Florence  Gwil- 
liam  as  her  counselors.  These  three  met  and  selected  their 
associate  workers,  and  within  a  few  months  the  board  stood 
as  follows:  secretary  and  treasurer — Pearl  Cragun;  librarian — 
Etta  G.  Shupe;  assistant  librarian — Mary  Petterson;  chorister 
— Marian  Johnson;  organist — Weltha  Belnap;  senior  class 
leaders — Pearl  Jones  and  Maud  West;  junior  class  leaders — 
Lydia'Dye  and  Anna  Olsen;  preliminary  program  committee 
—Eva  Farr  and  Josephine  Seaman.  The  six  last  mentioned 

406  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

were  also  aids,  to  whom  was  assigned  the  special  work 
named.  The  work  of  the  counselors  was  divided  into  two 
sections;  one,  with  the  class  leaders,  being"  given  special 
charge  of  all  the  class  work  in  the  stake,  and  the  other,  with 

the  board  members 
appointed  to  each 
particular  division  , 
having:  supervision 
over  all  the  other 
work,  such  as  pre- 
liminary programs 
and  music.  This 
arrangement  ,  leav- 
ing the  president 
free  to  supervise 
the  entire  work, 
has  proved  very 

Ever  since  the 
organization  of  the 
stake  it  has  been 
the  practice  of  the 
stake  presidency 
and  the  high  coun- 
cil to  meet  with  the 
stake  boards  of  the 
various  auxiliary 
associations  on 
Tuesday  evening  of 
each  week.  About 
thirty  minutes  are 
taken  up  in  musical 
,  exercises,  prayer, 


ness  pertaining  to  the  stake  as  a  whole,  after  which  the 
different  boards  adjourn  to  their  departments  for  their 
own  work.  The  young  ladies  appreciate  the  interest  and 
support  extended  to  them  by  the  stake  authorities,  making 
particular  mention  of  the  assistance  rendered  by  two  of  the 
brethren  who  are  specially  appointed  to  aid  them.  Imme- 
diately before  this  meeting  (at  6:45  p.  m.,)  the  presidency  of 



each  auxiliary  association  or  quorum  meets  and  takes  up 
the  time  till  7:30  p.m.  in  preparing-  the  work  for  the  evening: 
and  talking-  over  details  pertaining-  to  their  work.  The  offi- 
cers in  the  local  associations  carry  on  their  work  in  a  similar 

It  is  the  custom  for  the  stake  and  local  officers  of  the  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.,  as  well  as  those  of  the  other  auxiliary  officers,  to 
meet  at  the  same  time  as  the  priesthood,  once  a  month.  All 
meet  in  a  general  assembly 
for  opening-  exercises,  aft- 
erward adjourning  to  their 
different  rooms  to  consider 
in  detail  the  work  of  their 
various  quorums  and  as- 
sociations. At  this  meet- 
ing: every  local  Y.  L.  M.  I. 
A.  is  expected  to  be  repre- 
sented, and  all  have  taken 
a  pride  in  making  their  rec- 
ord attendance  very  hig-h. 

At  the  present  time  there 
are  but  nine  associations, 
one  ( Middleton )  having 
been  discontinued  on  ac- 
count of  there  being-  very 
few  members;  four  of  the 
local  associations  are  in 
Ogden  city.  All  of  the 
associations  are  in  good 
working  order.  The  re- 
port for  December  31st, 
1909,  shows  375  regular  members,  in  addition  to  the  12  stake 
board  members.  It  shows  also  that  the  local  associations 
have  been  visited  by  two  or  more  members  of  the  stake  board 
215  times  during-  the  year,  making  something  over  an  averag-e 
of  four  associations  visited  each  week. 

At  one  of  the  weekly  meetings  held  with  the  general 
stake  officers,  on  April  13th,  1909,  President  Jennette  M. 
Morrell  was  released  from  her  intelligent  and  hig:hly  appre- 
ciated labors,  and  Helen  Maycock  was  sustained  to  succeed 
her.  Sister  Maycock  chose  Florence  Gwilliam  and  Pearl 


408  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Jones  as  her  counselors,  the  other  officers  remaining  the  same, 
except  that  from  time  to  time  the  work  has  been  re-assigned  to 
the  various  workers  as  some  have  been  necessarily  released. 
Since  the  date  mentioned,  Pearl  Cragun  was  released  as  sec 
retary  and  was  succeeded  by  Florence  Montgomery;  Sister 
Cragun  was  retained  as  an  aid  and  Josephine  Munk  and  Let- 
tie  Taylor  were  added.  Quite  recently  Marian  Johnson 
became  second  counselor,  Miss  Gwilliam  having  left  the  stake. 

As  might  be  expected,  the  class  of  work  done  in  this 
stake  has  been  of  the  most  up-to-date  kind,  and  the  subjects 
used  in  their  summer  courses  prove  their  alertness  to  exist- 
ing conditions  and  their  quickness  of  mental  assimilation. 
The  Weber  and  the  Ogden  stake  boards  of  both  wings  of  the 
Mutuals  combined  in  this  summer  course  for  1909.  Their 
plans  were  adapted  to  the  use  of  Stoddard's  Lectures,  as 
much  as  possible,  and  the  lectures  included  talks  on  "Pic- 
turesque Japan,"  under  the  sub-divisions  of  "Natural  and 
Artificial  Beauty — Water- Life  Festivals" — with  "Glimpses  of 
Unfamiliar  Japan"  by  Lafcadio  Hearn.  Homer's  Odyssey 
was  associated  with  Gayley's  Classic  Myths.  Norway  was 
studied  in  its  relation  to  its  fisheries — winter  sports — and 
as  the  "Land  of  the  Midnight  Sun."  Egypt,  South  Africa, 
Mexico  and  India  were  all  taken  up  topically,  while  one 
evening  was  devoted  to  a  discussion  of  art,  with  Raphael  as 
the  supreme  disciple  and  its  best  human  expression.  Other 
topics  were  of  today,  including"  Sayings  of  Great  Men,"  and 
the  "World's  Famous  Orations."  The  music  interspersed 
was  designed  to  harmonize  with  the  programs. 

Probably  no  other  chorister  has  made  a  more  determined 
and  successful  effort  than  has  Marian  Johnson  to  elevate  the 
standard  of  music;  and  in  it  she  has  been  well  backed  by  the 
other  board  members.  Lectures  on  music  and  musicians 
formed  a  lecture  course  in  the  preliminary  programs,  for  all 
the  associations,  and  were  illustrated  with  selections  from 
the  masters  whose  works  were  there  expounded,  the  officers 
not  being  slow  to  avail  themselves  of  the  splendid  musical 
talent  in  their  midst. 

For  the  summer  of  1910  the  stake  will  join  with  Weber 
and  North  Weber  in  a  course  of  physical  culture  and  voice 
training  for  the  girls  of  the  city  wards,  with  a  special  lecture 
course  outlined  by  the  stake  board  for  the  country  wards. 


Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  Ogden  stake  is  well  to  the   front  in 
all  branches  of  endeavor. 


This  stake,  once  a  part  of  Cache  stake,  was  organized  in 
February,  1884,  but  the  stake  board  of  Young-  Ladies' 
Mutual  Improvement  Association  was  not  effected  till  Febru- 
ary, 1886,  when  Esther  C.  Parkinson  was  chosen  as  pres- 
ident, and  Ruth  A.  Hatch  and  Mary  A.  Bowen,  coiinselors. 
The  latter  named  counselor  acted  only  until  July,  1886,  when 
Mrs.  Luella  Squires  succeeded  her  and  remained  in  office 
until  January,  1888.  From  1892  to  1894,  the  following  offi- 
cers constituted  the  stake  board:  Esther  Parkinson,  pres- 
ident; Susie  G.  Purnell  and  Laura  L.  Johnson,  counselors; 
Louie  Dowdle,  secretary;  Nellie  N.  Parkinson,  corresponding 
secretary.  Many  changes  were  made  in  the  offices  of  the 
stake,  and  there  was  difficulty  in  obtaining  a  complete  and 
active  board.  Although  controlled  by  adverse  circumstances, 
the  sisters  were  zealous,  laboring  then,  as  they  labor  now, 
under  difficulties. 

No  special  line  of  work  was  laid  out  prior  to  the  printing 
of  the  Guides,  programs  at  meetings  being  promiscuous  in 
all  the  wards  and  carried  out  only  to  the  best  judgment  of 
the  local  officers.  Meetings  of  the  stake  and  local  officers 
were  held  monthly,  and  quarterly  conferences  were  held,  at 
which  reports  from  ward  associations  were  received  and  con- 
sidered. A  feature  of  these  conferences  consisted  of  a  man- 
uscript paper,  composed  of  the  best  literary  talent  of  the 
members  of  the  stake. 

The  girls  had  a  unique  way  of  raising  funds.  In  early  days, 
bazaars  had  not  begun,  nor  were  fancy  balls  to  be  considered 
as  a  means  to  this  end;  brt  the  ingenuity  of  the  young  ladies 
devised  the  plan  of  going  in  crowds  to  the  canyons,  where  wild 
hops  grew  in  great  profusion.  These  hops  were  picked, 
midst  laughter  and  song,  picnic  and  frolic,  and  sold,  almost 
at  retail  price,  to  the  merchants  of  the  towns.  Thus  ready 
money  was  accumulated  with  which  to  purchase  books,  sta- 
tionery and  other  things  necessary  to  carry  on  the  work. 

In  1892,  Sister  Parkinson  was  called  to  work  in  the  Logan 
Temple,  which  necessitated  her  release  from  the  presidency, 

410  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y  L.  M.  I.  A. 

this  taking  place  April  22,  1894,  whereupon  Nellie  Greaves 
(Spidell)  was  appointed  to  preside,  with  Amy  Chadwick 
(Baliff)  and  Elise  Benson  (Alder)  as  her  counselors.  The 
following-  officers  were  also  chosen  and  sustained:  Louie 
Dowdle,  secretary,  and  Bessie  Doney,  corresponding- 

Soon  after  the  reorganization,   President  Greaves,   her 
counselors  and  secretary, and  Sarah  Eddington  of  the  General 


Board,  made  a  tour  of  the  stake,  inconsequence  of  which  the 
Young  Ladies'  Mutual  Improvement  work  received  a  great 
impetus,  the  impression  made  upon  the  girls  by  the  modest 
manner  and  inspiring  words  of  Miss  Eddington  being  such  as 
to  live  forever  in  their  hearts.  About  this  time  the  Guide 
was  received.  It  was  regarded,  from  its  signal  success,  as 
the  key-note  to  good  Mutual  Improvement  work.  Weekly 
officers'  meetings  were  held  by  both  ward  and  stake  officers, 
at  which  these  lessons  were  fully  discussed,  much  to  the  profit 
and  pleasure  of  the  participants;  they  were  also  considered 


at  the  regular  monthly  meeting's  where  stake  and  local  officers 
met  together. 

In  1897  the  stake  board  was  again  reorganized  with 
Almeda  G.  Nelson  as  president;  Martha  L.  Hickman  and 
Nellie  Head,  counselors;  Amy  Chadwick,  secretary;  Agnes 
Dalley,  corresponding  secretary;  Sarah  J.  Clayton,  treasurer; 
Bertha  Parkinson,  recording  secretary. 

District  conferences  were  held  quarterly  in  the  various 
wards.  August,  1897,  an  important  journey  was  made  through 
the  stake  by  the  board  officers,  accompanied  by  Susa  Young 
Gates,  to  dispose  of  bound  volumes  of  the  Journal.  Much  good 
resulted  from  this  visit  to  the  Oneida  stake,  and  everywhere 
the  work  and  presence  of  the  sisters  were  deemed  a  blessing. 
In  one  ward,  where  the  officers  of  the  local  board  were  timid 
about  assuming  the  responsibility  of  paying  for  the  Journals, 
Sister  Gates  promised  them,  in  the  name  of  the  Lord,  that  if 
they  would  take  the  Journals  and  do  their  full  duty,  at  the  end 
of  the  year  they  would  be  far  better  off  financially  than  they 
were  then.  In  fulfillment  of  this  prediction,  the  Journals  were 
paid  for  during  that  year;  missionaries  were  helped  to  the 
extent  of  $25,  and  the  association  was  remarkably  successful 
in  carrying  out  the  Guide  work. 

In  1901,  there  were  only  fifteen  ward  associations  in  the 
stake,  as  two  stakes,  Pocatello  and  the  new  Bannock,  had  been 
formed  from  parts  of  Oneida;  still  the  work  prospered ,  all  the 
associations  being  fully  organized  and  in  a  fair  condition. 
Now  there  are  nineteen  associations,  with  a  regular  mem- 
bership of  544  and  16  stake  officers.  The  stake  has  a  travel- 
ing library  of  only  62  volumes;  but  the  books  in  the  local 
libraries  number  572. 

In  addition  to  the  officers  already  named,  the  following 
have  acted  on  the  board:  presidents — Luella  S.  Cowley  (ap- 
pointed September  17,  1905)  and  Mary  A.  Nelson  (June  19, 
1910);  counselors — Roxy  Nelson,  Gertrude  Griffiths,  Nellie 
E.  Thomas,  Anna  M.  Frost,  Barbara  Baliff;  secretaries  and 
treasurers — Delia  Maughan  (Chadwick),  Gertrude  Griffith, 
Edna  Johnson  and  Dora  Merrill;  aids — Sara  Schuldberg, 
Mary  Thomas,  Eliza  S.  Porter,  Maria  Allen,  Margaret  Ged- 
des,  Eliza  Stevenson,  Margaret  G.  Stevens,  Pearl  C.  Eames, 
Cecil  Winward,  Ada  L.  Hart,  Elizabeth  Eames,  Millie  Lowe, 
Ida  Parkinson,  Ellen  C.  Henderson,  Lizzie  Thomas,  Dora 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

Merrill,  Edna  Geddes,  Sybil  Smith,  Edith  Redd,  Iretta  Peters, 
Eleanor  Jensen,  Lillie  Eames  Benson,  Edna  Johnson  Merrill, 
Lena  Allen  Parkinson  and  Eleanor  Jensen;  choristers  and 
organists — Lucy  H.  Cutler,  Eleanor  Thomas,  Olive  N.  Ged- 
des, Georgia  Dalley,  Fenretta  T.  Mechan  and  Edna  Geddes; 
librarian — Delia  M.  Chad  wick. 


This  stake  is  situated  in  the  "tops  of  the  mountains" 
and  is  isolated  from  railroads  and  all  modern  traveling  in- 
fluences; not  one  settlement  is  on  the  direct  road  to  any  oth- 
er or  is  in  any  of  the  populous  sections  of  the  state;  each 
town  is  its  own  goal,  and  few  of  them  are  on  "the  road  to 
anywhere;"  so  that  the  girls  living- under  these  constant  pi- 
oneer and  more  or  less  difficult  conditions,  would  be  expected 

to  develop  fine  traits  of  charac- 
ter, strength  of  body,  and 
clearness  of  intellect.  This  is 
surely  true  of  these  hardy, 
fearless  mountain  girls.  They 
have  developed,  with  the  vigor 
of  body  natural  to  such  condi- 
tions, a  corresponding  virility 
of  spirit,  which  gives  them  an 
invincible  power  of  right-doing 
and  right-thinking.  The  town 
of  Panguitch  is  some  twenty 
miles  from  the  lovely  lake 
called  Panguitch.  This  high 
mountain  retreat  is  visited  in 
the  summer  by  many  pilgrims 
from  the  lower  counties,  for  the 
beauty  and  healthfulness  of 
Panguitch  Lake  valley  is  well 
known  to  all  Dixie  and  South- 

MARY  H.  HEYWOOD.          '   ern  Utah  dwellers .    ''The  sim- 
ple life     is    easy  to  the  happy 
and  fortunate  girls  in  Panguitch  stake. 

The  stake  board  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  was  organized 
by  the  priesthood  presidency  of  the  stake,  on  June  5th,  1879. 
The  president  was  Mary  H.  Hey  wood  (Sevy),  with  Annie  Dav- 


is  and  Martha  Ella  Church  as  counselors;  and  Mary  A.  Mar- 
shall as  secretary.  Since  then,  there  have  been  numerous 
changes  in  the  board,  but  all  have  labored  well  and  faithfully 
when  they  were  in  position. 

The  following-  sisters  have  since  acted  upon  the  board: 
presidents — Jane  LeFevre,  (appointed  Aug.  27,  1898);  Maria 
Houston,  (Nov.  30,  1902);  Elizabeth  D.  Hatch,  (Sept.  3, 
1906);  Elizabeth  S.  Worthen,  (Nov.  21,  1909);  counselors- 
Margaret  Clark,  Sarah  Houston,  Kate  D.  Hey  wood,  Mary 
Foy  Dodds,  Serepta  Sevy  (Shepherd),  Maria  Worthen,  Alice 
Webb  Clark,  Catherine  Steele  Riding,  Mattie  DeLong,  Hil- 
da V.  Prince  and  Mamie  F.  Dodds;  secretaries  and  treasur- 
ers— Mattie  Heywood  (DeLong),  Mary  Foy,  Josephine 
Barney,  Mattie  Hancock,  Rena  Sargent,  Nina  Houston  and 
Hilda  P.  Henrie;  aids— Allie  W.  Clark,  Thursa  Riding, 
Thella  Church,  Mabel  Excell,  Catherine  S.  Riding,  Chastie 
Losse,  Ella  P.  Cameron. 

The  wards  of  the  stake  are  as  follows:  Panguitch, 
Hatch,  Tropic,  Cannon ville,  Hillsdale,  Henrie ville,  Escal- 
ante,  Marion,  Kingston,  Junction  and  Circleville.  These 
wards  are  located  at  considerable  distances  from  each  other 
and  from  Panguitch,  so  that  the  officers  are  not  able  to  visit 
them  more  than  once  or  twice  yearly.  The  extent  of  the 
stake  includes  all  the  settlements  in  Garfield  county,  and 
Kingston,  Circleville,  and  Junction,  in  Piute  county.  Marys- 
vale  in  the  latter  county  was  also  included  in  the  Panguitch 
stake,  but  it  has  since  been  joined  to  Sevier  stake. 

For  a  long  time  the  stake  board  had  no  funds  with 
which  to  pay  their  few  but  necessary  expenses;  they  were  ob- 
liged to  pay  all  costs  from  their  own  slender  purses.  But  in 
1896,  a  fund  was  started,  by  deducting  25  per  cent  from  the 
general  dime  fund,  and  later  by  the  establishment  of  a  local 
nickel  fund.  This  has  proved  sufficient  for  ordinary 
expenses.  From  a  beginning  of  two  subscribers  to  the 
Young  Woman's  Journal,  they  have  now  gained  the  proud 
distinction  of  being  one  of  the  banner  stakes  in  the  matter  of 
subscribers  to  that  magazine. 

The  girls  of  this  stake  are  in  full  sympathy  and  fellow- 
ship with  every  movement  made  by  the  General  Board  and 
their  associate  friends  and  members  in  all  the  wards  and 
stakes  of  Zion. 


HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 


Parowan  stake  is  one  of  the  chain  of  stakes  lying  in  the 
old  line  of  travel  from  Salt  Lake  City  to  the  Dixie  country, 
and  as  such  was  the  center  of  much  old-time  activity  and 
genuine  progress.  With  the  swinging  of  railroad  travel  to 
the  far  west  of  this  stake,  the  towns  became  more  or  less 
isolated,  and  what  progress  was  made  was  necessarily  of  an 

individual,  not  community  or 
commercial,  nature.  But  with 
these  so-called  disadvantages, 
the  excellent  people  of  this 
stake  have  gone  steadily  on- 
ward, sending  their  sons  and 
daughters  northward  toPro vo , 
to  Salt  Lake  and  then  later 
to  Beaver,  for  scholastic  ad- 
vantages above  the  common 
schools  of  their  own  towns, 
until  the  Branch  Normal  of 
the  University  of  Utah  was 
established  in  their  own  Cedar 
City.  These  children  have 
many  of  them  'made  names 
and  fortunes  for  themselves. 
It  was  here  that  President 
George  A.  Smith  established 
a  home,  and  infused  into  his 
wide  sphere  of  influence  the 
same  sturdy  and  faithful  de- 
votion to  righteousness  which 
characterized  this  great  and 

good  man.  Much  of  the  country  is  sterile,  but  chiefly  be- 
cause of  lack  of  water.  The  soil  here  begins  to  show  the 
red  sandy  traces  of  the  Dixie  formation. 

From  the  data  obtainable,  the  stake  board  of  the  Y.  L. 
M.  I.  A.,  was  organized  Sept.  4,  1881,  withHuldaA.  Mitch- 
ell as  president;  Deana  Smith  and  Henrietta  Jones,  coun- 
selors; C.  Adella  Mortensen,  secretary.  The  membership  of 
the  stake  at  this  time  was  161.  At  the  December  conference 
of  1885,  Deana  Smith  was  sustained  as  president,  with  Mary 
L.  Orton  and  Mary  Alice  Jones  as  counselors:  and  C.  Adella 




Mickelson,  secretary.  The  membership  was  then  185.  Tura 
Smith  was  appointed  president  in  1893,  with  Joyce  Palmer 
and  E.  Crane  Watson  as  her  counselors,  and  Sadie  Meeks 
secretary;  the  membership  was  returned  at  227,  showing  a 
decided  advancement  in  point  of  numbers.  In  October,  1895, 
Annie  M.  Dalley  was  called  to  preside,  assisted  by  Counselors 
Julia  M.  Lyman  and  May  M.  Higbee;  Nora  Hulet  holding 
the  double  office  of  secretary  and  treasurer. 

The  death  of  Annie  M.  Dalley,  who  was  the  president 
of  the  stake  board  from  1895  to  1904,  a  very  efficient  officer 
and  dearly  loved,  cast  a  gloom  over  the  whole  community. 
In  August,  1904,  when  President  Dalley  was  making  her 
tour  of  the  stake,  she  reached  Harmony, 
and  was  taken  violently  ill;  she  was 
removed  to  Cedar  City,  and  here  every 
care  and  attention  was  given  her,  but 
she  died  on  the  29th  of  August,  1904. 
She  was  mourned  by  all  the  stake,  and 
left  behind  her  a  host  of  friends  and 
admirers.  She  died  doing  her  duty, 
and  that  has  given  every  girl  in  the 
stake  a  higher  ideal  of  endeavor,  a  purer 
standard  of  duty  and  loving  devotion. 
She  did  not  live  nor  die  in  vain! 

On  September  26th,  1904,  Sarah  A. 
Bullock's  name  was  presented  before 
the  general  stake  conference  and  unan- 
imously sustained  as  president  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.  of 
Parowan  stake.  She  chose  as  her  counselors  Henrietta 
Jones  and  May  M.  Higbee;  as  secretary, Priscilla  Urie(  Leigh); 
as  treasurer  and  assistant  secretary,  Ada  Bryant  (Leigh);  as 
aids,  Betsy  Topham,  Barbara  Matheson,  Samantha  Berry, 
Norah  Hulet  Madsen  and  Nellie  Pace;  as  librarian,  Barbara 
Tweedie;  and  as  organist,  Mayme  Parry. 

The  following  sisters  have  acted  upon  the  stake  board 
in  addition  to  the  ones  already  named:  counselors — Lillian 
White,  Ordena  Dalley,  Belle  Perry  and  Kate  Palmer;  aids- 
Lena  Jones,  Florence  Webster,  Emily  Crane  Watson,  Maggie 
Edwards,  Barbara  Adams,  Melissa  Hammond;  chorister — 
Violet  Urie. 

A    report    from   the   stake   gives   the    following:   "The 


416  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

greatest  perceptible  progression  in  the  work  in  all  the  time 
to  this  date  was  the  course  mapped  out  in  the  Guide;  but  the 
happiest  and  most  advanced  results  have  been  achieved  since 
the  printing  of  the  Guide  work  in  the  Young  Woman's  Journal. 
Our  membership  is  about  350  and  the  real  importance  of  the 
work  is  beginning  to  be  realized.  We  are  now  considering 
the  matter  of  calling  missionaries  from  one  ward  to  another, 
that  they  may  encourage  each  other  to  be  up  with  their  les- 
sons, at  the  same  time  qualifying  the  girl-missionary  for 
greater  responsibility. " 

The  officers  and  members  of  this  stake  are  united  heart 
and  soul  in  their  noble  work,  happy  in  the  spirit  of  their 
calling,  and  constantly  reaching  out  for  further  light  and 
extended  knowledge,  that  they  may  do  their  whole  duty  in 
teaching  the  beautiful  plan  of  salvation  to  the  precious 
daughters  of  Zion. 


The  Pioneer  stake  was  organized  March  24th,  1904,  in 
the  Salt  Lake  Assembly  Hall,  the  first  conference  of  the  stake 
being  held  on  May  1st,  1904,  when  the  priesthood  of  the 
stake  and  the  auxiliary  organizations  were  placed  before  the 
people,  and  were  unanimously  sustained.  At  this  time  Miss 
Sarah  H.  Heath,  formerly  of  the  Salt  Lake  stake  board,  was 
chosen  president  of  the  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A.,  with  Edith  A.  Smith 
and  Edith  E.  Sampson  as  her  counselors.  Lydia  A.  Weiler 
and  Rose  Bowers  were  selected  as  secretaries,  Mabel  Cooper 
as  chorister,  and  Ethel  Rich  Carlquist,  Jane  Bixton  Bowers 
and  Millie  Walker  as  aids.  These  sisters  have  practically 
remained  in  office  since  that  time,  with  a  few  changes.  But 
the  capable  and  dauntless  president  still  guides  the  Mutual 
ship  Zion  through  many  rough  and  tumbled  waters  of  up- 
rising and  difficulty,  and  her  cheery  young  voice  can  be  heard 
above  any  ordinary  storm  of  trouble,  calling  on  her  girls  to 
row  lively  and  follow  in  their  brisk  leader's  wake,  while  even 
the  young  men  are  not  forgotten  or  allowed  to  lag  behind  in 
this  onward  voyage. 

This  stake  has  a  record  for  united  labors  in  the  two 
wings  of  the  Mutuals.  Their  very  first  meeting  as  officers 
was  held  conjointly,  and  this  admirable  practice,  with  its 


accompanying  atmosphere  of  unity  and  amity,  has  clung: 
faithfully  to  this  band  of  workers  of  both  sexes.  They  have 
projected  many  elaborate  social  functions,  great  summer 
excursions,  and  winter  entertainments;  but  always  they  work 
tog-ether,  sharing:  the  labors  and  dividing-  the  benefits  with 
commendable  zeal  and  unselfishness. 

Pioneer  stake  was  cut  off  from  Salt  Lake  stake,  embrac- 
ing- the  south-west  portion  of  the    city  proper;    the   Fourth, 


Fifth,  Sixth,  Seventh,  Twenty-fifth,  Twenty-sixth,  Thirtieth, 
Thirty-second,  Brighton,  Pleasant  Green,  Cannon  and 
Poplar  Grove  wards  comprise  the  stake.  The  name  itself  is 
taken  from  the  fact  of  the  Pioneer  Square  being-  located  in 
its  confines.  It  was  here  the  nucleus  of  the  city  was  estab- 
lished when  the  Pioneers  camped  at  this  memorable  spot  in 
1847,  and  from  here  has  radiated  all  the  civilization  which 
has  filled  these  valleys  with  homes  and  covered  the  land  with 

The  enrollment  of  the  stake  is   very  close  to  being  all  of 
the  girls  in  the  stake.     Much  of  this  is  due  to  the   thorough 


418  HISTORY  OF  THE  Y.  L.  M.  I.  A. 

work  done  by  the  stake  presidency  of  the  girls  in  working 
personally  and  with  a  host  of  assisting  missionaries  during 
the  summer  and  fall  months,  visiting  the  homes,  writing 
personal  letters  to  each  girl  in  the  stake,  and  in  some  in- 
stances, visiting  even  the  mothers  to  enlist  them  in  the  good 
cause.  Not  a  girl  is  allowed  to  feel  herself  overlooked  or  for- 
g-otten  in  the  stake;  if  she  does  not  attend  her  meetings,  the 
reason  is  inquired  into,  and  she  is  sought  after  diligently. 

Since  the  organization  of  the  stake,  Sisters  Leolia  Tom- 
linson,  Florence  Groesbeck  Cannon  and  Emily  C.  Cottrell 
have  been  added  as  aids,  and  Eva  Richardson  was  sustained 
as  organist.  Elizabeth  Cannon  Giauque  was  made  stake  sec- 
retary in  place  of  Lydia  Weiler  Brazier  who  was  released 
in  1909. 


This  stake  is  located  in  the  sout